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-i'i^c: <Ad ^7elsh Glosses on Martianus Cf 

[■:ji'9 .... 

vf i;,ifc!i [lit Ty Mawr 

Si; lioLe"" Mansell, Kut., Vice-Admiral ol 

■i}i! bhe JI. ^alithic Circle at Duloe, Cornwall 

Uiloeck C';istle 

Tn,-:tory oi' the Lordship of Maelor Gym 
ijeg, o. Bromfield. Chapter 11 
!i some G f our British Inscriptions 

v/harterbv Jlichard III as Lord of Glamor 

..) Lro: 

dward Find. — Supplementary 

/': imteval jMerioneth 
•. ntiiuQ 

'io- • Cymric Philology. No. II 
p." ityrcV ; Carnarvonshire 
<?u the V i elsh Records in the Time of the 

Black iVrince . . . . , 

A Descri]( tion of some Cairns on Barr^ 

Island ■ Glamorganshire 
Coped C'-i'Sn-Lid, Bridgend 
'j'hc Treini -wei-th Tumulus 
•Sir Robert , Mansell, Knt., Vice-Admiral o. 

Flngland > {continued) 

On the l'' ate of the Conquest of South 

Laiica';iire by the English 
tMstory tf the Lordship of ifaclor Gyi 

raeg. or';' Bx'omfield (continued) . 

Whitley Stokes 
Huffh Prichard 

E. H. W. Dunkin 45 
G. T. C. 

Chevalier Lloyd 
J. Rhys . 

E. L. Barnwell . 


E. L. Barnwell . 


William Rees . 


EvandcrW. Evans 


W. W. W^illiams 


R. W. Banks . 


J. R. Allen 


E. L. Barnwell . 


E. L. Barnwell . 


G. T. Clai-k 


W.Boyd Dawkins 


Chevalier Lloyd . 




■M.^tia;ia8H-- ->;<i!.-:^»r> - ivf-i} 


AVelsli Words borrowed from Latin, Greek, 

and Hebrew .... 
Sepulchral Slabs, Newborougli, Anglesey 
The Bredwardine Cromlech 
Notes on the Parish and Church of Llan- 

ddew, Brecknockshire . 
Histor}' of the Lordship of llaclor Gym- 

raeg, or Bromfield (continued) . 
Notes on a Radnorshire Cross 
Beaumaris Church . , , 

The Discovery of some Bemains of the 

ancient Chapel in the Forest of Deerfold 
Wapley Camp and its Connexion with the 

Resistance of Caractacus to the Romans 
Unexplained Stone Articles 
Welsh Words borrowed from Latin, Greek 

and Hebrew {continued) 
]\Ionachi de Mochrader 
The Nevern Rock- Cross . 
Grave in Wenlock Abbey 
Report of Knighton Electing 
List of Illustrations 

Obituart . 
Correspondence . 
AEcna;oLOGiCAL Notes and Queries 
Miscellaneous Notices 
Reviews . 

. 31: 

J. Rhys . 

AV. W. Williams . 

E. L. Barnwell . 

J. Lane Dav'es . 

Chevalier Lloyd . 
Ernest Hartland 
M. H. Bloxam . 

Henry G. Bd.ll 

James Davies 
E. L. BarnweU 

J. Rhys . 

D. R. Thoman 

E. L. Barnwell 
E. L. Barnwell 

95, S: 

98, 197, 28r-, : 

106, 206, 29C, ; 

107,208, 293,3; 

109, 209, 2: 

112,213, £: 

^rdiiiCDloDia CambrciiiufK 


JANUARY, 1873. 


The library of Corpus Cliristi College, Cambridge, pos- 
sesse-! a folio MS. of Martlanus Minneus (? Mlnueius) Fe- 
lix Capella De Nuptiis Pliilolorjiae et Mercurii, formerly 
marked N. 17, but now MS. 153. The MS. at present 
contains 86 leaves (leaf 68 is gone). It belongs to the 
eighth centuiy, is %Yritten in double columns, and is 
copiously glossed in Latin. Amongst the Latin glosses 
Mr. Bradsha.w, hbrarlan of the University Library, 
Cambridge, lately discovered the following Old- Welsh 
glosses. He transcribed them, and generously gave me 
a copy of his transcript. During my recent visit to 
Europe I compared this, letter by letter, with the ori- 
ginal codex, and found that Mr. Bradshaw had done 
his work with the priceless accuracy of an accomplished 
palasographer. The Welsh glosses (which are all in a 
hand of the eighth century) begm in the second column 
of the recto of fo. 1, and some are found in each of the 
first fifteen folios. They recommence in the first column 
of the recto of fo. 38, and continue down to the verso 
of fo. 51. They then recommence at fo. 57 b, a, and 
end on the verso of fo. 66. Like the Kymric glosses on 
the Cambridge Codex of Juvencus [Beitr., iv, 385-430), 
they are copiously accentuated ;' but, tmllke these and 

^ These accents sometimes occur over consonants, and never sig- 
nify production of vowels. Z. 105. Rather they seem used to shew 
that the words over which they are placed are not Latin. 

4th EER., vol.. IV. 1 


the other Old-Welsh g-bsses, they are written in a hai 
so exquisitely clear that it is- impossible to misret 
them. The frequent duplication of the tenues (e. g., 
ditti, immottihiou, uncenetticion, liepp, leteinejyp, tcd- 
cipp, 2'>cinep>p>, p)opp)-tu) and s {iss, muiss, tuss-lestr), and 
the use of -e in desinence for -ei {dagatte, immisline, 
dirgatisse, {a)dolte, are also peculiarities of the glosses 
now published. 

The abbreviation ' E.' denotes Eyssenhardt's edition 
of Martianus Capella (Lipsiae, 1866). The numbers fol- 
lowing 'E.' denote the pages of that edition. 'J.' 
means the Cambridge Codex of Juvencus. 'Z.' means 
the second edition of Zeuss' Grammatica Ccltica. 

(1). fo. 1 a, b. orhardaul Jctcincjo]) (gl. 'epica pagina'). The 
context is ' epica uulgo lyricaque pagina cousonarent,' E. 2. or 
is a combination of the article ir, now yr, with the preposition 
— 'ex,' ' a,' ' de,' Z. 667, and infra 3 a, a. So infra or cuccticc cms, 
8 b, a, plur. or deccolion, 7 b, b, or dubendicion abalbrouannoio, 
42 a, a. 

hardaul (now -written horddracT), 'bardic,' an adjective formed 
from hard, now written hardd (Gaulish hardos, Ir. hard, Corn. 
harth, Br. harz; cf. Gr. </>paS- ?) by the suffix alo, Z. 766, 818. 
So carnotaul, infra 4 a, a, and ardomav.l, 9 a, b. 

Ietcinc2jp (now represented by llcdicynch, ' superficies') is a com- 
pound of let (=Ir. Icth, Lat. latus, Gr. Trkdrc;) and einepj}^ 
huyneb, enqj (facies), Z. 838 ; Corn, encb (pagina), Z. 838, 1078. 
As the corresponding Irigh word is einech (face, honour), gen. 
ei7iic/, we may conclude that the -ep in the British -words repre- 
sents the suffix -ika, Z. 806, 811; and compare the Zend ainika, 
Skr. «?ii!A-a, which Fick (Vergl. JVortcrhuch der Indoycrmanischen 
Sprachen, 228) brings from the root an, 'to breathe.' 

(2.) ami di iuno (gl. ' Suadae'), i.e., ' a name for Juno.' Tlie con- 
text is 'delenitum suadae coniugis ample.xibus,' E. 2. aim (also 
in fo. 11 a, b, infra), pi. enucin, 11 a, a, 11 b, b, infra, now C7iw, is= 
Corn, hanow, pi. hyninjn,}icniuyn,Z. 293; Ir ainm (ji\. anrnami) , 
Z. 268, ex aiime, stem anmayi by metathesis from naman; Goth. - 
naman-; Gr. ovo/xav- in 6vop,aiva>, Fick, 112. As to the vocalisa- 
tion of the ?», cf. Z. 114 (corrected as to dav.u, Z. 1084 b) ; and 
the preposition 7wu, infra 2 a, a. 

The preposition di (also in enucin di iunoui, infra 11 a, a, no- 
raen di cretae, 49 b, a ; uomen di taujo, 50 b, b), now y, Z. 663, 


is tlie Com. dlic, Br. du, da, Ir. du, do, Z. GG2, Okl-Latiu dit m 
iiulv. It occurs ^vith a suffixed prouoim in ditti (tibi . intra 9 a, a. 

(3.) fo. 1 b, a. ci>H »i«i7/uo-f.s.5 (gi. 'collactea'). The context is 
' sororis eiiis coUactea,' E. 3. This word, -wliicli re-ocein-s 8 a, b, is 
a comjiound of cim,Z. 902 (also in cim-adas, cim-mmticion, infra 
4 a, b, 4 b, a), and maitli iircss, formed from maithur (=Br. maczur, 
'nurture,' Z. lOGS) by the suffix -cs-i, Ir. -is, Grreco-Latiii -i-ssa, Z. 
834. Cf the modern mcWirin, 'nutrition,' ci/minad/L •uomished 
together,' cijmmaetliiad, 'connutritiou,' cynvmadh-lu, 'a family,' 
iiiacth, ' nurture,' ' fosterage,' ex 'inacto {-fi '?), Z. 102, the diphthong 
having arisen from the excussion of a consonant, as in hnth, lacth, 
'milk,' Z. 150 = Ir. mlaclit (in ho-mJacht), lacht. The root is mak, 
still preserved in the modern mcuju, 'to nurse.' 

(4.) fo. 2 a, a, nouinminngucdoii A. coiliou (gl. ' extorum'). The 
context is, ' denudata pecudum caede fisiculatis extonmi prosicis 
niscera loquebantur,' E. 5. The preposition nou, -wliieh always 
indicates the genitive (sg. nou ir /jaird:/lus, 3 a, a; nyii ir cmid, 
4 b, a; nou ir crv.nnui, 10 b, a ; nou lin, 45 b, a ; ;(•"' ir Cirricc, 
51 b, a ; pL nou ir goudonou, 2 a, b ; nou ir Mrcimcrdridou, 4 b, a ; 
no^tirfionou,^\>,'b; nou. ircleteirou, 10 a, r; nou lu', 44b, b; nou 
ir aurlcou, 46 a, a ; nou lirou, 51 b, a) is regarded, I tliink rightly, 
by Mr. Bradshaw as a later form of nom, which occ-m-s in the 
Oxford gloss, 7iom, ir bleuporthctic (gl. ' laniger-ae,' Z. 1054), 'nee 
fuge lanigerae memphitica templa juvencae').' I w.jull connect 
this obsolete pireposition with the Lithuanian ?u?, ' von,' which 
Pick (582) refers to the Indo-Germanic ana. 

ir is the gen. pi. of the article. 

munnr/ucdou is the pi. of munnr/ucd, which is a compound of 
mun and gucd, Z. 890: cf onguxdou (gl. 'exta'), gl. Ox. 41, pro- 
bably a mistake for mongucdou, cognate with the modern monoch, 

coiliou is the pi. of coil, now coel, 'omen,' Ir. ce'I, O.X. lidU. In 
Z. 1056 the pi. is coilou (gl. ' auspiciis') : cf coiliaucc, infra, 12 a, b. 

(5.) fo. 2 a, b. nouirgoudonou (gl. ' tinearum'). The context is 
'tiuearum morsns cariesque carpebant, E. 5. Hexii govil'jnou is 
the pi. oi goudon=Coni. goudhan (gl. ' tinea'), Br. goazon, Z. 1076. 
The Welsh gwiddon, ' mites,' there cited, seems a difi'ereut word. 

(6.) coiliaucc (gl. 'augur'). The context is 'dedignatur augur 
pythius nuncupari,' E. 5. This is a deri\-ative from coil, supra, 
2 a, a. j4s to the suffix -iauc (ex -iijco), see Z. 849 : cf Corn. 
chuillioc (gl 'augur'), cuiUioges (gl. 'phitonissa'),'Z. loTl. 

^ Correct as to nom not only Z. 1054, but Schiicbardi in Kuhn's 
Zeitsclmft, XX, 273. The nen in Skene, ii, 287 (kynn bu vygkylchet 
croen neu ganyr galet, ' before my covering was the skin of a hardy 
goat') seems a corruption of »o((. 


(7.) leucsicc (gl. ' carientem,' leg. -anteiii). The context is ' seel 
alibi laiiros priiuores ai-entesqiie ederas alibi carianteni triijodeiu 
crepidasque situ niurcidas praesagiorumque iiiteilitaiu memoriain 
leppererunt/ E. 5-6. Ebel explains this word as an adjective 
compounded of loio (now, pi. llau, 'lice,' Corn. Joivcn, Z. 
1076 ; Uewcn-J:i, 107o, Br. laouoi), and eskc (ex ed-ttcio ?), now 
ysig, ' fretting,' 'corroding' {J,ou in allgemeinereni sinne gebraucht, 
also 'etwa wurmfraeszig, wurnistichig'). Lou is cognate witli 
Teutonic M-s, lans, which Grimm connects with Goth. (fra)/ji(s«/i, 
' verlieren,' ' verderben,' as Gr. ^Qtip with cpOelpeiv. 

(8). 3 a, a. (juarirdrch (gl. ' edito'). The context with the other 
glosses is 'Latoium (.i. Latonae filium .i. cqwllincm) conspicati (.i. 
sunt) edito considenteni arduoque suggestu' (.i. tlirono), E. 8. The 
gloss means 'super domum'; guar {^=Go\'n. tmr, Br. voar, oar, 
Ir. for, Skr. v.jxi.ri, Gr. virep, Lat. s-upcry also occurs in the Lib. 
LjO.nd., cited Z. 675, guar irliennrit (super vetus vadura) ; and 
in Xennius, 62 : Cair Legeion guar iiisc (printed vsic). In 
drch we have, I think, a mutation of the initial of the feminine 
trcb, caused by the article, Z. 195. With trcl (trch guiduvc, L. 
Land. T12), hcn-drch (L.Land.71); GlUck,/^. iV. 29, 39), now trrf, 
'homestead'; cf. 0. Br. trcb, Ir. atrab, Z. 762, Lith. troba, f. a 
'building,' which Pick, 366, compares with Oscan iriibom, Goth. 
tlumrpa, Eng. tlior2). In modern Welsh the gloss would be ar y 

(9.) oguirdglas (gl. 'salo'). The context is 'at nero proprior 
deo perlucentis uitri salo renidebat,' E. 8. So in the same column, 
nonirguirdglas (gl. 'sali resjjlendentis'). As to the prepositions o, 
nou, V. supra, 1 a, b, 2 a, a. guirdglas, now gu.njrddlas, ' a greenish 
blue,' is compounded oi guinl (gl. 'herbida,' infra, 6 a, a) = 'viri- 
dis,' Gllick,A^. iY.77, and glas (gl.' yalina'), infra,5 b,b; 'caeruleus,' 
Z. 1076 ; with which glastum is doubtless connected. 

(10.) 'tracta exhaiista.' .i. dissuncgnctic (gl. ' exanclata'). The 
context is ' nam fiamma flagTantior et ab ipsis cecaumenis exan- 
clata fomitibns ex ferri praedicta anhelabat urna, quae tamen 
" uertex mnlciferi" dicebatur,' E. 8. 

dissimcgnciic is the pret. part, passive (Z. 532) of a verb com- 
pounded with dis-=do + cs, Z. 907, and sucnau, pronounced sunc- 
nau,^ now sugno, ' to suck.' Tlie combrnation ncg for nc is curions 

1 By loss of p in inlaut, the primeval Celtic Mj;t;r became uer ; 
whence Gaulish ver, Iv. for, W. guar. So in the case oi upo (Skr. 
upa, Gr. x'TTo, Lat, s-iih), we get no, vo, Ir. /d, W. gno. 

- Cf the German pronunciation o{ magmis, privignus, etc., as mang- 
nns, privingims. So singno in the Caldey -inscription (Arch. Gam'b., 
April, 1870) : "Et singno cntcis in ilhtm fingsi. liogo omnibus annnu- 
lantibus ibi exorent pro anima catuoconi." So in Irish MSS., recong- 


{ncg for 7(17 occurs in A.S. dcncfian, etc.) ; mjlc occurs for nk in 
yiuikcnujio (in Cornubia), Z. 118. Tlie modern word for 'to 
pump' is svf/n-di/du; cf. the Middle-Welsli Su>/.i/n in. Sucncdycl 
(Suco Suctoris f), Z. 8-37. JMr. IJlij-s compares the numeral 
deng ex dcncn, dcc'n. 

(11.) 4 a, a. ■iiva rnokml hricer (g[. 'nittii crinalis'). The con- 
text is 'iuterea tractus aerios iam Phoebus exierat, cum subito ei 
uitta crinalis inmutatur in radios lauruscpie,' E. 12, 13. hriccr is 
now hi-iyer, ' a tuft or head of hair.' Ebel explains carnotaid ' vit- 
tatus,' as for canrofaid, a deriv. from canrauf, and compares tlie 
modern ci/frodol, 'couciurent.' In meaning it agrees better with 
tlie modern cyfrododd, ' twisted together.' 

(12.) 4 a, b. isii' lid a d(i s {gl. 'i)av'). Tlie context is : 

' Sed te parentis ciira si stringit pia, 
Par est deorum conuoces coetum potens.' 

Tlie same gloss occurs infra, 4 b, b. iss (Corn, cs, Ir. is) is=Lat. 
' est.' cimadas, now cyfaddas, is = Ir. comadas, ' fitting, meet,' 
Z. 994, from com- and adas, a deriv. from ada, ' due,' O'Don. Si(p2}. 

(13.) 4b, a. iryv.r hunnuid .i. mercurius (gl. ' celebrat'), nouir- 
emid (gl. ' aeris'). The context is ' addo quod celebrat mirabile 
piraestigium elegantiam[cpte] pingendi cum niiios etiam uultus 
aeris aut marmoris signifex animator inspirat,' E. 14, 15. ir gur 
hunnu-id means 'vir ille' (y gwr hwnw) ; cf en yr amser glcm 
h unmi, ' saci-o illo tempore' {Laws, cited Z. 394). gv.r (also in 
Z. Land. 113), now gn-r, 'a man,' 'a person,' = Ir. fcr, Lat. vir. 
hunnu, a masc. demonstrative, now written liumiu : id, according 
to JNIr. Pihys, a pronoun suffixed to strengthen the demonstrative: 
cf. hinnoid, hunnoid, Z. 1060.. 

As to til? nou in the second gloss, v. su]"ira 2 a, a ; cmid, also 
in 46 b, b, infra (\n-itten in Mai., enyd, Z. 114, — now cfydd), pi. 
ernedou (gl. ' aera'), Z. 1055 (where the Old- Welsh form of the sg. 
is ^^Tongly given as nncd) is the Ir. v.mae, Z. 794. 

(14.) itdagatte ail (gl 'con[n]iuere'-). The context is 'c^uae etiam 
ilium (.i. mcrcurium) c^uiescere cupientem coniuere non perfe- 
rat,' E. 15. Ebel explains this by 'ut demitteret supercilium,' 
y dyadai (ei) ail. it, now yd, 'that' (so, perhaps, in it darncsti, — 
gl. ' agitare,' J. 88) ; dagattc, third sg. secondary present conjunc- 
tive of a verb compounded of gat (gadu, gadacf), and connected 
with dirgatisse, hilra 8 a, b, the Corn, dcghcs, I). 1515. ail, now 
acl, ' brow,' /. re-occurs hifra 9 b, b. 

nitio,iiignis, lingnum; and in the Pictisb Chronicle, y?fl'!!<;7!a. So the 
Yrenrh etang, poing, seing, vingt, seem respective!}' from sUvigitum, 
'pungnus, suignnm, xing'nll (viginti). 


(15.) nouArhi-rciincrdridoit. (g\.'l\ic\ihva.tioin\m. perennium).' As 
to nou, V. supra 2 a, a. Jiii--, ' lo]ig,' Ir. sir, was equated by Sieg- 
fried with Lat. sen's; and cimcrdridou must be the pUiral of 
cbnerdrid. The etjanology of the word is obscure. 

(16.) crunnolunou (gl. 'orbiculata'), mein (gl. 'gracilenta'), cirn- 
macticion (gl. ' conquestos'). The context is ' qtiae textum mundi 

circulorumque uohimina vel orbiculata parallela numerare 

nisi haec Pliilologia gracilenta quadani adfixione consueuit, quo- 
tiens deos super eiusdeni (.i. jjhilolot/tac) coactione instantiaque 
conquestos, cum eos concubiae aut intenipestae noctis silentio 
quiescentes ad se neoire inaudita quadam obsecratione compel- 
leret ?' E. 15. 

crunn- (now crwii), also in criinn-vA., infra 10 b, a, is = Ir. cru- 
ind ('rotuudus'), the nd becoming nn, as in niinn, scribcnn, and 
trennid, infra, olunou (leg. oluinou ?) is the pi. of olun {olain ?), 
either a derivative from ol, ' a mark,' ' a trace,' Corn, oloia, ' ves- 
tigia" (Z. 288) ; or a sister form of oUn (gl. ' rota'), Z. 99, now 
olwi/)i : viein, now main, Corn, muin (gl. 'gracilis'), 7ioni, 0. 2444, 
Br. moan, 'exilis,' 'gracilis,' Cath., is the Ir. jnm, Z. 99, 104, 
cognate with Lat. minor, minuo, Gr. ixivwda, Z. 762. cimmactic- 
ion is the pi. of the pret. participle passive cimmactic, possibly 
ex cim-mav-ctic, root will, whence Gr. /xv^co, Lat. mutum, 0. H. G. 
maiven, A.S. macv (sea)7new, etc. Pick, 386. 

(17.) 4 b, b. i^e^^idr (gl. ' adfixa'). 'The context is ' Haec cum 
Inno adfi.xa, ut adliaerebat elatiori plurimnm loui, adclinatis 
eius am-ibus intimaret,' E. 15. j\Ir. Williams compares the modern 
2ynjsur, ' assiduous,' ' engaged,' wliich likewise comes from some 
Low-Latin out-growtli of premere, pressum. The vA in prcssidr 
for u is noteworthy. 

(18.) Mcm«(?«s (gl.' par'). Context: ' Par est igituv ipsa prae- 
sertini decernas,' E. 1 6. V. supra 4 a, b. 

(19.) 5 a, a. icdlim sis (gl. 'apollo'). The context is Ennius' 
distich : 

' luno, Vesta, Minerua, Ceresque, Diana, Veims, j\lars, 
j\Iercurius, Jupiter {sic), Xeptuuus, Yulcauus, Apollo.' 
I cannot explain this gloss. 

(20.) 5 b, a. (jrephiov, (gl. ' stilos'). Context : ' Stilos acnnnt 
cerasque componunt,' E. 19. PI. of graijh, 'borrowed' (like Ir. 
gra!f)hom fjraphium, 'an iron pen': clfjrefiat, ' notarius,' Z. 839 ; 
gref, 'liber,' med. Lat. grafia, 'scriptura,' Z. 80. 

(21.) Zeioi (gl. 'pallae'), ' insidebat autem ex pauonum pennis 
intertextae ocidataeque pallae,' E. 19. So lenn (gl. ' cortina') infra 
62 a, a; lenn (gl. 'pallam'), J. 30, now lien, f. ; Corn, len (gl. 
' sagum"), Z. 1079, mod. pi. lednow, Br. lenn, f , Ir. lenn, Gaul. 


(22.) 5 b,b. glas (gl. ' yalina') ; 'nam uestis eiiis hyalina, sed 
peiilum fuerat caligosum,' E, 20. V. supra (/uirdglas, 3 a, a. 

(23.) archenatou (gl. 'calcei') : 'liiiius uero calcei aduiodum 
furiii,' E. 20 ; pi. of ai'c/isnaf = Corn. orchinat (gl.'calciamentum) 
Z. 1078, 840, Br. archenat, Z. 840. Puglie makes archen, f. ' shoe,' 
archenacl, m. ' apparel.' archenat a ialo imldr kcymjauc,'Laios, 40. 

(24.) 6 a, a. guircl (gl. 'herbida'): 'floridain discoloramque 
uestera herbida palla coutexerat,' E. 21. Xow written qwyrdd; 
V. supra guirdglas, 3 a, a. . 

(2.5.) 6 b, a. minn (gl. ' sertum') : 'in capite...sertum pro regni 
conditione gestabat,' E. 23. So infra 7 b, a: 'redimitur lunnne 
sertum' (.i. minii), pi. minnou (gl. 'serta'), infra 9 a, a (gl. ' stem- 
mata') infra 10 a, b. This -n-ord is = 0. Ir. mind (gl. ' diadema'), 
Tut. 96, which is cognate, perhaps, with the Latin mundus, 'a 
M-oman's ornaments,' and Skr. Luanda. 

(26.) 6 b, b. damcirchineut (gl. ' demorator'),M.-)etter (:7f(?;;cn-- 
chiniat, Z. 839. Thi.s, like dnmcirchinmioic (gl ' ambagibiis'), J. 
66, is compounded with dam = do + ambi, Ir. timm, Z. 906. -cir- 
chineat is a derivative from circMn [circhinn, J. 84), Corn. Icr- 
ghen, M. Br. quercheym, Ir. cercenn A. cuairt naimsire, all pro- 
bably borrowed from the Lat. cirdnus. 

_ (27.) nodi's .i. cutinnniou (gl. 'illis'),nodos .i. inircutinniou (gi. 
'incoudylos'). The context is, 'rapiens his comas puellariter (.i. 
huiter) caput illis uirgua comminuens eisdemque quibus fuerat 
eblandita ictibus crebris uerticem comiDlicatisque in condyles de- 
gitis uiduerabat,' E. 24. Here cutinniou is the pi. of cutuin, now 
cudyn, m. ' a lock of hair,' Corn, cudin (gl. ' coma'), Z. 1066. Br. 
luden, f. pi, l-udennou, 'echeveau, fil.' As to the prep, in, v. in- 
fra 7 b, a. 

(2S.)ir].iouUo)-aur (gl. 'pugillarem paginam') : 'ad eorum libros 
et pugillarem paginam cucurrit,' E. 24. Here poullor- is obvi- 
ously borrowed from pugilldris (j^'giUaref!, writing tablets), witli 
the regular loss of </ between vowels. Tlie -aiir seems merely 
the derivative dr-, Z. S29. 

(29.) 7 a, a. ^ganepp (gl. 'quis'). The context is: 

' Hie quoque sic patruis seruit lionoribus, 
Ut dubium (.i. sit) proprium (.i. ilhun .i. fiJitvm) quis 
mage nendicet' (.i. haheat), E. 26. 

Here pa is the interrogative pronoun (Z. 400) made, by adding 
nop ( = Ir. necli, Z. 405), to pass into the relative. So by adding 

• Eyssenhardt, 24, prints ' devorator.' The context is 'quidam 
ctiam clandus faber uenit, qui licet crederetur esse lunonius, totius 
mundi ab HeracHto dictus est demorator.' 


pinnae, we get 2>a-tu-ji{nnacc (gl. 'qiiocuBique'), infra 14 a, h, pa- 
ped-jnnnac (gl. ' quodius'), 43 a, 1j, p" vac jKnnar. (qiiicimque 
vas), Z. 400. 

(30.) 7 a, b, trennid (gl ' postridie'). nouodou (gl ' palatia'). 
The context is, 'tunc luno coudicit propter praedictonun tliala- 
mum iudenum et nuptialia peragenda'iiti postridie ^ oiiinis ille 

deormn senatris iu palatia diluculo couueuirent,' E. 26,27. 

Here the adverb trennid is=trennyd (pereudie), Z. 61S, now 
trenydd, ' the day after to-morrow.' It is the Old-Irish tremdid 
in the adverb intrcmdid (gl.'postridie'),Z.G09, and is compoimded 
of the preposition tmn (in tran-noeth, Z. G16, 905) and did, now 
dydd, • day.' So Com. trenzlia (perendie), Lh. 249 a, ex tmuje, 

Nouodou is the pi. oi nouod, now neuadd, f. 'a hall,' 'a large 
room.' toed y neuad (lacunar curiae), Z. 840. The Gaulish 
nemeton, Ir. nemed (gl 'sacellimi') seem cognate. 

(31.) 7 b, a. i«wi?i(gl'sertum'). ' Multiplici ambitmn redimi- 
tur lumine sertiim.' V. supra G b, a. 

(32.) inirdolte (gl 'in tanis'). 'Dehiue illud quod in fanis 
omnibus soliditate cubica dominus adoratur,' E. 28. We should 
either read this gloss iniridolte, 'in the idol-houses/ or, as 
Ebel thinks, iniradoUe, ' in the v/orshippiug-houses.' Here in is 
the preposition=Ir. and Lat. in, Z. 671 ; here, as in inhelcha, 
39 a, b, expressing the abl., as in inircutinniou, 6 b,b, it expresses 
the accusative, ^idol-te (if this be the true reading) is the pi. of 
*idol-tig=Iv. idalteg, a neuter s-stem gen. sg. idaltuirie (gl ' fani'), 
Z. 271, 'where it is misprinted 'iddtaige') ; adolte, if Ebels con- 
jecture be right, would now be addoldai {addol, 'worship,' tai, 
'houses'). In either case, cf. hou-tig (gl 'stabulum'), Z. 85, and 
tig gocohauc, ' cavernous house' (Nottingham), Asser, Lat. tug- 
nriiim, Gr. reyo'; (Beitr. ii, 165). 

(33.) 7 b, b. trui ir unolion (gl. ' per monades'), ordeccolion 
(gl. 'decadibus'). 'Quos per nouenariam regulam distribueus 
minuensque per monades decadibus subrogatas in tertium nume- 
rum perita restrinxit,' E. 28. The preposition tr^u{=Iv. tre, tria, 
0. Br. tre, Corn, dre, Goth, thairh) is now trunj or drwy, Z. 665. 
unolion is the pi. of unani, formed from the numeral un (Ir. oin, 
Old-Lat. oinos), Z. 315, by the suffix dl- (Z. 818). dcccolion is 
the pi of decani, formed in like manner fi\iru the numeral dec ; 
Corn, dek, Br. dec, Ir. deich. 

(34.) 8 a, a. ellesJieticioii (gl'mela:). The context is ' omnia- 
que mela (.i. dulcedines) armonicorum (.i. 'modulationum) distri- 
butione conquirit.' This is the plural of a pret. part, passive, 
ellesetic, connected probably with eiVu', ' music,' eiVif^/ musician,' 
eilwys, power of harmony.' (Pughe.) 


(35.) 8 a, b. cipJtiUhn (gl. 'snrculis'). clircjctiisse locdau (gl. 
' concesserat'). The context is ' Sed aduersum ilia quoddam Ab- 
deritae senis alimma (.i. uncjentiiiu) cui {.\. ■p^iHohgia) multa (.i. 
materia) lapillis siirculisque permiitis berbaruni etiam membro- 
rumque concesserat' (.i. miscuerat) praeparauit,' E. 30. Of tbese 
glosses, tbe first aloue is iuteUigible : cipMllion is tbe pi. of ci- 
jJn'll, diminutive- of ciph. (now -nTitten ctjff, Br. qucff, Ir. cep)^= 
Lat. cippus, t\\& pih fjf) arising from |)/i as in clof=cloppus. 

As to tbe form, di)yatisse is the 3rd sg. 2d pret. of a verb 
preserved possibly (according to ^Ir. Ebys) in ym-ddiried, ' to 
concede one's self,' ' to confide,' I -would connect it witb tbe 
modern gadu, 'to leave,' 'to permit.' locdau (if not, as Ebel 
suggests, a mistake for loc laun) may be tbe pL of */ocZ; cognate, 
perbaps, witli tbe Eng. log. 

(36.) immisline (gl. ' allinebat'). ' Denique renibratu corpori 
mensis apposito irrorati bqnoris allinebat ung[n]entum,' E. 30. 
Here we bave, apparently, tbe infixed personal pronoun of tbe 
3rd sg. is=-s (Z. 376). The verb immlitie, vbicb we thus get, 
is tbe 3rd sg. imperfect of a verb compounded witb inun-, am- 
(Z. 897, 898), and radically connected with linisant (gl. ' lavare,' 
i. e. 'lavarunt), J. 98, 0. Ir. dolinim (gl. 'mano/ gl. 'poUuceo), 
uslenaimm (gl. 'luo), asrii-lcnta (gl. ' inqiiinatae'), Lat. linio. 

(37.) cimmaithuress (gl. ' collactea'), v. supra 1 b,a. 

(38.) 8 b, a. orciieeticc cors (gl. 'ex papyro textili'). Tbe con- 
text is'calceos (.i.ficoiies) praeterea ex papyro textili subligauit, 
ue Cjuid eius membra poUueret morticinum,' E. 31. cueeticc stands 
foT gue {g)etic, tbe participle pret. pass, of gueu, a derivative from 
tbe root vi, wbence also gueig (gL 'testrix'). Corn, giiiat (gl. 
'tela'), Br. gneaf (texere), Ir. fghim, Lat. vieo. and many other 
forms cited by Fick, 190, 191. For tbe provection of </ after the 
'/■ of tbe article, c£ or liodcd, 'fi-om tbe north' {gocled), Laws, 104. 

cors re-occurs at 14 b, b, as a gloss on ' cannulas.' It is a col- 
lective noun, bere meaning 'reeds.' "Witb the singulative-e?!?i it 
occurs in the Oxford glosses : corsen-n (gl. ' arundo'), Z. 295. The 
modern form is corsen, pi. cyrs : cf. Br. corsenn, 'arundo,' 'canna,' 
corsec (gb 'cannetum'), Z. 850, Ir. curchas (gb 'arundo'), Z. 72, 
Lat. carex. Here cors stands for corhs, cm-dis, as crop.n iovcrohen, 
croclien, Corn, croghen, D. 2686, Ir. crocenn, 'pellis,' Z. 103. So 
Corn. morogeth=\Y. marclwgaeth, Z. 95, 2103, Icerugh (alferte) 
for Iterghvgh, Z. 157. 

(39.) tusslestr .i. turibulum (gb 'acerra'). So infra 10 b, a, tus- 
lestr (gl. ' acerra'), 12 a, a ; tuslestr (gl. ' acerra'), 14 a, a ; tuslestr 
(gl. ' acerram'). This is a compound of tus (borrowed from tbe 
' ' Nemorumqne consesserat,' E. 
- Cf. the Gaulish regillu.;, remillus, Z. 767. 


Lat. fus) and Icstr, m., 'a vessel,' lestir (gl. 'rati'), Juv. 61; pi. 
Ih\^tn, Z. 175 ; Corn. lesfer (gl. ' navis'), pi. Usfri, Z. 831, Br. let^tr, 
Ir. lester, (vas), Z. 166, dat. sg. lestin; 78?. 

(40.) 8 b, b. corllis .i. coU (gl. ' coraiili.?'), meUhionou (gl. ' vio- 
las'). The context is : 

' A^ertex Aonidimi uii-ens coraulis^ 
Ciii frondet iiiolas parante Cp'ra.'- (E. 33.) 

Here coll is the pi. of collenn [L. Land. 237), now collen, ' a hazel ;' 
QoT:n. colwiden (gl. 'corillus'), Z. 1077; Br. quelvezenn (Guth.) ; 
Ir. coll (gl. 'coryius'), Z. 791. 

'//le/Z/iioioit, 'violets,' pi. of mellhion, melhyonen (gl. 'vigila'), 
Z. 1076. Probably a componnd of well and *hion. 

(41.) 9 a, a. minnou (gl. 'serta,' E. 34), v. supra 6 b, a. 

(42.) dittikun (gl. 'tibi soU'). 'Quod habent rationis operta 
Caniimis tibi cognita soli,' E. 35. Here ditti is a compound of 
the preposition di with the suffixed pron. -f- and the augment -ti, 
Z. 380. The IMiddle- Welsh form is itti, Br. dide, Corn, dyso, 
dheso. The fhjnn (i. e. vn, 'unus,' 'solus') re-occurs infra 51 b, 
a, in vii mihun, ' 1 myself When added to the possessive pro- 
nouns it gains the meaning of qj-se, Z. 408. Tlie /( is introduced 
between two vowels as often iu Old and Middle- Welsh. (Z, 118, 

On the margin of this column, opposite the line 

' Nunc tibi uirgo cano spes atqiie adsertio nostri,' (E. 33), 

occur the words lacladsi ar; so in the next column, 9 a, b, occur 
the words laclad d& over the first word of the following: 

uirgo, tanti's 
Quae siderum chore is 
Thalamum capis iugalem,' etc. (E. 36.) 

I cannot explain either of these glosses, if such they be. 

(43.) 9 a, b. ardomaul, ' docilis.' Tliis occurs in the margin, 
opposite the lines 

' Quicquid agentes Stoici^ praescia daut futuris 
Semper anheb's docilis fomitibus tulisti.' (E. 35.) 

The Welsh word can only refer to docilis. It is compounded of 
ar- (Z. 900) and domaul, a derivative (Z. 818) from the root dam 
(Lat. domare, Goth, tanijan), whence domefic (gl. ' domito'), Z. 

(44.) 9 b, a. untaut (gl. 'orbem'). The context is ' Cui uii'us 

' E. prints 'corolHs.' 2 < Cirrha,' E. 

^ MS., 'a";ente Stoasi.' 


oinne fanti Oi'bem facit gemellum,' E. 37. This is a loan from 
the Lat. unitdtfemj, like trintnuf. (Juv. 1), aiuhirdaut, Idutaut 
(Z. 843}, from trinitatfemj, anc.turitatfemj, civitatfemj . 

(45.) »)ice»e<^icio», (gl. 'solicanae'). 'Dum liaec Musae mmc 
solicanae nunc concinentes interserunt (.1. intercanunt)', etc., E. 
37. Tliis is a compound of the numeral un' (' uuus,' ' solus') and 
ceneticion, the pi. oi cenetic, a participle passive having here an 
active meaning, like bleu-portlietlc (gi. ' lanigerac'), Lat. fertus, 
Gr. rroXirfKTjTO'i. 

(46.) 9 b, b. nouirfionou (gl. 'rosarum'). ' Eosarum spiculis 
redimitae,' E. 38. As to nou, v. supra 2 a, a. fionou is the pi. of 
fion, s. 'digitahs,' adj. 'crimson.' Pughe \\&s filon, 'roses,' but 
this is a mere variant spelling. The Celts seem to have been 
unsettled as to ' rose' and ' foxglove.' Corn, breilu, ' rose,' is Br. 
hrithi, now ' digitale';' and^^oji is the Irish sion,sian, so common 
in Irish tales, e. c/., is dath sion and cech gruad (' every cheek 
tliere is the colour of foxglove'), L. U., 131b; ba deirgithir sian 
slebe cechtar a da gruad ('each of her two cheeks was redder 
than mountain foxglove'). So, as Siegfried thouglit,_^b)ij ' cudgel' 
= lr. s 01111, ff oil, ' B. broad squab' = Ir. s^/ij 'fat.' So Br. /e/cA, 
'splen' = Ir. selg. 

(47.) imberb'is nuditas .i. itlirirdiuaU (gl. 'glabella medietas'). 
Context : ' Quarum una deosculata Pliilologiae frontem illic ubi 
pubem cilioruni discriminat glabella medietas,' E. 38. Here ithr 
is a preposition=Corn. ynter, Z. G89, Ir. etev, Z. 656, Lat. inier. 
As to the thr ex ntr, cf. cithremmet, infra 12 b, a, ci/thraivl, 'ad- 
\erse'=conirarins, ^jscjijthr, 'ii\.n^= spinier, cethr=Gv. Kevrpov, 
ewythr, Br. eontr, ex *avuntros^=lM.t. avunculus, Z. 157. 

dill is a new form of the feminine numeral 2. It ia identical 
with the Cornish and Breton diu, Z. 316. 

ail, the dual of 0(7^ supra 4 b, a, is now ael, 'brow.' Cf. ail- 
guin, 'white-browed,' a title of Ecgfred (Nennius, 61). 

(48.) ///ij?!o^h7u'o« (gl. 'gesticulationes'). The context is'Afusis 
ammixtae etiam gesticulationes consonas atque hymeneia dedere 
tripudia,' E. 38. Cf immotetin (gl. 'iactata'), Juv. 60, and the 
modern ymmodi, ' to move.' 

(49.) 10 a, a. noidrcleteirou {g\.'cTotuls.nxxn'),orcomtantou (gl. 
' bombis'). The context is ' Sed ecce magno tympani crepitu cro- 
tularumque [leg. crotalorumque] tinnitu uniuersa dissultant eo 
usque ut Jlusarum cantus aUquanto bombis tympani olitusior 
redderetur,' E. 38. As to 7wu, v. supra 2 a, a. cleteirou is the 

^ hnduemi, ' estoquion,' ' eleborus,' ' uiacrnm,' Catli. 

- So titl becomes thl in caM, ' song' = Ir. cetal ex cantola or canilo ; 
iir, becomes ch in iruch (gl. ' truncate'), and perhaps cwch ex concha; 
nt becomes ih in Corn. pijmetli=^pigmentum. 


pi. of cUtcir, whicli I cannot explain except as an onomatopoetic 
■word, like the Teutonic clatter, Jdaferen, klatteni, Mittern. So 
comtantou is the pi. of *co'»itant ; but this must he a compound 
oicom, Z. 902, and tant, 'a string' (Ir. fe't, Skr. iniitu), pi. tanton 
(gl. 'fides'), infra 63 h, a ; and it is hard to see how it can mean 

(50.) dattotimh (gl. 'gestione'). The context is 'Xi haec,' 
inquit, ' qnibus plenum pectus geris cum coactissima (.i. vAohm- 
tissima) gestione vomueris forasque difiuderis, immortalitatis 
sedem nulla tenus obtinebis,' E. 39. The first syllable seems 
dat {do-at, Ir. tuitlt, Z. 906), equivalent in meaning to re-; and 
the modern dat-tod, 'to loosen,' is perhaps cognate. The titnh 
is perhaps, as Ebel suggests,=the modern turn, 'a bend,' a 'turn.' 
Cf. pumj? for 2^imp. The gloss would thus stand for dattot-tinil), 
and mean 'a loosening turn.' The Latin for egestione. 

(51.) 10 a, b. ininnou (gl. 'stenimata,' deorum,E. 39): v. supra 
6 b, a. 

(52.) c?«s/,ww(Zie<icc (gl. 'confecta'). The context is 'pallore con- 
fecta Athanasiae opem...postulauit,' E. 40. This seems the par- 
ticiple of a compound verb cust, now civst (' toU,' drudgery'), and 
nudieticc, participle of 7mdi^ now iiodi, ' to mark.' If so, as nudi 
is cognate with or like Br. notaff, borrowed from Lat. notare, we 
have here an early example of the medialising (' infectio desti- 
tuens') of t between vowels, Z. 159. But Mr. Ehys suggests that 
we .should read cust nudieticc, and compares the modern ajs- 
tuddiedig, ' afflicted.' 

■\__^ (53.) 10 b, a. nouircrimnui (gl. 'oui'). The context is ' Verum 
ipsa species oui interioris crocino circumlita exterius rutilabat,' 
E. 40. As to nou, v. supra 2 a, 2. crunn-ioi is a compoimd of 
the adj. crunn (v. supra 4 b, a) and the substantive vi (now v:ij, 
m.), pi. tcijeu, Z. 285, Br. ^ly, Gr. a>6v ex coZlov, *dvyam, Fick, 344, 
Lat. ovum. The Ir. og, f. gen. uige, seems rather cognate with 
0. N. egg, A.-S. dg. 

(54.) issi (gl. 'mortalis'). The context is 'Verum diua...uir- 
ginem coronauit praecipiens omnia, quae adhuc mortalis aduersum 
uim superam in praesidiimi coaptarat, expelleret,' E. 40. The 
gloss means 'est ea' (scU. virgo). Here, as in 15 b, a, infra, issi is 
for iss-U, Z. 371. 

(55.) tuslostr (gl. ' acerra'), v. supra 8 b, a. 

(56.) 11 a, a. issmi (gl. ' intemerata'). hepp phUologia (gl. 
'pertulerim'). emiein di iunoni (gl. 'Iterducam et Domiducam'). 
The context is ' Xam Fluoniam Februalemque ac Februam rnilii 
poscere non necesse est, cum nihU contagionis corporeae sexu in- 
temerata pertulerhn, Iterducam et Domiducam, Unxiam Cinc- 
tiam mortales pueUae debent in nuptias convocare,' E. 42. i>5- 


mi means ' sum ego,' Z. 3G8; and of. issl mi, infra 15 L, a. lippi^ 
(better hep, as in ' hep Geometria,' infra 51 b, a) is a defective 
verb meaning 'inquit,' Z. 606 ; Ir. saiyid, ' dicit'; 'Gr. e-air-eTe, 
evve-ire, for en-sepe ; Lat. sec-uta est, 'locuta est,' Fick, 400. 
emrein di iunoni, ' names for Jnno,' v. supra 1 a, b. 
(57.) proprium .i. ami di iuno (gl. ' Populonam'). vii pliilo- 
logia (gl. ' uoco'). The context is ' Populonam plebes, Cyritim 
debent memorare bellantes, hie ego te aeream [E., Heram] potius 
ab aeris regno nuncupatam uoco,' E. 42. Here ' proprium' stands 
for 'nomen proprium.' ami di means 'a name for,' and mi 
means ' I.' 

(58.) hep>p pliilologia (gl. ' intellexeram conspicari'), v. supra. 
(59.) 11 a, b. issem i ami (gl. 'Genius'). The context is 'spe- 
cials singulis mortalibus Genius admonetur quem (.i. geniiim) 
etiam Fraestitem (.i. principal) uocauerunt,' E. 43. The gloss 
means ' id est nomen ejus.' As to iss, v. supra, 4 a, b : em now 
ef, Z. 371, (■ now y, Bret, e, Z. 386. ami, v. supra, 1 a, b. 

'(60.) 11 b, b. emiein di SibeUae int hinn (gl. ' Erytria_quaeque 
Cumea est vel Phrigia'), E. 44. This gloss means ' name's ^for the 
Sybil are these.' As to emiein, v. supra 1 a, b. int,' swni' (Mid.- 
W. ynt, Z. 546) is=Corn. yns, Br. int, ynt,lv. it; all referrible 
to the root i, 'to go.' hinn, pi. of hwm, 'hie,' Z. 394. 
(61.) 12 a, a. tuslestr (gl. ' aceiTa'), v. supra 8 b, a. 
(62.) 12 a, b. natoid (jtioceleseticc {g\. ' nwUa titiWuta'). The 

context is 'quod femina nuUa prorsus inuidia titillata rrirgi- 

nem (.i. j^h'Iosojyhiam) complexa constrinxerat,' E. 46. The gloss 
means ' quod non est titillata.' nat, Z. 752. oid, ' erat,' ' esset,' 
Z. 546, the 3rd sg. secondary present ; Corn, o, Br._ oa. 

gtiocelesf.tic, part. pass. of*quocdesiau, now gogleisio, ' to tickle.' 
The use of e here for the diphthong ei is also observable in im- 
midine and dirgatisse. So in reatir, trean, Z. 105. In modern 
Welsh this gloss would be nad oedd gogleisiedig. 

(63.) 12 b, a. iargchell {gl'ca^rea:). The context is : 'sub dex- 
tra testudo minitansque nepa, a laeua-capra,' E. 47. This word 
(now iyrcheU, 'a young roe,') is a diminutive of iiirch {iicj-ch, Z. 
282, pi. yrch, ib.), as rhodell, ' spincUe,' of rhod=^rota,ciphill(ionJ , 
supra 8 a, b, oi ciph=cipinis. See Z, 297, 820. iw(T/i = Corn. 
yorch,Z. 1075, Br. yourch {Cath.) = GT:.iopKO<;, Oppian, ^6p^, S6p^, 
{Beitr. ii, 157), ^opKcl^, ^opxra?, Gurtius, Gr. Et. 585. 

(64.) menntnul (gl. 'bilance'), cithremmet (gl. 'libra'). The con- 
text is ' quae quidem nee in nnrus officio sine b[i]LaDce libra ap_ 
parere dignata est,' E. 47. memdaul is=mentol (gl. ' trutina') 
now mantol, f. Z. 818, from the root man, 'to measure,' m Lat' 

cithremmet (gl. 'libra') is compounded of cin- (Z. 901) and 


*trem.met, a derivative from trumm (now written /;■«-■//!) = Ir. 
tromm, 'heavy.' Cf. Ir. comthrom (s'l. 'par'). 

(65.) 12 b, b. 2^0PP^^f (gl- 'ambiferium,' E: 47), 'every side.' 
230PP (Com. pefc, Br. jje|v, Ir. each) precediug a substantive, means 
'omnis,' Z. 404. in (also in iia-tu-innnacc, 14 a,bj is = Ir. toib, 
the tinal 5 being lost, as in lu-ircl, 50 a, a. 

(66.) 13 a, a. sich (gl. 'arentis,' Libies, E. 48.) Tliis is_a loan 
from the Latin siccus, the cc regnlarly becoming ch, Z. 151. It 
is now written sych ; Corn, seygh, Br. sech, Ir. sccc. 

(67.) liepp ph'ilologia (gl. 'noscere') : 

' Da pater aetherios mentis^ conscendere coetus 
Astrigerumque sacro sub nomine noscere coelum.' 

V. supra 11 a, a. 

(68.) 13 a, b. isscjuir (gl. ' verimi'),E. 48, r. e. 'est verum.' cjidr 
(Corn, and Bret, cjuir, Ir. fir) is=Lat. verns. 

(69.) 14 a, a. tuslestr (gl. 'acerram'),/f((Vm«!^r (gl. 'olacem'). 
The context is ' acerrara illam olocem [leg. olacem] aromatis re- 
fundente',' E. 52. As to tuslestr, v. supra 8 b, a. 

flairmaur is an adjective compounded of the adjective wa2«- 
(=Ir. mar, vior), Z. 891, and the ■substantive flair, now filaii 
{CoTn. flair, Br./cr, Z. 835, 1078), by dissimilation from *frair, 
k Lat. *fragor, whence fragrare. Cf also Lat. fragnim, root 
bhrag, Fick, 381. 

(70.) 14 a, b. j^atupinnacc (gl. 'quocumque') : 

'Adhuc iugata compararet pagina 
Quocumque ducta largiorem circidum.' (E. 52.) 

This adverb is formed, like i^a-pecl -pinnae (gl. 'quodvis'), infra 
43 a, b, by pa, Z. 399, a substantive {tu, v. supra 12 b, b) and 
pinnae, Z. 400. Cf Br. i/n tu -penac, ' aliquorsum,' Gatli. 

(71.) 14 b, a. liepp Marciane (gl. 'uicit': 'His me Camena 
uicit,' E. 54), V. supra 11 a, a. 
. • (72.) 14 b, b. casulheticc (gl. ' penidata'). ' Ingressa est penu- 
lata,' E. 54. This is the part. pret. pass, of a denomiiurtive from 
casal, Lat. casula, whence Ir. cased, Z. 768, casaldae, Z. 791, with 
progressive assimilation. As to the /;, v. Z. 112. 

(73.) locell vel /o»)i (gl. 'fercidum'). ' Gestabat haec autem 
teres quoddam ex compactis adnexionibus ferculum, quod leui 
exterius elepbanto praenitebat,' E. 54, 55. locvU, now llogell. 
Corn, logel, Lat. loculus, Z. 819, 1078. 

fonn, now ffonn, pi. finn (gl. ' pila,' infra 38 a, a), Ir. sonn, ' a 
staff,' 'a cudgel.' iiewce fonnaul, infra 41 a, a. Goth, vaiidu 
(Eng. wand) has been compared. But Goth, initial v woidd be 

> ' Jlentem,' E. 



qii in Welsh and fin Irish. Ilatliev cf. Or. o-e^oi'StiXo?, and pei 
iiaps a(f)tv^6in], l^at.fiinda. For instances of W._//;=G 
see Siegfried, Beitr. vi, 8. 

(74.| cocs vel pennas (gl. 'caunnlas'). 'lUafo per cannuhis,' 
E. 55, V. snpra 8 b, a. 

(75.) iniiennou (gL 'arterias'). 'Arterias etiam pectusque cn- 
iusdam medicaminis adhibitioue purgal^at,' E. 55. This is the 
pL oi inpenn, now iiiben, 'a pipe/ 'a duct.' In Juvencr\s, 14, 
pipenn reulaun, 'an icy pipe,' glosses the Latin steria (stiria), 
'icicle.' Like Br. pip, Yi. pipe,pipeau, Ital. piva, 0. H. G.ppfa, 
K H. G. ffeife, Eng.//e, borrowed from Lat. pipare, pipiare. 

(76.) 15" b,'a. issi ml (gl. ' ipsa'). The context is ' Partes antem 
meae sunt quattuor, litterae litteratura litteratus litteratae. _ lit- 
terae sunt quas doceo, litteratura (.i. sum) ipsa quae doceo, litte- 
ratus queni docuero, Utterate quod perite tractaverit qneni iu- 
formo,' E. 57. The gloss means literally ' est ea ego.' As to iss, 
V. supra 4 a, b. % is for hi, Z. 371. As to mi, v. supra 11 a, a. 

(77.) 38 a, a. finn (gl. 'pUa'), 'hastas crebro et pila,' E. 143. 
PI. of /on?!, supra 14 b, b. ffonn, -pi. ft/ nn (clavae), Z. 283. 

(78.) 38 b, a. scribenn (gl. 'scriptura'). 'Cum lex iilla vel 
scriptura in causa tractatur,' E. 146. This word (now ysgrifen, 
with prosthetic y) is like Ir. scrihend, Z. 487, Corn, scriiien, 7i. 
826, 1071, Br. scruiuaf, boiTOwed from the Latin. So in 39 b, a. 
(79.) 39 a, b. {?i/ie/c/ia (gl. 'in uenando'). ' Cnm quidam in 
ueuando iaculnm intorsit,' "E. 150. As to m, v. supra 7 a, b. 
helcha seems for heJga, now hela : cf. heJgha-ti (gl. 'nenare'), Ir. 
sehj, Z. 122 ; Corn, helhvur, helhiat, helheys, Z. 123, 140, 144, 
1069, 1071. helghya. The Zend harez, 'los lassen, hinwerfcn' 
(Justi, 322) is perhaps cognate. 

(80.) 39 b, a. scribenn (gl'scniAmcC). 'Ad probationes scrip- 
tm-a profertur,' E. 151, v. supra, 38 b, a. 

(81.) gebin (gl. 'cnUeo'). 'Quia patris interfector cuUeo insui- 
tur,' E. 153. This must be a mistake of the glossographer, for 
the modern gefyn, m., is ' fetter,' ' g}'ve,' and not a leathern sack. 
The root may be ghab (whence also gofael, ' to hold'=lr. gabdil, 
Lat. httbeo, habenac), the suffix -ino, Z. 823. 

(82.) 40 a, b. cZi'Zem (gl. 'abolitione'). ' Tyrannus qui sub ab- 
olitione tjTannidem posuerat, fort iter fecit,' E. 156. So in Skene, 
ii, 1 25 : ' y dilein gwlat ^Tython' (to abolish the kingdom of the 
Britons). The Eev. E. Williams compares the modern dili/u, 'to 
destroy.' Can it be = the 0. Ir. dilgcnd,' deleve,' dat. dilgiunn, 
Z. 487, ex *dilegindo- ; cf 0. Ir. dilegthith, 'exterminator.' 
(83.) doctmi (gl. 'astructio,' E 157), borrowed from dodvina. 
(84.) 41 a, a. /oHnaw/ c^i/nf (gL 'fustuarinm'). The context 
is ' Si ille consul fustuarium meruerit, legiones quid, quae consu- 


lein reliciuerunt ?' E. 161. The gloss is written cigamst -Utariuw, 
Lut may be intended for quid, over ^\■lliell tliere is a curved 
mark, fonnaul is a derivative from/o)ui, supra 14 b, b. dlfrit 
(from di-hrit, dit-brit ?) must mean ' a sentence.' jNIr. Khys con- 
nects it ^vith the modern dedfryd. 

(85.) 41 b, a. hihid (gl. 'rei'). The context is 'conciliantur 
igitiu- animi tum personae turn rei dignitate,' E. 164. Here the 
glossographer has clearly mistaken rei, the gen. sg. of res, for rei, 
the gen. sg. of reus. Of. the Bret. hev.ez, ' coulpable,' Cath., 0. Jr. 
Uhdu (reus), Z. 775, pi. hihdaid (gl. 'obnoxii'), Z. 258. 

(86.) 42 a, a. orduheneticion abalbrouannou (gl. ' gurgulioni- 
bus exsectis,' E. 167). dubeneticion {du- for di- as often in Irish, 
Z. 873) is the pi. of the pret. part. pass, of a verb compounded 
of di (Z. 903) and the root ben ex bhan, whence etbinam, 'lauio,' 
Z. 1052, Ir. benim, 'ferio,' Gr. e-irecfivov, cjiovo';. 

abal-brouannou is the pi. of a compound of abal, now aful, 
'an apple,' Ir. uball, and brouant, now breuant, 'windpipe,' pi. 
breuannau, with assimilation of the t as in hanner ex hanier, 
etc. (Z. 162), Corn, brianseii (gL 'guttur'), Z. 1066. The abal- 
brouant ^vhich we thus attain reminds one of the Irish don uball 
bragat (gl. 'gurgulioni'), leg. don tibaU-bmga[i]t?, which occurs 
as a gloss on Gildas' Lorica, Z. 256. 

(87.) 42 a, b. carrecc (gl. 'Carubdim'^). 'Ut si dicas laboriosam 
Carubdim,' E. 168. One form of the plural of this word, cerricc 
(gl. 'cautium') occurs infra 51 a, a; another, carrecoii (gl. 'scru- 
pea'), in Juvencus, 29. The modern form is carerj, f., pi. ceri/cj j 
Corn.carrek, pi. carn/gi/; Br. karrek, pi. herreh ; Ir. carric, Z. 812. 

(88.) 42 b, a. mail (gl. 'mutilum'). 'Plenum uersum, una 
quidem syUaba mutilum,^ E.171. This is the Middle-Welsh and 
modern moel, ' bald," bare,' Br. moal, Ir. mael, Z. 101. All from 
*maqilos, 1, 'servus;' 2, 'tonsus, 'calvus,' tonsure being the sign 
of slavery. 

(89.) 43 a,b. papedpinnac (gl. ' quoduis'). ' Cum singula uerba 
quoduis significantia proferuntur,' 'E. 176. As to p>a, -pinnae, v. 
patu-pinnacc, 14 a, b. ped is for pcth, m., ' a thing,' Br. pez, Ital. 
pezza, Er. piice, Latinised petia, as lu-ird, infra 50 a, a, is for lu- 

(90.) 43 b, a. aliquid hacen (gl. 'babebas'). The context is 
' domus tibi deerat, at habebas : pecunia superabat, at egebas,' 
E. 177. The gloss means ' something nevertheless,' hacen being 
the Middle and Modern Welsh conjunction hagen, Br. hogcn, Z. 
731, 732. 

(91.) 43 b, b. trJiinn issid ille (gl. ' sed magnitudinis cumu- 
latae ut si dicas Anton^ ille cum sufficeret nomeu dixisse,' E. 181). 

' ' Charybdim,' E. = ' Cato,' E. 


This gloss seems inteudod to refer to Anton. It means 'is qui 
est ille.' So iu J. 81, irhinn issid crist (gl. ' Cliristus quern'). As 
to ir-liinn, v. Z. 395. 

As to issid (now sijdcl before vowels, sy before consonants), 
V. Z. 554. 

(92.) 44 a, a. oguard (gl. 'flammeo'). ' 'Niiptiarum rxelatani 
flanmieo nnbentem.' Here flammeo means a (flame-coloured) 
bridal veil. The Welsh word guard occurs also in Jnvencus, 32, 
' imienem .i. eiecentem cjuard' (gl. ' cubautem'), where it means 
' a covering.' It is derived from the root vae, ' to cover ;' and as 
I find no sure example of a Welsh derivative d being added to 
the root without the intervention of a vowel, it is proliably writ- 
ten for guarth, as luird (gl. 'horti'), infra 50 a, a, for liiir/h. 

(93.) 44 b, b. woioii (gl. 'no.strum'). ' Uter igitur nostrum 
caedem adraiserit quaeritur,' E. 186. As to note, v. supra 2 a, a. 
ni is the personal pron. of the first person, Z. 369, Corn, luj, Br. 
ni, Ir. ni, Z. 325. 

(94.) 45 a, a. ircatieiraul retteticc strofur (gl. ' sella curulis'). 
' Fasces et toga sella curulis magistratiinm ornamenta sunt,' E. 
190. Gatteiraul is a derivative from cateir, Z. 106, L. Land. 41, 
127, borrowed, like Br. cadoer, Ir. cathdi?', from catltedra. Or, 
perhaps, catteiraid is directly from cnthedrale. 

retteticc is intended for curulis, which the glossographer sup- 
poses to be derived from curro, and is the participle passive, with 
an active meaning, of a verb=the modern rhedeg. Cf Corn, re- 
degva (gl. 'cursus'), Z. 890, rcscl-, 'currere.' 

strotuT is borrowed fi'om Lat. stratura; so strutu[)-] guar (gl. 
'sella'), strotur gureliic (gl. 'sambuca'), Z. 1061. 

(95.) 45 b, a. hepp marcia (gl. ' aduerto'), ' inconscius non ad- 
nerto,' E. 195 : v. supra 11 a, a. 

(96.) nouUn (gl. 'lini'). ' dispendiaqne lini perflagrata,' E. 
195. As to nou,\-. 2 a, a, Jin, now Uiu, Corn. Jin (gl. 'linum'), 
Br. lin. 

(97.) 46, a, a. hepp marcia (gl. 'prospicio, quandam fenunam 
luculentam'), E. 196: v. supra, 11 a. "a. 

(98.) voti iraurJeou (gl ' gnomonum stilis,' E. 197). As io noic, 
V. supra 2 a, a. 

aurJeou is the pL of aurJe, a compound of am-=Jiora, Ir. uair, 
and le, now lie (pi. Ueoedd), 'a place.' Cf. ai/rcimerdricheticion, 

(99.) 46 a, b. muiss (gl. 'disci, diffusions'), E. 199. This word, 
now mwys, f., ' hamper,' like Corn, muis, Br. tneus, Ir. mias, Gotli. 
mes, is borrowed from or cognate with Lat. «!e);sfl,Z. 97, 117,1079. 

(100.) 46 b, a. fn«-ci?)ifr(i/-tc7iehci'o)i. (gl. 'orospica,' leg. horo- 
scopa?). 'Uasa quae orospica vel orologia memorantur,' E. 201. 

iTH EEK., vol.. IV. ■ 2 


Compounded of aur, 'hour,' cimcr, uow cyfer, m., 'opposite situ- 
ation' (cf. the modem q/farchwijl, ' survey'), and dricheticion, the 
pi. of the part. pass, ofdrirhu, now drijchu, 'to. make ajiparent.' 

(101.) 46 h, b. oemid (gl. 'ex aere'). ' rotunda ex aere uasa,' 
E. 202 : V. supra 4 h, a. 

(102.) 47 a, h. heju^ Geometria (gl 'ego ipsa peragraui'), v. 
supra 11 a, a. 

(103.) 48 a, a. termin (gl. 'ora': 'cuius ora paullo ami)lior 
aestimatur,' E. 212), now terfyn, m., is borrowed from Lat. icrtni- 
nus ; so in 48 a, h, icrmin (gl. 'ora.') 'Cuius ora diuersis nomi- 
nibus appellatur,' E. 48 a, b. 

(104.) 49 b, a. nomen di creta^. (gl. 'Mac[a]ronesos': 'propter 
coeli temperiem M. est appeUata,' E. 225), a name for Crete. As 
to di, V. supra 1 a, b. 

(105.) 50 a, a. hdrd (gl. 'horti,' Hesperidum, E. 229). This 
is the nom. jil. oi *luorth=li: hihgort, Com. Imcorth, loivarth, 
Z. 888, 1077, Br. liorz, compounded of lu(h) ex *lupa (=Goth. 
lauf-s, gen. lauhis, Eng. leaf, and *gorth=Q,v. -xppTO^, hortus, 
0. N. gardh-}-, whence seems the mod. Welsh gardd, ' garden.' 

(106.) 50 b, b. nomen di tauro caucassus (gl. ' caucassus') : 
' Inter caetera nomiua idem Nifatis est Caucassus et Sarpedon,' 
E. 2.36. See 1 a, b. 

(107.) 51 a, a. nouircerricc (gl. 'cautium'). ' Sed Caucas.sus 
portas habet quas Caspias dicunt cautiiun pmecisiones etiam fer- 
rels trabibus obseratas, E. 239. As to nou, v. 2 a, a. As to cer- 
ricc, pi. of carrecc, v. supra 42 a, b. 

(108.) 7io)i (gl. ' alium'). 'Fluuius qui Tauais putabatur quem 
Demodamas dux transcencht aliumque esse perdocuit,' E. 240. 
This is the modern han, ' separated' =Ir. sain, 'diTer.sus,' Z. 233. 

(109.) omorduit (gl. 'femiue'). 'Unde fabula est eum Jovis 
femine procreatum,'E.241. Here morduit (now morddvji/d,f.)is=^ 
Corn, mordoit (femur, 1. coxa), later mordhos, Br. mo7-zat, Cath. 
morzed, Z 843. 

(110.) 51 a, b. mo?-me/?^ef (gh 'testudinum'). This is the pi. 
of viormelu, lit. ' sea-snail' (ftom 7)!or,Gauhsh mori, Ir. viuir, Lat. 
onare), and mehi—malwen, Br. vielhuenn croguennec (gl. ' testudo), 
Cath., Corn, melwioges (gl. ' testudo'), Z. 1076. Pi-obably cognate 
with Or. a-/j,a\6<;, /xaXaKO^, Lat. mollis from rnolvis. 

(111.) 51 a, b. sum hep Geometria (gL 'Percursus breuiter 
terrarum situs,' E. 244), v. supra 11 a, a. 

(112.) 51 b, a. mi mihun (gl. ' ipsa'), noidirou (gl. ' aequorum'). 
The context is ' exposita est terra quam ipsa peragraui aequo- 
rumque mensura,' E. 245. mi-mihun means 'I myself.' As to 
hun, ditti hun, v. supra 9 a, a. As to nou, v. supra 2 a, a. lirou 
is the pi. of Ur, now Ihjr, Ir. ler. 


(113.) 571), a. J7«)i)n«?« (gl. 'sterope/leg. stertore?). The con- 
text is ' Silenus iamiuduiu laxatiis iu somnos, forte reijente 

glandum (i. magnum) stertens ranae sonitiim desorbentis incre- 
puit : quo sterope^ et rapiduli sonitiis raucitate concussi/ etc., E. 
297. This seems a corruption of runcnimc, cognate with the 
modern rliwnc, m., ' snort,' ' snore' (=rhonc]ius, p6y)(^o<;), rhwnciad, 
'a rattling,' 'gurgling,' rhioncian, 'to rattle,' 'to gurgle.' For 
the change of c to f, compare tengl, 'girth,'=Ir. cengal, cingiila, 
Corn, mans ex mant—'Ltit. mancus, Br. tatin—'Fr. taquin, rebet, 
' fiddle' = 0. Fr. rehec. 

(114.) 59 a, t. talcipp (gl. 'cratere'). 'Aquam cjuae ex cratere 
Aquarii fluit,' E. 300. talcipp is identical ^vith the Irish tal- 
chube (gl. 'crater'), gen. indtelchuhi (misprinted indcelchuhi), gl. 
' cadi,' Z. 72. dat i tauJchuhu fhina, Tain bo Traich, n. pi. uii. 
taulchubi di fin, L. U. 134b. cipp fovcip, ci daur gui\ii]cip 
(gl. ' prelum') Juv. 78, is=Lat. cupa, long u regularly becoming 
i in Welsh, Z. 100. 

(115.) 61 b, b. guogaUou (gl. 'fulcris'). 
' Ipsa etenim fulcris redimicula nectere sueta,' E. 331. 
This gloss is obscure to me. The gtio is, of course, the ordinary- 
prefix ; the gait, as Ebel suggests, found in <?';(?//o/i/cW,'mechanic.' 
Is now written ga.lU. The Eev. D. Silvan Evans C[Uotes from 
the 'Englynion Cain CynnwjTe': 'Ni ddifiyg gallt o bai cais' 
(power will not fail where there is endeavour). 

(116.) 62 a, a. scamell (gl. 'tripus'), lenn (gl. 'cortina'). The 
context is ' Oe[o]nostice tertia est per quam tripus ilia uenturi 
denuntia [t] atque omnis emiuuit nostra cortina,' E. 334. Here 
scamell is for scabell (inflected b and inflected m each soiinding 
like English v), now ysgafell, Corn, scavel, Z. 1078, Br. scabell, 
Catli., all borrowed from or cognate with Lat. scabellum. As to 
lenn, v. supra 5 b, a. 

(117.) 62 b, a. reid (gl. 'spicum') : 

' Crinale spicum pharetris deprome Cupido,' E. 337. 
This is now rhnidd, 'spear,' 'lance,' borrowed (according to Mr. 
Ehys) from radins. 

(118.) fistl gahlau (gl. 'fistula bilatrix,' sic). Tlie text is here 
corrupt. The context is ' Semidei cpiorum hircipedem pandura 
Siluanum hirundinis enodfs fistula bilatrLx rurestris Faunum 
tibia decuerunt,' E. 338. For bilatrix we should, of course, read, 
with Eyssenhardt, sibilatrix; but the glossographer, taking bila- 
trix to be ecpuvalent to f areata, wrote gablau, 'forked,' 'cleft,' 
a deriv. from gabal, gabl [?] now gafl, m., Ir. gabul (gl. 'furca,' 

' ' tcrrore,' E. The excellent emendation, sfrdore, is due to Mr. 




gl. ' patilnilura'), Z. 7G8, 0. Lat. gabalus ('galnJum cnicem dici 
veteres voliint,' — A''aiTO, cited by Diez), 0. IL G. gabala, l-abnla, 
now gabcl, A.-S. cjafol, 0. N. gcijl (Fick, 741), Elig. gable. So (as 
Professor Evauder Evans has pointed out) in Skene, i, 127: 
'Atiii pen gaflaw heb eniennyd' (tbere^ will be the cleft head 
Avithout brains, — ib. 138): 'Llyffan dii gaflaii cant ewiu arnaw' 
(a black, sprawling toad with a hundred nails on him). Fistl is, 
of course, borrowed from Lat. fistula. 

(119.) 63 a, a. hui (gl. 'quae') : 

' Jam uos uerenda quaeso caeli germina, 
Qu£e multiforme scit ciere (.i. uocare) barbiton,' E. 342. 
This is the personal pronoun of the 2nd plural, Z. 372, now writ- 
ten clmi, and probably cognate with Gothic izvis. So is-hui 
(gl. 'quos'), Juv. 19. 

(120.) 63, b, a. /«»/ozi (gl. 'fides'). ' Nam fides apud Delphos 
per Deliacam (.i. apollinarem) citharam demonstraui,' E. 346. 
So in 63 b, b, tantou (gl. 'fides'), 'Fides delphinis amicitiani 
hominum persuaserunt,' E. 348. This is the pi. of tant, as to 
which V. supra 10 a, a; and is now tannau, Avith nasal infection 
of /, as in abalbrouannou, supra 42 a, a. 

■\Vhitley Stokes. 

Screw-Steamer Sttrat, between Aden 
and Bombay : 4th March, 1872. 


abalbrouant, 86 

[a]dolti, 32 

ail, 14, 47 

anu, 2, 57,59; pi. enuein, 50, 

archenat, 2.3 

ardomaul, 4.3 

aur, aurcimerdrichetic, lOO 

aurle, 98 

bard, bardaul, 1 

bibid, 85 

bricer, 11 

brouant, 86 

carnotaul, 11 

87, 107 

casulheticc, 72 
cateir, catteiraul, 94 
cenetic, 45 
cerricc, 107 
cimadas, 12, 18 
cimcidrichetic, 100 
cimerdrid, 15 
cimmaetic, 16 
cimmaithuress, 3, 37 
ciph, ciphill, 35 
cipp, 114 


cithremmet, 64 
cleteir, 49 
coil, 4 
coiliaucc, 6 
coll, 40 
comtant, 49 
cors, 38, 74 
crunn, crunnui 
cruunolun, 16 
. custnudieticc, 52 
cutinn, 27 
dagatte, 14 
damcirchiueat, 26 
dattot, dattotimb, 50 
decaul,^;. deccolion, 33 
di, 2, 56, 104 
difrit, 84 
dilein, 82 
dirgatisse, 35 
dissuncgnetic, 10 
ditti, 42 
diu, 47 
doctrin, 83 
dubcnetic, 86 
einepp, 1 
ellethc-tic, 34 



em, 50 

lou, 7 

emid, 13, 101 

luird, 105 

enueiu, 56, (50 

mail, 88 

esicc, 7 

mein, 16 

finn, 77 

mellhion, 40 


mentaul, 64 

fistl, 118 

mi, 56, 112 

flair, fiairmaur, Gf) 

minn, 25, 31 ; pi. 41, 51 

fonn, pi. finn, 73, 77 

morduit, 109 

founaul, 84 

mor, mormeluet, 110 

gablau, 118 

muiss, 99 

trait, 115 

munngued, 4 

gebin, 81 

nat, 62 ' 

glas, 9, 22 
goudon, 5 

nepp, 29 
Bi, 93 

graph, pi. grephiou, 20 

nou, nom, 4, 9, 13, 15, 53, 96 ; nl. 5 

guar, 8 

15,46,49,93,98,107,112 ' 

guard, 92 

nouod, 30 

gueeticc, 38 

nudieticc (?), 52 

guir, 68 

0, 9, 92, 101, 109 

guird, 9, 24 

oid, 62 

guirdglas, 9 

olun (oluin ?), 16 

guoceleseticc, 62 

or, 1, 33, 38,86 


panepp, 29 

gur, 13 

papedpinnac, 89 

hacen, 90 

patupinnacc, 65, 70 

han, 108 

peth, 18 

helcha, 79 

pinnae, 65, 70, 89 * 

hep, hepp, 56, 58, 71 

pipenn, 75 

hmn,sg. 91, pi. 60 

pop, popptu, 65 

hir, hircimerdrid, 15 

poulloraur, 28 

hui, 119 

pressuir, 17 

hun, 42, 112 

reid, 117 

hunnu id, 13 

retteticc, 94 

i. 59 

runtniau, 1 13 

id, 13 

scamell, 116 

iectlim sis, 19 

scribenn, 78 

immisline, 36 

sich, 66 

imniottihiou, 48 

sis, 19 

in, 27, 32 

strotur, 94 

int, 60 

suncguetio, 10 

ir, 4, 11, 13, 28,33, 94 

talcipp, 114 

is, iss, 12, 18, 54, 56, 59, 68, 91 

tant, 49, 120 

issid, 91 

terrain, 103 

it, 13 

ti,jD/. te, 32 
timb, 50 

ithr, 47 

iurgchell, 63 

treb, 8 

(lacladsi ar, laolad da, 42) 

trennid, 30 

le, 98 

trui, 33 

lenn, 21 

tu, 65 

lestr, 39, 55, 61, 69 

tuslestr, 39, 55, 61, 69 

let, leteinepp, 1 

ui, 53 

leuesicc, 7 

uu, hun, 42 

lin, 96 

uncenettic, 45 

lir, 112 

unaul, pi. unolion, 33 

locclau, 35 

uutaut, 44 

locell, 73 


As a starting-point from -whence to guide the curious 
to the Ty Mawr cromlech, m the parish of Lhinfair Pwll 
Gwyngyll, in the county of Anglesey, I may name the 
site of Lord Anglesey's Column, — a much frequented 
spot in summer time on account of the magnihcent view 
it presents of the Carnarvonshire hills in the distance, 
and the Menai Strait in the foreground, winding with 
remarkable beauty between the well wooded pleasure- 
grounds of Plas Newydd and Vaenol, and, sweeping 
beneath its stupendous bridges, looks like a river gleam- 
ing in its course towards Beaumaris Bay. This view, 
so extensive and pleasing, did not escape the notice of 
Pennant, who tells us that he " Avas irresistibly delayed 
at Craig y Ddinas (the rock on which the Anglesey 
monuhient stands) by feasting his eyes with the fine 
view of the noble curvature of the Menai." Craig y 
Ddinas is said to have been fortified, as the name im- 
phes, but the thrl\dng plantations which now envelop 
its sides and shoulders effectually screen from observa- 
tion whatever traces of defensive works may remain. 

Taking this as an accessil^le starting-point, and fol- 
io wmg the road leading thence towards Llandegfan 
Church, as represented on the map, the inquher, 
after a walk of about four furlongs, would find himself 
abreast of a roadside residence called Pant Lodge, on 
the second field beyond which, on the northern side of 
the road, the cromlech remains are to be seen. 

Scant notice has been taken of this small relic by the 
enumerators of our Anglesey antiquities, in consequence, 
we may suppose, of its iiiined and prostrate condition, 
Miss Angharad Lloyd's History of Anglesey and Lewis' 
Tojyograjjhiccd Dictionaryhemg the only works in which 
I have found it mentioned. It is situated on high 
ground with rocky elevations a little to the north, sug- 


gestive of fortifiecl dwellings and enclosures, none of 
Avliicli I was able to trace with certainty, but was in- 
formed that from a field immediately below the rocks 
many hut-foundations had been removed. Of the ori- 
ginal chamber there remain but four stones, the cap- 
stone, two side-supporters, and a low erect slab (2 feet 
high by 3 feet wide), fronting the east, which may indi- 
cate the chamber-entrance. Observers of this class of 
antiquities will have noticed that across the inner access, 
and marking the limit between chamber and gallery, 
there is sometimes a transverse stone set on edge, con- 
tributing in no degree to the support of the roof; on 
the contrary, frequently so low as to leave space for 
some purpose unknown. The slab here referred to may 
have been one of the kind. It now aids in the support 
of the eastern end of the fallen capstone, the prostration 
of which, with the whole structure, may have been occa- 
sioned by the downfall of some of its south-western 
props ; the descent, at one end, of so massive a stone 
causing the overthrow of the other sustaining slabs, 
which do not seem to have been firmly set. The super- 
ficial measure of the upper stone is 1 1 ft. by 8 ft. It is 
2 ft. 3 ins. thick along its north-western side, diminish- 
ing to a thickness of 1 foot at its opposite or south- 
eastern side. The two supporters, which lie partly 
beneath it, measure about 4 ft. by 4 ft., and are rather 
more than 1 ft. thick. When in their erect positions, 
they must have sustained the roof at an elevation of 
3^ or 3f ft. above the chamber-floor, leaving a vacancy 
of If ft. between it and the upper edge of the entrance- 
slab ; a space we may suppose partly filled up, when in 
its perfect state, by the masoniy of the gallery here 
abutting on the chamber. 

Door-stones, imperfectly closing entrances, and hav- 
ing open spaces above them, were frequently used, 
whatever the motive. Whether they were accidentally 
chosen, or whether the object was a greater facility of 
removal in cases of fresh interments, or some such de- 
sign, as perforations were sometimes made in them, as 


exemplified in the closing slab of the tumulus at Plas 
Newydd, is uncertain. Wliat seems to have been one 
of these entrance-stones, but of a kind not easily moved 
at the extremity of a covered gallery, unless by toppling 
it into the chamber (whence, by. reversing the move- 
ment, it might have been restored to its place), may be 
seen at Bodowyr in this county, represented in the 
accompanying sketch. It faces the south-east, and has 
a vacant sjiace between it and the lower edge of the 
capstone, measuring 2 ft. 3 ins. in perpendicular height. 

In the July number of our Journal for the year 1869 
we were favoured with an accurate description and 
drawing of this cromlech ; but the sketch there given 
was from a different point, and selected to illustrate 
another of its characteristics. 

It ma}^ be worthy of notice that, with the exception 
of the unremoved entrance-stone refeiTed to above, we 
have delineated here what some modern writers would 
call a "free-standing dolmen". Unhappily for their 
speculation, there lies, in this instance, on the opposite 
side of the structure, a full-sized slab, which has fallen 
from its position as a part of the chamber wall. If bj 
accident these two witnessing stones had been removed 
(the work of an hour to the present tenant), the up- 
holders of the free-standing dolmen supposition might 
then have urged their opmions Avith confidence. 

The Bodowyr remains being of the tripod class (Llech 
Diybedd, Arch. Carnh., Third Series, No. VI), I take 
the opportunity of briefly referring to the curious cir- 
cumstance that so many capstones are met with in this 
country and elsewhere resting on three supports ; two 
sustaining the broader end, and one the narrower. The 
frec|uent occuiTence of this precise number cannot be 
regarded as foi-tuitous, nor can we view it as a conse- 
quence of the good taste and tender forbearance of 
cromlech-mutilators, but should rather attribute it to 
some design or to some process of construction on the 
part of their builders. If duly considered, it may sug- 
gest to us one of the modes in v/hich large roofing-stones 

.^- -^ 




were raised to their incumbent positions. Many of us 
way have imagined tl^iat with the simple appHances of 
wooden levers, rudely constructed triangles, and the 
wedge still used in our graving-docks to lift ships of 
enormous weight, these stones might have l^een so 
raised and sustained as to enable their builders to erect 
beneath them the I'equired number of props. This 
direct and summary mode of proceeding may have been 
adopted in many instances, especially where the cap- 
stones were small ; but if accepted, as the prevailing- 
system, we would then have to account for the great 
obliquity observable in some of them, such a departure 
from the level and horizontal position in which they 
were raised being somewhat difterent from the result 
we might have expected. Others, and probably the 
greater number of tis, have supposed that these masses 
of stone were moved on rollers up inclined planes to 
their respective resting-places : a theory in favour of 
which it might be argued that the inclination of cap- 
stones so conspicuous, for instance, in the Plas Newydd 
examples, is an indication, and might be adduced as a 
proof that this was the method pursued, the sIojdc of 
the stones corresponding with the supposed inclination 
of the plane up which they had been moved. But even 
this hypothesis, plausible as it appears, has its difficulty 
when we come to reconcile it with our tripod crom- 
lechs, ia respect to which we have to explaia the pro- 
cess by which the stones, when they had reached the 
top of the plane, were moved onward to the points of 
the three principal uprights, and also the reason for the 
selection of this pecidiar number of supports. 

According to the plane and roller system so ably sug- 
gested and described, some years ago, by His Majesty 
Frederick VII, King of Denmark, the chamber-walls 
were in the first instance to be thoroughly completed 
and made ready for the reception of their covers. Had 
this been usually done, it follows that when the cap- 
stones were superimposed, they must have settled 
down, without order or method, on such of the upright 


wall-stones as were most prominent, and offered the 
first and strongest resistance to their pressm-e, — a pro- 
cess not likely to be so uniform in its consequences as 
is now observable in these cromlechs. 

There remains yet another conjecture which I venture 
to put forth for the consideration of members. With 
materials accumulated on the spot, it is possible that 
the first effort of these rude stone builders was to raise 
the broad end of the capstone sufficiently high to receive 
beneath it two substantial pillars of correspondmg 
length, on the tops of which it might have rested in an 
inclined position, i-esembling what has been recently 
called a " demi-dolmen". This completed, and the sup- 
porters made secure, their next movement may have 
been to lift the narrower end of the stone to the height 
reqnu-ed for the insertion of a third prop, often the 
smallest of the three. These three pillars, firmly 
planted and sustaining the full pressure and weight 
of the superimposed slab, would have considerable 
stability. If fairly adjusted and poised, the heavier the 
capstone the more immovably fixed the supporters 
would be. Having proceeded thus far, the side-slabs 
and other wall-stones of the chamber might afterwards 
have been erected and built into the structure, which 
being less firmly set, would naturally be the first to fall 
from their j^laces, and to disappear under the hands of 
a destroyer. 

To carry out this method would have been a small 
matter to the race of architects who in France and 
Algeria succeeded in lifting on end the enonnous men- 
hirs still the admiration of travellers in those countries. 
But whatever the com-se pursued, one thing remains 
tolerably clear, namely, that capstones were in the first 
instance methodically set on three, and sometimes on 
four, principal sustainers not I'eadily shaken or dis- 
placed; which circumstance, combined with the fact that 
their exterior coverings in Wales were iisually of loose 
stones (the chief requisite of the agriculturist even 
when first tracing the bomidary oi" his waste property, 


and one whidi he -would not hesitate to use), may very 
well account for the appearance and condition of our 
tripod cromlechs in the present day. 


Various opinions have from time to time appeared in 
the pages of our Journal as to the meaning of "crom- 
lech". Whilst diflering from each other in the main, 
Avriters in general have agreed in one particular, namely, 
in regarding the term as referrmg especially to the cap- 
stone, and not to the cromlech-structure as a whole, — 
whether correctly so remains to he seen. By some the 
upper stone, however imsuitahle in form and gibhous 
its surface, has been styled an altar; basing their theory 
in no small degree on the signification and supposed 
early origin of a word Avhich, according to the statement 
of many inquirers, claims no greater antiquity than the 
fifteenth or sixteenth century : an assertion which, if 
it cannot be disproved, will dissipate, it is hoped, the 
sacrificial speculations still cherished by a few in con- 
nexion with these monuments. Othei-s have expounded 
it as the grymlech, " the stone of strengih"; the ccerem- 
luacli, or "devoted stone"; the awgrymlecli, or " augu- 
rial stone"; the bending, bowing, or prostrating tomb- 
stone, or the tombstone of worship; the most commonly 
received opinion being that it signifies an inclined, flat 
stone. The latter conjecture is scaxx-ely less objection- 
able than the preceding ones, because, apart from ety- 
mological considerations, it is difficult to suppose the 
framers of the word were so observant of such objects 
as to notice that their capstones were sometimes in- 
clmed, — a residt certainly to be looked for when we 
consider that, usmg unhammered and unwrought mate- 
rials, cromlech-builders had to set up supporters of un- 
equal lengths and incumbent slabs varying in thickness. 

The above explanations being xmsatisfactory, and 
scarcely harmouisuig with the sense in which the word 


Avas primarily used, I venture to suggest another, namely, 
tliat in reference to these remains, and to distinguish 
them from others, "cromlech" once signified a vaulted 
grave in its perfect state. 

Omng to the early use of llechau, or large, flatfish 
stones as pillars, set up singly, to mark the graves of 
distmguished persons, and also their use as coverings 
and protections of the dead, Z?ec/i seems to have acquired 
the signification of a gravestone or a monumental slab ; 
and in many instances of the grave itself, in which 
sense it is still regarded in parts of Ireland. The author 
of Druidism JExhumcd says that in itsGaehc form, leac, 
or leachd, or leacht, it signifies a tombstone; and Edward 
Lhwyd, in his Irish Dictionary, renders Icach " a pile 
of stones in memory of the dead", and leachda, " a lieap 
of stones", also " a grave". 

Of the stone-marked graves in this country there 
seem to have been two kinds : one distinguished by a 
single llech set on end, the other a chambered tomb 
covered over externally by a carnedd, or pile of stones, 
the leaclid of Edward Lhwyd. 

In order to mark the difference between the above 
graves, it is possible that the tumular or chambered 
one was at some unknown period called a cromlech, the 
adjective crom being thoroughly descriptive of its in- 
ternal as well as of its external characteristics (see the 
import of crom in the words cromcn,cromil, crymdwyn, 
etc.). If we take up an ordinary English and Welsh 
dictionary, and look for the word " vault" in it, we find 
amongst its prominent rendermgs, crorngell, cromnen, 
nen gram, etc., words which fairly illustrate one of the 
significations of crom m its compoimd state. From the 
sense here assigned to it we may infer that in combina- 
tion with llech it would signify a vaulted grave ; or, if 
preferred, a vault constmcted of flat stones ; and per- 
haps, more hterally, a flat stone in its position as a hori- 
zontal or a quasi vaulting over a cavity or chamber. 

In an a])le paper on this subject, published in our 
Journal some years ago, the writer states that one of 


tlie earliest occurrences of the word is in George Owen's 
Jlistonj of Pembrokeshire, the date of wliich he fixes at 
about IGOO A.D. That the Avord claims an eai'lier exist- 
ence than the time of this historian, we may gather 
from the circumstance of his having- speculated on its 
meaning, and from his supposition that it ought to be 
Avritten grymlech, "the stone of strength." Its first 
appearance is supposed to have been in Bishop Mor- 
gan's translation of the Bible, 1588 a.d. Whether the 
learned translator had in view the rock-sepulchres and 
excavated chambers of the East when he used the 
■^\\x-A?,e"cromlechydd^ y creigiau" (Jeremiah, xlix, 16, and 
elsewhere), I do not venture to assert ; but may sa,y 
that the sense in which "cromlech" is used by him, viz., 
a caverned recess or hiding-place, either naturally or 
artificially formed, is analogous to the one I am now 
advocating. The cromlech at Bryn Celli Du, when in 
its timiular form, some fifty years ago, was at times 
called by the natives "yr ogof," or the cave. 

Of the early adopters of the name, the Rev. John 
Griffith, of Llanddyfnan, has thrown much light on its 
use in his oft quoted letter to the anticjuary, Robert 
Vaughan of Hengwii:, dated about 1650 A.D., wherein 
he writes, " There is a crooked [I suppose vaulted, in. 
reference to crovi] little cell of stone not far from Alaw, 
where, according to tradition, Bronwen Leu' was buried. 
Such little houses, which are common in this country 
you know, are called by the apposite name, crom- 
lechau." Here we find the chamber, or cavity, or grave 
itself, is appositely called a cromlech. No allusion what- 
ever is made to the capstone apart from the rest of the 
sti-ucture ; the vaulted or quasi vaulted cell of stone 
within, and its tumular covering without, being, in the 
opinion of the writer, suitably described by a name 
compomided of llech and cram. 

When these stone-enveloped graves came to be de- 
nuded, their skeleton chambers, still vaulted in con- 

^ Llecli, we may suppose, was here used in its other signification, 
viz., a "covert" or "hiding-place." 


struction, would naturally retain tlie name "cromlecli", 
an appellation which might finally attach to the cap- 
stone as the most prominent feature. 

Of the llech simple we appear to have had several in 
this county, judging by existing names. Amongst 
others, Llech Gynfarwy Church may be mentioned, on 
a field adjoining which there stood, some years ago, a 
tall llech or maen Mr, which may or may not have 
marked the grave of St. Cynfxrwy. Another of our 
parish churches is called Llech Ylched, or St. Ilched's 
grave. In the vicinity of these churches there are no 
slaty formations, or other geological appearances, which 
might induce a belief that they were so called from any 
circumstance of situation. AVe hear of an erect stone 
in Carmarthenshire, called by the common people Llech 
Eidion {Arch. Camh., new Series, v, 303), the tradition 
being that a saint of that name was buried beneath it. 

In conclusion I may say that, should it be admitted 
that llecli' was ever used to denote a simple grave dis- 
tinguished only by a memorial slab set on end, cromlech 
may well have served to characterise a vaulted tomb 
with its carnedd heaped up above and around it ; such 
monumentaP and protective coverings being general in 
this country, where stones abound. Should a more 
literal sense be demanded, the word apparently means a 
flat stone set as a vaulting (if I may so use the term) or 
a roof, and also a vault constructed of flat stones ; this 

''^ We have good grounds for believing that all stone-marked 
graves were so called up to a certain date. 

- That the carnedd was a monumental as well as a protective pile, 
appears from the following note of William Owen, F.S.A., under the 
word Carnedd: "The carneddau and the tumuli of earth were the 
common monuments that the ancient Britons erected in honour of 
their great men. Which of the two kinds was probably determined 
by the circumstance of the country being stony or otherwise. These 
modes of interment continued in use many ages after the introduc- 
tion of Christianity ; but when the custom of burying in churches 
became general, the former ways were not only disused, but con- 
demned as fit only for the great criminals. When the carnedd was 
considered as the honourable tomb of a warrior, every passenger 
threw bis additional stone out of reverence tohis memory." 

sin RorncuT mansell. 31 

mode of interpretation being almost tlie only one in 
which the seeming contradiction between cro;?;, "curved", 
and Uech, "a flat stone", can be reconciled. Crom, it 
should be remembered, is not used to describe tilings 
angularly crooked. 

It would be gratifying if the above remarks had the 
good effect of stimulating our Welsh scholars to an ex- 
pression of their opinions, and of stirring them up to 
the rescue of an old and familiar name which, owing to 
its presumed want of descriptive meaning, is in a fair 
way of giving place to another, moi'e euphonious it is 
true, but one which has no signification whatever in our 
language. If fairly interpreted and understood, it 
would tend to establish the sepulchral nature and origin 
of cromlech monuments, instead of being, since the days 
of Rowlands, a source of many theories, most of them 
unfavourable to the Di'uid, on whose shoulders archaeo- 
logists have sought a ready escape from their cromlech 

Hugh Peichaed. 


Sir Robert Mansell, Knt., Yice-Admiral of England, 
Treasurer of the Navy, and Member of Parliament for 
the coimty of Glamorgan, is probably the ablest and 
most distinguished public man whom that county has 
produced. He was the fourth son of Sir Edwai-d Man- 
sell, of Margam, and Lady Jane Somerset, and displayed 
much of the mental activity, personal courage, and taste 
for mechanical pursuits, which shone so conspicuously 
in the second Marquis of Worcester, his mother's great- 
nephew, and, towards the latter part of his career, his 
own contemporary. 

Sir Robert followed the profession of the sea, and 
w^on early distinction in arms. He served in several 


expeditions, and commanded in one; and on shore he 
was an able administrator of naval affairs during the 
reigns of Elizabeth, James, and Charles. In Parliament, 
where he sat during the greater part of his mature life, 
he was listened to as an authority on navy matters ; 
and though, with his relations on both sides, a zealous 
royalist, lie dared to speak his mind freely, and to 
oppose the favourite, Buckingham, in his mad career. 
He passed, not unchallenged, but with proven purity, 
through a position of great pecuniary temptation ; and 
in an age when official honesty was sufficiently rare, 
and having had the spending of many thousands of 
pounds of public money, he lived and died a man of 
moderate means. 

To him also is to be attributed, not, indeed, the ori- 
ginal invention, but the first active employment of coal 
as fuel in the manufacture of glass, and a very consider- 
able development of that useful manufacture. He held, 
under the mischievous system then prevalent, a patent 
of monopoly of this mantifacture, under which he erected 
glass-works in Broad Street, London, at Purbeck, on 
the Trent, at Milford Haven, and finally at Newcastle 
on Tyne, where alone the manufacture really flourished, 
and of which port it has ever since remained a staple. 
In his own county his name and services have been 
suff'ered to fall into complete oblivion ; and though his 
portrait is still preserved in the house of his fathers, 
neither in his case nor in that of Sir Thomas Button, 
his celebrated contemporary a^nd kinsman, have the cor- 
porations of their native ports of Swansea and Cardiff" 
shown any interest in their fame, or any desire to pos- 
sess representations of their most, if not their only, dis- 
tinguished citizens. 

Sir Edward Mansell died 5 August, 1585, aged fifty- 
four, and lies buried at Margam. Lady Jane died 
16 October, 1597, and is also there buried. They had 
eighteen sons and fom- daughters. Thomas, the eldest, 
succeeded. Rice was a captam in the army, and was 
killed in Ireland. Francis founded the line of the Man- 


sells, baronets, of ]\Iuddlescombe. Anthony, the fifth 
son, of Trimsarau, seems, from the State Papers, to have 
been concerned, in 1631, in concerting measures for the 
relief of the poor. Philip founded a branch at Henllys, 
of which was Colonel Edward Mansell in 1685. Of 
Harry nothing is recorded. Charles, a captain, was 
killed in Ireland. Christopher and AVilliam are un- 
known. Of the daughters, Ehzabeth married Sir Walter 
Pice of Newton or Dynevor. Cecil married Sir Richard 
Williams of Llangibby. Mary married Christopher Tur- 
berville of Penllin, sherift' of Glamorgan, 1615; and 
Ann married Edward Carne of Nash. 

Sir Edward was the second possessor of ]\Iai-gam, 
which had been purchased from the Cro^\•n on easy 
terms by his father. Sir Eice. He sat in Pai'liament for 
Glamorgan, and won distinction as a soldier in the 
great reign of Ehzabeth. 21 Sept., 1572, he was 
knighted, and was active in mustering the forces of the 
county, of which he was sheriff in 1575. His name 
appears in the Domestic State Papers of the reign, 
chiefly connected with local matters, as in a commission 
of piracy, rebuilding Cardiff Bridge, and claims of right 
of wreck upon his shore, about the mouth of the Avon, 
in which he held his own against the someAvhat over- 
bearing claims of the Earl of Pembroke. 

Sir Robert seems to have been born about 15 73, and 
probably Avas sent early to sea. The inducement to 
enter that profession was, no doubt, the connexion of 
his family with Lord Howard of Effingham, whose 
mother, a Gamage of Coytty, Avas of kin to the Mansells, 
and who Avas then Lord High Admiral of England, and, 
Avhich that office did not always imply, a seaman. His 
first recorded ser\-ice was at the siege of. Cadiz in 1596, 
Avhere he served under the Earl of Essex and Lord 
HoAvard, and Avhere Sir Walter Raleigh commanded a 
division of the fleet. This expedition Avas remarkable 
for the number of men of rank Avho served in it as 
volunteers. Whether he commanded a ship does not 
appear, but he received knighthood at the hand of 


Essex ; ^^'llO, liowever, was thought, Avith tlie other com- 
manders, to have bestowed that honour with too free a 
hand. He was then about twenty-three years old. 
Probably the Queen herself confirmed this particular 
honour on his return, for in the account of the Queen's 
progresses he is Siiid to have been knighted by Her 
Grace in 1596. 

In June, 1.597, he was employed, under Essex, as cap- 
tain of the Earl's own ship, in the imfortunate expedi- 
tion intended to hariy the ports of Spain. Early in 
1599 he was in command of three ships about to be 
despatched to the coast of Ireland. Here he probably 
remained, for 29 Aug., 1600, the reason assigned for 
keeping Sir Robert Leveson in the narrow seas is that 
" Sir Robert Mansell is but weak." 

10 Oct., John Chamberlayn writes to Dudley Carle- 
ton that " Sir Robert Mansfeld and Sir John Haydon, 
two Norfolk knights, have slain each other at tilt with 
their rapiers. One had six wounds, and the other four." 
And 15 Oct., " I hear that the Norfolk knights are not 
dead, though they had double the nrunber of wounds 
reported." This seems to refer to Sir Ft. IMansell, who 
is on other occasions called Mansfeld or Mansfield, as 
was his ancestor, Sir Rice; though how he comes to be 
called a Norfolk knight is vmknown. However, in Nov., 
1603, SirW. Wood writes, "Lord Cecil says he sujaposes 
Sir Rob. Mansfeld is in Norfolk." Heydon was about, 
and in trouble, as one of Essex's followers, in Feb., 1601. 

Some connexion with Norfolk he, however, had, for 
he was returned to Parliameiit for King's Lynn in 1601, 
when he was employed in guarding the English coast. 
While thus engaged he was foi-tunate enough, off the 
Soutli Foreland, to intercept the Spanish ships under 
Spinola, which had escaped from the attack on Zizambra 
by Lewis and Monson, and were in retreat for Flanders. 
For this service Elizabeth, though so sparing of honour, 
named him, at the close of her reign. Admiral of the 
Narrow Seas, and Yice-Admiral of the Fleet. 

His favour under the great Queen was continued 


imder her successor. In 1603, soon after James' arrival, 
Sir Jerome Turner and Sir Robert Mansell recei\'ed 
orders to escort from Calais and Gravelines the ambas- 
sadors of France and Spain coming on a visit of congra- 
tulation to the new sovereign. The great Sully, the 
French ambassador, ordered the Vice -Aclmiral of France 
to hoist the French flag. This was contrary to the 
claim of England to the sovereignty of the narrow seas, 
and Sir Robert ordered the flag to be struck, under a 
threat of firing upon the ship. Sully, or rather de 
Rosny, gave way, but complained to James of tlie arro- 
gant conduct of his admiral. In this year also, 15 Nov., 
he had the charge of Sir Walter Raleigh from London, 
to be tried at Winchester. 

In 1603 he sat for the county of Carmarthen, pro- 
bably by the interest of his kinsmen at Dynevor and 
Muddlescombe ; backed, no doubt, by the' popularity 
due to his naval successes. It appears that he had 
taken prizes, for 20 Jan., 1604, was issued a commission 
to the Lord Treasurer and others " to dispose of the 
goods taken in the late carrack, and of certain pepper 
taken by Su- R. Mansell." 

• 20 April, 1604, he had a grant of the treasurership 
of the navy for life, on surrender of Sir Fulk Greville. 
1.5 IMay, a warrant dormant was issued in his favour 
for £10,000 annually, for repaii'S of ships in harbour; 
and a warrant, next day, for £2,941 : 7 : 3, for general 
j^urposes as Treasurer; and a warrant dormant for a 
sum unspecified, for the charges 'of ships appointed to 
guard the narrow seas, the Thames, and the Medway. 
IS May he had a warrant for £766 10s. " for chai-ge of 
the Tramontana serving on the coast of Ireland." 

In 1605 the Vice- Admiral accompanied Essex, then 
High Admiral, to the "Groyne," as Corunna was then 
called by the English ; and thence went with him, by 
land, to Valladolid, to receive the Spanish King's oath to 
observe the recent treaty of London. While the embassy 
was at Corunna, the Spaniards were suspected of pur- 
loining the plate sent by their government to do honour 


to tlie English visitors. Sir Eobeit, on the watch, 
soon afterwards, at a grand entertainment, detected a 
Spanish guest in the act of putting some of the silver 
into his bosom. He rose, took the S2:)aniard to where 
sat the grandees of his nation, and then and there shook 
him violently till the plate tumbled out. The same per- 
sonal boldness was displayed by him at .Valladolid, 
where he pursued a thief of some rank into the house 
of an alguazil, and by force recovered a jewel stolen from 
his person. 

In 1605-G he was a combatant in Ben Jonson's 
masque of Hymen. He and Su' Lewis Mansell took the 
side of Truth against Opinion. Su Lewis was eldest son 
of Sir Thomas, and succeeded as baronet in 1626. At 
this period Sir Robert's name begms frequently to 
appear in the State Papers. 11 Jan., 1606, he and Sir 
J. Trevor recommend Capt. Christ. Newport for a rever- 
sion of the office of Mastei', which was granted. In 
Aug., 1606, he attends the King of Denmark to his own 
country, in command of the Vanguard and another ship. 

His boldness and probably a rough naval temper pro- 
voked not a few enemies. 24 Feb., 1608, he. Sir J. 
Trevor, and Phineas Pett, were charged with " freight- 
ing the ship Resistance from the King's stores, in March 
1605, selling the goods for their own gain, and then 
claiming wages, etc., for then- voyage, as though she 
had gone in the King's service." A commission was 
engaged seven years in sifting this charge, which com- 
pletely broke down, and " the proud Welshman," as he 
was called, passed unchallenged for the future.^ The 
charge seems scarcely to have been regarded as serious, 
for he continued to hold office, and the money- warrants 
were issued to his credit as before. 15 May, 1610, he 
had a warrant for £8,476 : 9 : 8, to be delivered to cer- 

1 A charge connected with this was brought against Pett as mas- 
ter shipwright, and heard by James himself, 8 May, 1609, the Earl 
of Nottingham, High Admiral, being in attendance. Sir Robert, 
Pett, Capt. Button, and others, were attacked. " The good old lady, 
Mrs. Mansell, was present with Mrs. liutton." 


tain agents for the Muscovy mercliants, " for cordage 
delivered into the storehouses at Deptford." Also, 
24 Nov., he had "£2,500 for finishing the new ship 
called The Prince Rotjal, in addition to £6,000 formerly 
advanced ; and by another payment, "£3,481 : 3 : 11 for 
caliles and cordage." In the autumn of this year pre- 
parations were making for the launch of Pett's great 
ship at Deptford. In this Sir Robert took a very active 
interest. 1 9 Sept. we find him dining with Pett at his 
lodging, and on the 23rd Sir Robert entertains the 
Admiral in his own lodging at Deptford. The launch 
took place at the end of September, Prince Henry being 
on board. 

In April, 1611, Prince Henry, attended by Sir Robert 
Mansell, Sir Oliver Cromwell (" the Golden Knight"), 
and others, inspected the ships at Chatham. 

26 July, 1612, Sir Robert appears as a member of the 
Muscovy and East India Company for discovering the 
North- West Passage, then incorporated under the aus- 
pices of Prince Henry. In April, 1610, they had sent 
out Hendrick Hudson. With Sir Robert occur the 
names of William Earl of Pembroke and two Glamor- 
ganshire commoners, Sir Edward Lewis of Van and 
Capt. Thomas Button. They were to enjoy for ever the 
exclusive trade into the North- West Passage, defined 
as extending from the heacUand of Greenland, called 
" Cape Desolation," and the cape or headland of Ame- 
rica, called "Labrador." They sent out Capt. William 
Button, a Glamorganshii'e man, in 1612, to " perfect the 

11 Feb., 1613, Sir Robert appears as commander of 
the mock fights on the Thames, arranged between him 
and the High Admii-al, and representing the town and 
ports of Algiers, in honour of the approaching marriage 
of the Princess Elizabeth to the Palatine. " Sir R. 
Mansell," says Pett, possibly with a touch of satire, " is 
chief commander, who takes gi'eat pains, and, no doubt, 
will do his best to show his ability." This office, how- 
ever, did not prevent him from being in opposition to 


the court, and on the 10th of June lie was committed 
to the Marshalsea fov animating the Lord Admiral 
against a commission to reform abuses in the navy. 
With him was also committed Whitelock, for declaring 
the commission illegal, and speaking against the author- 
ity of the Marshalsea court. AVhitelock was employed 
by Sir llobert as counsel. 12 June, the matter came 
before the Council, when the offenders submitted thein- 
selves in writing, and next day were admonished, libe- 
rated, and restored to favour. Sir Robert, however, 
was above a fortnight in the INIarshalsea. 

In 1614 he again sat for Carmarthenshire ; and 
1 June, 1615, was a grant to Philip, Earl of Montgomery, 
Sir Thomas Howard, Sir Robert Mansell, Sir Edward 
Zouch, and others, of all glasses forfeited for being im- 
ported contrary to the recent proclamation. 

In Nov., 1616, he was about to marry IMrs. Elizabeth 
Ropei", the Queen's woman, " or antient, or maid of 
honour"; and the King gave him £10,000, and the 
Queen the wedding feast at Denmark House, and a fair 
cupboard of plate. They had also other good and rich 
presents from friends. She seems to have been a mem- 
ber of the Teynham family, probably a daughter or 
sister of the then lord. The marriage took place 
15 March, 1617. The attachment seems to have been 
an old one, as she is spoken of as his "old mistresse." 
Later in the year he made an application concerning 
the timber and plant at Woolwich. 

There is a curious lettej- in the Fortescue Papers 
(Camden Soc, p. 31), dated 14 Nov., 1617, from Sir 
Thomas Lake to the Earl of Buckingham : "In the 
navy we concluded yesterday with Sir Robert Mansell 
upon his offer that, if he might have ten thousand 
pounds presently. His Majesty should save six hundred 
pounds a month for ever, which is about seven thousand 
pounds by year ; and the mystery was not great, though 
it hath been long in suspense, for it was no more but 
where H. M. keepeth now continually at seas seven 
ships and pinnaces, he should keep but four, and dis- 


charge the rest, -wliich this ten thousand pounds must 
full pay for their service past. But we have oixlered he 
shall have the money." This, however, has nothing to 
do with the royal marriage gift. Here the £10,000 
were for service purposes only, to pay otf the crews no 
longer needed. 

In 1618 Sir Pdchard Sutton and Francis Gofton 
" have received the accoimts of Sir R. Mansell for the 
last five years, and will make them up as soon as pos- 
sible." Soon after was "an order for the searching the 
books for the sums issued to Sir E. Mansell as treasurer 
of the navy, in the Easter terms of 1617, 1618." This 
audit was_ to enable Sir Eobert to sell his office of Trea- 
surer, wliich he did, in ]\Iay following, to Sir William 
Eussell, a Muscovy merchant. 1 4 May he had a grant 
of the Lieutenancy of the Admiralty of England, void 
by the death of Sir- E. Leveson ; and he took a legal 
opinion, that he could not be deprived save for misde- 
meanour in the execution of the office. 3 1 July, certain 
sums due are paid to him, " notwithstanding his sur- 
render." The sums seem to have been the balance of 
£28,121, formerly assigned for building the Elizaheth, 
Triumph, Rainbow, and Antelope. 29 Sept. an account 
is rendered of all sums paid to Sir Eobert for ships in 
harbour from Oct., 1611, to 9 Feb., 1617-18 ; also for 
ships in the narrow seas, from 30 April, 1612, to Sept., 
1618; also for the narrow seas, cordage, etc., and trans- 
porting the Lady Elizabeth and the Bishop of Orkney, 
fetching in pii'ates, etc.; also from 5 May, 1617, to 
9 Sept., 1618, for moneys paid him. 

4 Nov., the commissioners of the navy request that 
the £900 per month paid for cordage, and the arrears 
of Sir E. Mansell's last account, may be applied to pay 
discharged workmen, and for other named purposes. 
21 Nov. they complam that Sir Eobert, instead of the 
promised ledger and vouchers, has merely sent in an 
imcertified abstract of his payments, 1613-1618, and no 
account of his receipts. 

10 Dec. he is deep in glass-making. The State 


Papers contain various entries on this subject during 
the reign of Elizabeth. In 15G7 it was adiuitted that 
Englishmen did not make good glass. That and pottery 
were then manufactiu-ed by Cornelius de Lannoy. Tw^o 
years later Briet and Cari-e were recommended to Cecil 
by the Vidame of Chartres, as seeking permission to 
erect glass-w'orks in London similar to those at Venice. 
They probably had permission, for in 15 6S Becque and 
Quarre apply for wood for charcoal from Windsor Park, 
and in 1574 mention is made of the Frenchmen in Eng- 
land who make glass. 

In 1592 Sir Jerome Bowes had a hcence to make 
drinking-glasses for twelve years, on tlie expiration of 
a term of twenty-one years held by James Verselyne, 
at a rent of one hundred marks. Bowes was alive and 
active in 1613, and his company Avas opposed by a 
rival company also with a patent held by Sir Edward 
Zouch. Bowes was ofFerecl, and refused, £1,000 per 
ann. if he would retire. Lord Coke advised the grant- 
ing a new patent to Zouch, and the reserving the 
oflered annuity, which he thought must be accepted. 
In Oct., 1014, it appears "that tine Merchant Adventu- 
rers' Company is dissolved, and the patent for making 
glasses is given up in favour " of those who undertake 
to make them with Scotch coal." Then comes a pro- 
clamation, 23 May, 1615, "for making glass with sea 
and pit coal only, prohibiting the use of wood on account 
of the waste of timber; also prohibiting the import of 
foreign glass." This was the introduction of Sir Piobert's 
patent, which, as has been stated, included Zouch and 
others. Sir Jerome Bowes was removed by death in 
1616, 27 March, having on the preceding I7th accepted 
a charge of £600 per ann. out of the new patent, in 
compensation for his rents under the old one. Probably 
the monopoly was more or less evaded, for 4 May, 1618, 
Sir Robert requests that Paul Vinion and Peter Corn- 
ley, glass-makers, imprisoned on his complaint for mak- 
ing glass with wood, may be released on bond not to 
repeat the ofience; and on 10th Dec. he petitions the 

sn; rvOBEUT maxsell. 41 

Council for aid to suppress all existing glass-furnaces, 
and imprison all ofteuders wlio infringe his patent. To 
quicken the Council, he hints that he vrill be otherwise 
unable to pay the £1,000 rent to the King and the 
£1,800 to his copatentees who have resigned ; so that 
he was working the patent alone, much to the surprise 
of his well-wishers. "I marvel," said King James, 
" that Robert Mansell, who has won so much honour 
on the water, should meddle with fire." 

"Quod vult, valde vult" says the Mansell motto, and 
Sir Robert seems to have acted np to it. He employed 
the well known James Howell, whose letters have passed 
through so many editions, as travelling manager for 
the new manufactory which was already ojDened in 
Broad Street, London. Howell was abroad from 1618 
to 1621, and visited Holland, Flanders, France, Spain, 
and Italy, reporting freely to Sir- Robert. His first 
letter, dated "1 JMarch, 1618, Broad St.," explains his 
business to his father. " The main of my employment 
is from that gallant knight. Sir Robert Mansell, who 
with my Lord of Pembroke and divers others of the 
prime lords of the court, have got a patent for making- 
all sorts of glass with pit-coal, only to save those huge 
proportions of w^ood which were consumed formerly in 
the glass-furnaces ; and this business being of that 
nature that the workmen are to be had from Italy, and 
the chief materials from Spain, France, and other foreign 
countries, there is need of an agent abroad for this use ; 
and better than I have offered their service in this 
kind; so that I believe I shall have employments in all 
these countries before I return." 

In the same year he writes to Dr. Mansell, probably 
from London : "Your honourable uncle. Sir Robert 
Mansell, who is now in the Mediterranean, hath been 
very notable to me, and I shall ever acknowledge a good 
part of my education from him. He hath melted vast 
sums of money in the glass-business, a business, indeed, 
more proper for a merchant than a coui-tier. I heai'd 
the King should say that he wondered Robin Mansell, 


being a seaman, whereby he hath got so much lionour, 
shoiilcl fell from water to tamper with fire, which are 
tAvo contrary elements. My father fearS' that this glass 
employment will be too brittle a foundation for me to 
build a fortune upon; and Sir Eobert being now, at my 
coming back, so far at sea, and his return uncertain, 
my father hath advised me to hearken after some other 

After a short stay in London he was succeeded by 
Capt. Francis Bacon. The workmen employed were 
chiefly Venetians. Howell, being a Jesus man, wrote 
occasionally to Dr. Francis Mansell, Head of that Col- 
lege, and Sir Robert's nephew. He wrote also to Capt. 
Bacon in 1619. From Middleburgh he wrote "by 
Signer Antonio Miotti, who was master of a crystal 
glass-furnace here a long time; and, as I have it by good 
mtelligence, he is one of the ablest and most knowing- 
men for the guidance of a glass-work in Christendom ; 
therefore, according to my instructions, I send him over, 
and hope to have done Sir Robert good service thereby." 
From Alicant, 27 March, 1G21, he writes: "lam to 
send hence a commodity called ' barillia' to Sir Robert 
Mansell, for making of crystal glass ; and I have treated 
with Signer Andriotti, a Genoa merchant, for a good 
sound parcel of it, to the value of £2,000, by letters of 
credit from Master Richaut....This ' barillia' is a strange 
kind of vegetable, and it grows nowhere upon the sur- 
face of the earth in that perfection as here. The Vene- 
tians have it hence, and it is a commodity whereby this 
maritime town doth partly Subsist, for it is an ingre- 
dient that goes to the making of the best Castile soap. 
It grows thus. 'Tis a round, thick, eai-thy shrub that 
bears hemes like barberries, betwixt blue and green. 
It lies close to the ground; and when it is ripe, they 
dig it up by the roots, and put it together in cocks, 
where they leave it to dry many days, like hay. Then 
they make a pit of a fathom deep in the earth, and 
with an instrument like one of our prongs they take the 
tufts and put fire to them ; and when the flame comes 


to the berries, they melt and dissolve into an azure 
liquor, and fall down into the joit till it be full ; then 
they draw it up, and some days after they open it, and 
find this bar illia-j nice turned to a blue stone so hard 
that it is scarce malleable. It is sold at one hundred 
crowns a tun, but I had it for less. There is also a 
spurious flower, called ' guzuU,' that grows here ; but 
the glass that's made of that is not so resplendent or 

Meantime, while Howell was active abroad, the glass- 
makers, injured by the new patent, were moving at 
home. 10 Jan., 1619, Paul Vinion asked to be allowed 
to work up his stock of materials for glass-making laid 
in before the proclamation; and he offers to pay Sir 
Robert for the jjermission, or to sell him his materials. 
There appears, however, to be something behind, for 
Sir Robert states that Vinion's petition for licence to 
make drinking-glasses would injure his patent, and is 
founded on fallacious statements. Sir Robert appears 
to have been sent sriddenly to sea, probably to protect 
the narrow seas, for the cori'espondence is continued by 
Capt. Bacon and Lady Mansell. Brand is of opinion 
that the first glass-works established on the Tyne were 
set up in this year by Sir R. Mansell. 

In 1619 Sir Robert was a canopy -bearer at the 
Queen's funeral. 

One of Howell's letters is addressed to Sir Robert 
from Venice, and is worth transcription : 

To the HonUe. Sir Robert Mansell, Vice-Admiral of England. 
Venice, 30th May, 1621. 

SiK, — As soon as I came to Venice I apply'd myself to dis- 
patch your business, according to instructions, and Mr. Seymor 
was ready to contribute his best furtherance. These two Italians, 
who are the bearers hereof, by report here are the best gentle- 
men-workmen that ever blew crystal. One is ally'd to Antonio 
INIiotti, the other is cousin to Mazalao. For other things, they 
sliaU be sent in the ship Lion, which rides here at Malamocco, 
as 1 shall send you account by conveyance of Mr. Symns. Here- 
with 1 have sent a letter to you from Sir Henry Wotton, the 


Lord Ambassador here, of whom I have received some flivours. 
He wished me to write tliat you have now a double interest in 
him ; for wliereas before he was only yom- 'servant, he is now 
your kinsman by your late marriage. 

I was lately to see the arsenal of Venice, one of the worthiest 
things in Christendom. They say theire are as many gallies and 
galeasses of all sorts, belonging to St. INIark, either in course, at 
anchor, in dock, or upon the careen, as there be days in the 
year. Here they can build a compleet galley i]i half a day, and 
put her afloat in perfect equipage, having all the ingredients 
fitted before hand ; as they did in three hours when Henry III 
passed this way to France from Poland, who wish'd that, besides 
Paris and his I'arliament towns, he had this arsenal in exchange 
for three of his chiefest cities. There are 300 peojjle perpetually 
here at work ; and if one comes young, and grows old in St. 
Mark's service, he hath a pension from the state durijig life. 
Being brought to see one of the Clarissimos that govern this 
arsenal, this huge sea storehouse, among other matters reflecting 
upon England, he was saying that if Cavaglier Don Eoberto 
Mansel were here, he thought verily the public would make a 
proffer to him to be admiral of that fleet of gallies and galeons 
which are now going against the Duke of Ossuna and the forces 
of Naples, you are so well known here. 

I was, since I came hither, in ]\Iurano, a little island about 
the distance of Lambeth from London, where crystal glass is 
made, and 'tis a rare sight to see a whole street where on the one 
side there are twenty fm-naces together at work. They say here, 
although one should transplant a glass-furnace from IMm-ano to 
Venice herself, or to any of the little assembly of islands about 
her, or to any other part of the earth besides, and use the same 
materials, the same workmen, the same fuel, the self-same ingre- 
dients every way, yet they cannot make crystal glass in that 
perfection, for beauty and lustre, as in jNIurano. Some impute 
it to the quality of the circumambient air that hangs o'er the 
place, which is purified and alternated by the concurrence of so 
many fires that are in those furnaces night and day perpetually, 
for they are like the Vestal fire which never goes out. And it 
is well known that some airs make more qualifpng impressions 
than others, as a Greek told me in Sicily of the air of Egypt, 
where there be huge common furnaces to hatch eggs by the 
thousands in camel's dung ; for dming the time of hatching, if 
the air happen to come to be overcast, and grows cloudy, it spoils 
all ; if the sky continue stUl, serene, and clear, not one egg in a 
hundred will miscarry. 

I met with CamUlo, your consaorman, here lately ; and could 


lio be siu-e of enteitainment.lie -would return to serve you again, 
and, I believe, for less salary. 

I shall attend your commands herein by the next, and touch- 
ing other particulars whereof I have written to Captain Bacon. 
So 1 rest, etc. J. H. 

1 June, 1G21, he writes to his brother also from 
Venice, and says : " Smce I came to this town I dis- 
patched sundry businesses of -good value for Sir Robei-t 
JMansell, which I hope will give content. The art of 
glass-making here is very highly valued, for whosoever 
be of that profession are gentlemen ipso facto ; and it 
is not without reason, it being a rare kind of knowledge 
and chemistry to transmute dust and sand, etc." 

He sends Dr. F. Mansell a copy of sapphics from 
Venice, 1G21. 


The circle of upright stones in the parish of Duloe, 
Cornwall, about eleven chains to the north-east of the 
church, is not so well known to archaeologists as many 
others in the same county. Perhaps this may result 
from its situation in a district which is seldom visited 
by tourists and curiosity-hunters. Borlase does not 
appear to have been aware of its existence, for he takes 
no notice of it in his work on the Antiquities of Cor n- 
ivall, published in the last century: indeed, its position 
seems never to have been described until about the 
year 1823, when Mr. Thomas Bond, who held the office 
of town clerk at Looe (only a few miles distant), find 
who was well acquainted with the whole of this district, 
gave a brief notice of it in his history of that now dis- 
franchised boroiigh. He merely observes that " at a 
short distance (about north-east) from Duloe Church 
there is a circle of stones supposed to have been fonaed 
by the Druids. It consists of seven or eight stones, 
one of which is about 9 feet high ; four of the others 


are upright ; but tlie remainder :ire either broken or 
concealed by a hedge which di\ddes the circle, part bemg 
in a field, and part in an orchard."^ 

The present appearance of the chcle does not exactly 
agree with the above description, inasmuch as the inter- 
secting hedge has been removed, and the stones now 
lie in the corner of a field. The removal of this hedge 
(a barbai'ous addition of "comparatively recent times) 
was very wisely undertaken by the Rev. T. A. Bewes 
of Plymouth, the owner of the farm on which the circle 
stands, in order to show the plan of this group of stones 
to a greater advantage. An attempt was also made to 
raise one of the stones which had apparently fallen, the 
north-north-west, and largest stone of the circle ; but 
in the absence of proper appliances, and partly, no 
doubt, owing to the brittle nature of the white quartz 
or spar of which the stones are composed, it broke in 
two, and had to be left prostrate as before. This took 
place about the year 1861;' and at the same time an 
interesting discovery was made by one of the workmen, 
which will be fully noticed presently. The extent and 
general aspect of the circle claim our first consideration. 

There are now at Duloe seven stones in an upright 
position, besides the large monolith which was broken 
in two under cii-cumstances already noticed, and which 
lies in a hole on the north -north-westei'u boundary. 
These stones are all arranged in the form of a circle, 
with a diameter of 36 feet from north to south, and 
35 feet 6 inches from east jto west, and are placed at 
various distances from each other, some being more 
than 12 feet, and others httle more than 4 feet apart. 
Their exact relative distances can easily be ascertained 
by means of the scale annexed to the accompanying- 
plan (see Plate), which has been constructed from care- 
ful measiu'ements.^ The size as well as the shape of 

1 Bond's History of East and West Looe, pp. 121-22. 

- Incorrectly stated to be 18G3 in Lake's Hisionj of Cornwall, vol. i, 
p. 308. 

^ By an oversight, the arrow on the plan points to tlie north-west 
instead of to due uorih. 


each pillar also varies, though all have a tendency, more 
or less, to taper towards the top. The highest is 9 feet 
ahove the turf, and the lowest 3 feet. The relative 
heights of the diftereut stones will be seen at a glance 
by referring to the Plate. It is interesting to observe 
that the plane or smooth side of each stone faces the 
centre of the ch'cle, an aiTangement which could hardly 
have been accidental. 

It will be seen from the foregoing remarks that the 
Duloe megaliths form a very characteristic example of 
what may be called a monolithic cu'cle, or a circle formed 
of single stones placed at various intervals. It re- 
minded me much of the "Nine Stones" at Winterbourne 
Abbas in Dorsetshire, the stones being very similarly 
shaped, though in the latter example the area enclosed 
has only a diameter of about 25 feet. The circles at 
Boscawen-im, Boskednan, and Rosemoddress (Dawns 
JNIeu) in the Land's End district, are of much larger 
size, and for that reason they cannot be well compared 
with the circular group of stones at Duloe. Moreover, 
tlie latter stands in a country rich and well cidtivated, 
whereas the others lie in a bleak and rock-strewn neigh- 
bourhood w^here the contrast in viewing a circle of up- 
right pillai's is not so great. Indeed, it is not too much 
to say that there are few archaic monuments of this 
class that will repay a visit more than this little circle 
at Duloe. The estate on which it is situate is called 
" Stonetown," evidently from these erect memorials, 
which foiTQ, as might be imagined, quite an anticjuarian 
landmark. The country here attams a considerable ele- 
vation, being 440 feet above the sea-level. 

We have seen that a hedge formerly intersected the 
circle at Duloe, and that when removed, about 1861, an 
attempt was made to raise one of the stones that had 
fallen. A few words must now be said on the interest- 
ing discovery that was made on that occasion. In the 
course of digging around the fallen or north-north-west 
stone of the circle a cinerary urn was brought to Light 
by one of the workmen. This ancient vessel w-as found 


at a depth of about 3 feet ; not beneath, but buried in 
the loose eaiih by the side of the stone. Unfortunately, 
as is too frequently the case under similar circiun- 
stances, the urn was broken by the blow of a pick before 
the workman knew what it was.- So small were most 
of the frag-ments into which it was shivered, that they 
were not considered woi-th preserving, with the excep- 
tion of the largest piece, which was sent to Mr. Bewes, 
who still retains it in his possession. The, urn, at 
the time of its discovery, is said to have been full of 
human bones, some of which were entire, and measured 
3 inches in length ; but they quickly crumbled to pieces 
on exposure to the air. From an estimation based on 
the appearance of the fragment preserved, the diameter 
of the urn at its mouth would seem to have been about 
S inches ; and this is curiously confirmed by the state- 
ment of a man who was present at the finding, and who 
told me, when I visited the circle a few months since, 
that the mm measured, so far as he could recollect, 
about 7 or 8 inches across at the mouth. This solitary 
fragment i.s about 3 inches long, and about the same 
in width, and formed a portion of the upper half of 
the vessel, one of the ears or cleats bemg distinctly 
visible, as Avell as a pai-t of the rim. The ornamentation 
encircling the top of the m-n was of a simple character, 
rudely made notches being cut at intervals of about half 
an inch. Below there are further markings, apparently 
made with a pointed instrument, and carried round the 
urn in a wavy line. The ear is likewise ornamented 
with rudely cut notches. 

The pottery is of a light brown colour externally; 
but where fractured it has a blackish appearance, except 
at the broken part of the ear, where it shows a brick- 
red tint. The inside of the nrn is of the same brown 
colour as the exterior, and does not appear at all black- 
ened. The average thickness of the vessel was about 
half an inch.^ 

' To the Rev. T. A. Bewes of Plymouth, who kindlj' sent me the 
fragment of the urn for inspection, nnd also to the Rev. Paul P)Ush, 


This discovery is very interesting from several points 
of view. Apai-t. from its bearing on the use of the 
Duloe circle individually, the finding of an urn in prox- 
imity to a monument of this kind excites further atten- 
tion when we consider the close resemblance many other 
circles- bear to this Cornish example. But it is not my 
intention to discuss here whether it was customary to 
erect circles of upright stones for sacred or sepulckral 
purposes, or occasionally, it may be, with both these 
objects in view. It will be sufficient to observe that, 
whatever the uses to which some of the circular arrange- 
ments of stones that are found scattered throughout 
the country may have been applied, the present disco- 
very would seem to show that the Duloe circle either 
marks the place of sepulture of some notable personage 
who lived in the remote past, or represents a family or a 
tribal burying-place. If erected for the latter purpose, 
the examination of the ground adjacent to some of the 
stones where the soil has not been lately disturbed, 
woiild very probably lead to the discover}^ of further 

traces of sepulture. On my recent visit to the circle I was 
informed that a considerable quantity of charcoal was 
found within the enclosure when the bisecting hedge 
was removed, and that much still remains beneath the 

rector of Duloe, who has furuished me with several interesting facts 
connected with the discovery, I would take this opportunitj- of i-e- 
turning my sincere thanks. 

4T1I FER., vol. IV. ■* 


turf. This ^YOuld seem to be almost conclusive evidence 
that a funeral pyre had been lit on tliis very spot.Avhile 
the discovery of an urn with bones therfein, by the side 
of the large"st stone of the cu'cle, has shown that the 
calcined remains were afterwards gathered together and 
carefully deposited under ground. Judging from the 
rude character of the markings on tlie urn, and the 
locale of the discovery, this burial must have taken 
place in pre-Eoman times. 

The annexed cut, which gives an accurate represent- 
ation of the original, has been kindly placed at the dis- 
posal of the Association by 'Mx. W. C. Borlase, author 
of the iVcPH i'« Cornuhice,vA\o has alluded to the circum- 
stance of the discovery of this urn, in his work, pp. 127, 
128. E. H. W. DuNKix. 

Kiclbrool<o-pnrk-roacl, Blackheath : 
November 15, 187"2. 


The parish of Kilpeck, in the county of Hereford, occu- 
pies a tract of rolling broken ground which intervenes 
between the jMynde, Orcop, and Garway ridge of hills 
and the river "Worm, a stream which receives the drain- 
age of a considerable valley, and finally falls into the 
Monnow, near Kentchurch. The railway from Aber- 
gavenny towards Herefoixl passes up this valley, which 
affords "an excellent example both of the fertility and 
the picturesque beauty of the old red sandstone country 
in Herefordshne. 

The castle, church, and the site of the long- destroyed 
priory, lie near together about the village of Kilpeck, 
two miles north of the ridge, and a short mile south of 
the chirrch and railway station of St. Devereux. 

The ground falls rapidly towards the north, and is 
traversed by deep dingles, each with its contained 
streamlet. The hedgerows and steeper banks are 
covered with wood, and the grassy knolls and ridges 



subside into broad level iiieadoY\-s of unrivalled verdure, 
arnidst ■\vliicli the plough is but little known. 

Kilpeck castle, as now seen, is composed almost 
entirely of earthworks. It consists of a mound and 
circumscribing ditch, beyond which, on the north, is a 
triangular platform, on the south an enclosure of a 
horseshoe figure, and beyond this again a southern 
platform much more extensive, but also somewhat 
triangular in outline. On the very edge, and to the east 
of these enclosures, stand the ancient Norman church 
and a farm-house, parts of wdiich are of some antiquity ; 
on the west, about 200 yards distant from the castle, 
the ground flills rapidly towards a deep dingle, across 
the lower part of which has been thrown a strong bank 
of earth, wdiile remains of other banks are seen higher 
up. By these means it is evident that there was 
formed a chain of long and deep lakes, perhaps at two 
or even three levels, which must have rendered any 
approach from the west or Welsh quarter exceedingl}' 
difficult and hazardous. 

The mound is wholly artificial. It is conical and 
truncated, and of oval plan. Its summit measures, 
north and south, about 2.5 yards, and east and west 
about 40 yards, and its height is from 20 to 40 feet, 
according to the depth of its ditch, which is greatest on 
the northern side. The slopes are steep, the red earth 
having little disposition to slip. 

The summit v/as crowned by a shell keep or enceinte 
wall, placed about three feet within the edge of the 
slope, and therefore about 23 yards north and south 
by 38 yards east and west. It was polygonal in plan, 
with faces from 14 to 15 feet long. Of this shell there 
remain but two fragments, one on the north and 
the other on the west side, about 20 yards apart. 
These show the wall to have been polygonal without, 
and circular, or nearly so, within, also within vertical, 
but on the outside battering from 7 feet thick at the 
base up to 4 feet at 6 feet high, above wdiich it was con- 
tinued at 4 feet. The north fragment is about 40 feet 

4 = 


long, -svlth an arc of 2 feet deflection, and about 18 feet 
liigii ; probably it Avas, Avith tlie parapet, about 25 feet. 
■ It° contains a round-backed fire-place, 3 feet broad by 
2 feet deep, Avhicb gathers in above into a cylindrical 
shaft of 12 inches diameter. On each side is a Avater- 
drain as from a sink, passing through the wall. The 
other or western fragment is 30 feet long and about ] 4 
feet high. This also has a fire-place, similar to the 
last, but 5 feet wide and 3 feet deep ; on the north side 
of it is a water-drain. From the south end of this there 
remains a fragment of a cross-wall 3 feet thick which 
belonged to an interior building ; it is of the age of 
the outer wall. This outer wall seems to have been 
blown outward a little by a mine sprung within. The 
summit of the mound is slightly convex, from the accu- 
mulation of rubbish, which the fire-places show to be 
about 4 feet deep. It is said that a deep well was 
discovered here, but no trace of it is now seen. These 
walls are the only remains of masonry visible in the 
whole castle. From their general aspect and that of 
the fire-places they seem to be early English. It is clear 
that the shell contained buildings against the wall, 
which, from the water-drains, may have been kitchens. 

The mound is surrounded by a deep ditch, which on 
the north is succeeded by the north platform, on the 
north-east, east, and south by the horseshoe platform 
or outer ward, and on the west by a narrow bank, 
from the base of which the natural slope falls rapidly. 

The outer ward is a platform of a horseshoe or 
lunated shape, varying from 90 to 180 yards broad, 
and covering full half the mound. Its concave edge 
forms the counterscarp of the inner ditch. Its con- 
vexity is bounded by a ditch from 10 to 30 feet deep, 
which on the east borders the churchyard, and on the 
south is succeeded by tlie south platform ward, the 
general level of which is 10 to 12 feet below the sum- 
mit of the mound. The outer edge of this ward has 
been raised by a bank, which along the south side and 
at the west end rises 10 to 20 feet, being no doubt 
thrown up from the exterior ditch. The surfiice is 


scarred as by tlie removal of foundations, but not a 
trace of masonry is visible, and even where tlie bank 
lias been cut through no stones are seen. 

There remains the south platform. This is nearly at 
the level of the outer ward, though 'below that of its 
elevated edge. The area is considerable, jJi'obably 
above four acres. It is divided from the outer waid 
by the ditch common to both, and about 30 feet broad. 
To the west and to the east it has a ditch, but to the 
south u scarp of about 12 feet, the ground beyond being- 
flat and at a lower level. The present entrance to this 
platform, now under the plough, is by a hollow way to 
the east side near the north end, which may be old. 

The main entrance to the castle, that is, to the outer 
ward, was by a gateway at the south point, marked by a 
deep hollow way cut in the bank, and flanked by earth 
heaps, which may conceal the foundation of small 
towers. This entrance is apjjroached from the east by 
a road along the ditch below the outer ward and the 
south platform. 

The road from the outer ward into the keep is not 
opposite the outer entrance, but more to the east ; a 
slender causeway crosses the ditch, and a path ascends 
the mound. Probably this is all modern, and here was 
a sloping bridge, rendering the ascent of the mound 
less steep. At the south-west corner the ditch of the 
mound runs out at one point on the hill side, so that 
from hence a way nray have lain along the ditch as 
far as the mound bridge. 

The inference suggested by the pi'esent earthworks 
is sonrething to the following efiect : Originally advan- 
tage was taken of a natural knoll, of an irregular figure, 
but about 300 yards north and south by 125 east ancl 
west, which was surrounded by a single ditch, or, 
where the gromrd allowed, by a scarp only. It may 
be that here, as partially at Malvern, and iii other ex- 
amples, this long enclosm-e was subdivided by two cross 
cuts into three parts, of which the central formed the 
citadel. This would probably be the work of the British. 


Then it would seem that a later people, the English, 
took possession, and threw up a mound at one corner 
of the citadel, isolating it with its proper circular ditch, 
the principal dwelling being on the mound, and the 
horseshoe remainder below containing the base court 
for the dependants, while the north and southern por- 
tions would serve for protected enclosures for cattle. 

When the Normans took possession they seem to 
have built a shell keep upon the mound, and to have 
employed the base court below as an outer ward, pro- 
bably surrounding the Avhole with a stone wall, now 
removed, and replacing the English stockade. This 
would constitute the castle proper, to which the north 
and south platforms would be appendages, no doubt 
stockaded for cattle. 

The history of Kilpeck commences witli DouLeiday, 
which records, "Hae villfevel tern^ subscriptte sitiT? sunt 
in fine Arcenefelde. Will'i filius Normanni tenet Chip- 
cete. Cadiand tenet tempore Regis Edwarcli." 

The chui'ch is decidedly older than the masoniy of 
the keep, and it may thei-efore be tliat the early Xor- 
man lords contented themselves with a residence and 
defences of timber, and did not build for a century or 
so after their occupation, when the shell keep was con- 
structed. It is not probable that this was preceded by 
any earlier work in masonry, as Xorrnan buildujgs were 
substantial and durable. 

The church has been the subject of a "monograph." 
The priory, of which not a trace remains, stood in a 
field south-east of the castle and village. 

Chipcete in Irchenfield is the present Kilpeck, where 
"William Fitz Norman sat in the seat of Cadiand, the 
disposses.sed Englishman. The lands paid no geld or 
military service, which in that border district is remark- 
able. William was a large Herefordsliire landowner. 
In 1134, 25 Hetuy I, Hugh, son of William Fitz Nor- 
man, gave to St. Peter's, Gloucester, the church of St. 
David at KUpeck, and the chapel of our Lady of or 
within the castle. Of the chapel no more is said, but 


tlie oluircli is included in the confirmation charter by 
Stephen to Gloucester in 1138, and in many later con- 
firmations and charters of Inspeximus. 

According to Dugdale, a priory Avas founded at Kil- 
peck in 1134, and dedicated to St. David, by Henry 
de Ivllpeck. The founder more probably was Hugh 
Fitz Norman, who certainly endowed it. It was a cell 
of the Benedictine Abbey of St. Peter at Gloucester, 
and subsisted until its suppression in 1422-48, durino- 
the Episcopate of Thomas Spofford of Hereford. The 
priors were summoned to take part in the elections of 
the Gloucester abbots. 

Hugli was succeeded by Henry, called " de Kilpeck," 
who had to pay a fine of 100 marks to King Stephen 
for a trespass on the royal forest of the Haywood. 
Heury is also mentioned in the Pipe Poll of Richard I 
as in arrear 13 marks in 1189 for dues to the king from 
the forest of Trivel. 

John de Kilpeck, son of Henry, pm-chased the barony 
of Purbeck or Pulverbach, co. Salop, of the Crown, in 
1193 for £100. At the commencement of John's reign 
he seems to have held in his bailiwick the forests °of 
Herefordshii-e, probably as sherift' of that county, for 
which he rendered his accounts in the 3rd of John. 
He also paid two marks scutage for his lands in Salop. 
He died 1204,'^nd Julian, his widow, paid 50 marks to 
King John to marry whom she pileased. In the follow- 
ing year she had dower of Rokeslegh and La Teme, 
according to Madox. 

By Julian John left Hugh de Kilpeck, who was a 
ward to William de Cantelupe, a great border baron. 
At this time the king visited Kilpeck occasionally, 
being there 1211, 11th March, in his way from Here- 
ford to Abergavenny, no doubt at both places as Can- 
telupe's guest. Also m 1213, 27th and 2Sth Novem- 
ber, he was here between Hereford and St. Briavels, 
and finally 18th and 19th December, 1214, while going 
from Monmouth to Hereford. 

Hugh de Kilpeck, when of age, inherited the keeper- 


ship of tlie roval forests in Herefovdslaire, and in 1248 
he liekl Little Taynton, in Gloucestershire, by the 
serjeantry of keeping Haywood forest, also an heredi- 
tary charge. The fo'rests of Hay, Kilpeck, and Acorn- 
bury seem, from the patent rolls, to have been in liis 
hands 3rd Henry III. 1231,' 16th Henry III, Hugh 
de Kilpeck and WiUiam Fitz Warine were two of the 
eight lords employed to negociate a truce with Llewelyn. 
This seems positive ; but Dugdale says he died about 
1207. There is an inquisition upon him 28th Henry 
III, 1243-4 ; but it appears from the fine rolls that he 
died before this. He married Egidia, who married, 
says Dugdale, WiUiam Fiiz AYarine. John was the 
third and last Baron Kilpeck. He left tAvo daughters, 
co-heirs, Isabella and Joan. Joan, the younger, aged 
1 7 at her ftither's death, was the first wife of Philip de 
Marrnion. She held half the barony of Kilpeck, and left 
three daughters, co-heirs. Pliilip, Avho was champion 
of England and a great supporter of Henry III, left by^ 
a second wife a fourth daughter. Each had a quarter 
of the barony of Marrnion, and the elder three had each 
a third of that of Kilpeck. The Frevilles of Tam worth 
sprang from Mazera, the second child, and the Ludlows 
and Dymokes, champions, from Joan, the fourth. 

Isabella, the elder co-heh-, seems to have held the 
castle of Kilpeck in her share. She married, 2Sth 
Henry III, William Waleran. Her seal, lately found 
at Ewshot, near CrondaU, is engraved in the Top. and 
Geneal., i, p. 28, where is an excellent account of her 
family. Isabella left Robert, William, and Alice. 

Pobei't Waleran held Kilpeck. He was sheriff of 
Gloucestershire 30th-35th Henry III. He fought for 
Henry at Evesham, and was Governor of the Castles 
of Cardigan and Carmarthen, and a Baron. In 1262 he 
composed a dispute between the Bishop and Cliapter and 
the citizens of Hereford relating to the assize of bread. 
He died s.p. 1st Edward I, 12 73, leaving apjxrrently 
Matilda, his widow, who had dower in Kilpeck manor. 

William, brother of Hugh, died before him, leaving 
Robert, who succeeded to KUpeck, but seems to have 


died 2nd Edward II, either childless, or bearino- a son 
who did not inherit Kilpeck in consequence of his great- 
nncle's entail; for it appears that by deed in 1269 
Eobert Waleran gave to Alan de Plunkeret, his sister's 
son, the reversion of Kilpeck castle and of the park of 
Treville and Coytmore, the forestership of the Hay, and 
the manor of Hampton. Alan regranted to Robert for 
life, and on Robert's death the lands reverted to Alan, 
Avho did homage. By what tenure Robert, the nephew 
and last baron, lield Kilpeck, does not appear. 

Alice Waleran, sister of the first Robert, married 
Auchew de la Bere. Their son Alan bore the name of 
Plukenet or Plugenet, and became lord of Kilpeck castle 
and manor, and was summoned to Parliament 23rd 
Edward I. He died 2 7th Edward I, 1299. He was 
buried at Dore. Pie was a great agriculturist, and 
reclaimed the tract called from him " Alan's Moor." In 
liis time, 13th Edward I, William Buter held a carucate 
of land in Kilpeck and the manor and court there ; also 
20th Edward I, Ph. Mai-mion of Scrivelsby held a fee in 
Kilpeck. Several fiefs seem to have been held of the 
castle ; 2nd Edward III, Alex, de Freville so held one- 
sixth of a fee. 

Alan Plugenet, son of Alan, succeeded. He was 
distmguished in the Scottish wars, and was also sum- 
moned to Parliament. He obtained a Aveekly market 
and annual fair for Kilpeck, and died s.j). about 1311, 
leaving his sister Joan his heir. 

Joan Plugenet, called Joan de Bohun de Kilpeck, 
held the barony. She married Edward de Bohun, but 
died s.p. 20th Edward II, or 1st Edward III, 1327. 

Her heir was Richard, son of Richard, and grandson 
of Sir Pvichard de la Bere. He died 19th Edward III, 
leaving Thoma.s, his son and heir, aged 30, 27th Edward 
III, but Edward de Bohun, who survived his wife, and 
probably was tenant of Kilpeck by the courtesy, had 
license from Edward III to alienate Kilpeck, Tre^•ille, and 
the bailiwick of the Haywood to James Butler, first 
Earl of Ormond. 

Meantime the elder family continued to hold their 


shares. Thomas de Useflete, 5th Edward ITI, probably 
a trustee, enfeofteed Tiichord de la Bere, of Munestoke, 
in Ivilpeck, Avliich, 2nd Edward III, had been held by 
Nicholas de Useflete. 17th Edward III Baldwhr de 
Frivill held Kilpeck manor, and finally, 1 Sth Eichard 
II, Kinardus de la Bere held the manor and hundred of 
Kilpeck for the chantry of St. Mary of Madley. 

The Butlers, however, seem to have been substan- 
tially the owners. 12th Edward III, James, first Earl 
of Ormond, held the manov and extent by the tenure 
of keeping the forest of Hay, and 13th Edward III 
Eleanor, his widow, held the castle and manor. 

As holders of the castle or manor, or both, appear — • 
37th Edward III Sir Thomas Moigne, 6th Richard II 
James Earl of Ormond, and 13th Richard II Elizabeth, 
his widow. 20th Ptichard II Sir Richard Talbot and 
Ankareta his ^vife held the castle and manor as one fee 
of James Earl of Ormond, within the land of Irchen- 
field. The Butlers, however, held the castle until the 
attainder of the fifth earl, a Lancastrian, who was be- 
headed after Towton in 1467. 

5th Edward IV, the King granted Kilpeck in tail special 
to the male heirs of Sir W. Herbert, Lord Herbert (Earl 
of Pembroke), for one knight's fee, and 6th Edward IV 
this grant was extended in tail general, failing heirs 
male of the body. After the earl's death, in 1469, 
Edward restored Kilpeck to the Butlers in the person 
of John, sixth Earl of Ormond, and it descended to liis 
elder daughter and co-heir, whose son, Su" George St. 
Leger, held it in 1545. 

After this it was sold, and came into the possession 
of the Pye family, of whom Sir Walter held the castle 
and park. He was a royalist, and on the fall of Charles 
I the Parliament first garrisoned the castle, and in 1645 
dismantled it. The Pyes followed James II into exile, 
and one of them bore the titular honour of Baron Kil- 
peck. Probably the materials of the castle were valu- 
able, for their removal, Avith the trifling exceptions 
mentioned, has been complete, and yet the castle must 
have been a considerable place. G. T. C. 


oi; m;o-MFiELD, the Loi;i)Siiir of ial 


iCo7itinued from vol. Hi, p. 290.) 




jMadog ab JMeredydd, PFlnce of Powys Faelor (which 
from him was subsequently called Powys Fadog), bore, 
argent, a lion i-ampant sable, armed and languecl gules. 
But before proceeding with the history of the Princes 
of Powys Faelor, or Powys Fadog, we shall give a short 
account of the lordships and manors of that principality, 
together with some of the branches of the royal line of 
Powys Fadog. 

This principahty Avas divided into five cantrefs, each 
containmg thi-ee comots. 

1. Canteef Uwchxant, which contained the comots 
of Merftbrdd, ]\[aelor Gymraeg, and Maelor Saesnaeg. 

The comot of Merffordd contained the parishes of 
Penarth Halawg, or Hawarden, and Estyn or Hope. 

The parish of Hawarden contains the townships of 
Aston, Banael, Bretton, Broadlane, Broughton, Ewlo or 


Eulo, Coed Ewlo, Hawavden, ]\[ancott, IMoor, Peiitref 
Hobyn, Eake and ^Maiior, Morta Caerlleon or Saltney, 
Sealand, and Shotton. 

The parish of Estyn, or Queen"s Hope, is a rectory 
and vicarage, and contains the eight to\A'nships of Hope, 
Hope Owain, Shordlv, Caergwrle, Cyman, Khan Ber- 
fedd,Uwch y Mynydd Uchaf, and Uwch y Mynydd Isaf 

The first charter given to Hope was by Edward the 
Black Prince, dated from Chester, a.d. 1351, in wliich 
he orders that the seneschal or constable of the Castle 
of Caergwrle, for the time being, should be the mayor ; 
and that he shonld choose two bailiffs, out of the bur- 
3, annually on ^Michaelmas Day.^ 

In this comot are three castles, ^-iz., those of Hawar- 
den, Ewlo, and Caergwrle, and the fortified camp of 
Caer Estyn. 

The Castle of Hawarden stands on a conical hill in 
the manor or township of Hawarden, which name seems 
to be formed from the words garth, a mountain or hill, 
and din, the root of dinas, a fortified city, generally 
situate on a hill. ' As it is usual in ^Yelsll to drop the 
initial letter c/,gartli-din becomes arth-ov ardd-din, and, 
aspirated, harden.- In Domesday Book the name was 
written Haordin ; at which time it was a lordship, and 
had a chin-ch; two caruece or ploughlands^, half of one 
belonging to the church ; half an acre of meadow ; a 
wood two leagues long, and half a league broad. The 
whole was valued at forty shillings; and the population 
then consisted of four villeyus,- sis boors, and four slaves. 
At the Conquest William the Conqueror granted this 
manor to Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester. =* It afterwards 
devolved to the Barons of Montalto or Mold, which 
they held by stewardship to the Earls of Chester, and 
who made it their residence.* Eobert Baron de ]\lont- 
alto granted the marsh of Saltney, or Morfa Caerlleon, 
to the monks of Basingwerk for pasturage. He also 
gave them the same privilege in Hawarden, and the 

1 Carlisle's Topograph. Bid. " Ibid. 

3 Pennant's Tour, vol. i, pp. 122, 12-1. * Camden, ii, 826. 


liberty of cutting rushes for thatching their buildings.'' 
Ha\Yarclen remained m the possession of the Barons de 
Montalto till a.d. 1327, the first of Edward III, when 
Robert, the last Baron de Montalto (for want of issue), 
left this manor and his other great possessions to Isa- 
bel, the queen mother, and from her it went to the 
crown. The Welsh name of this parish is Penarth or 
Penardd Halawg, and coUocjuially, Penardd Lag, per- 
hajjs contracted from Pen Garth y Llwch, '"' the summit 
of the hill by the C|uicksands or swamps," with which 
Saltney Marsh, lying between this place and Chester, 
formerly abounded.^ 

The inhabitants of Hawarden huA-e been for many 
ages known by the name of " Hawarden Jews," the rea- 
son for which is supposed to be best explained by the 
following account preser-\^ed and current in the parish 
from time immemorial, and said to be a translation of 
an ancient Saxon MS. : 

" In the sixth year of the reign of C}Tian ab Elis ab 
Anarawd, King of Gwynedd, or North Wales (which 
was in the year 946), there was in the Christian temple 
at a place called Hardin, in the kingdom of North 
Wales, a rood-loft in which was placed an image of the 
Virgin Mary holdmg a very large cross in her hand, 
called the ' holy rood.' About this time there happened 
a very hot and dry summer ; so chy that there was no 
grass for the cattle. Ujion which most of the inhabit- 
ants went and besought the image or holy rood to pray 
for rain; but to no purpose. Among the rest the Lady 
Trawst, whose husband's name was Seisyllt or Sitsyllt, 
a nobleman, and governor of Hawarden Castle, went to 
pray to the said holy rood ; and she praying earnestly 
ancl long, the image or holy rood feU down on her head 
and killed her. Upon Avhich a great uproar was raised, 
and it was concluded and resolved upon to try the said 
image for the miuxler of the said Lady Trawst ; and a 

1 Charters in the Record Office. 

- The epithet liaJawg (from lidl, salt, or salt-marsh) CTidently 
refers to its situation on or near a salt marsh. — Ed. Arch. Camb. 


jury was summoned for the purpose, vrlioso names were 
as follow : 

Hincot of Hancot, S[_i;-in of JIancot,' 
Leach and Lach and Comborbaeb, 
Peet and Pate, with Corbin' of the Gate, 
Milling and Hughet, with Gill and Pughet. 

These, upon examination of evidences, declared the said 
Lady Trawst to be -vvilfully murdered by the said holy 
rood, and that the holy rood was guilty of the murder ; 
and also guilty in not answering the many petitioners. 
But whereas the said holy rood was very old and decayed, 
she was ordered to be hanged ; but Span opposed that 
sentence, saying that as they wanted rain, it would be 
best to drown lier. But that was fiercely opposed by 
Corbin,^ who answered that as she was holy rood, they 
had no right to kill her; and he advised them to lay her 
on the sands by the river Dee, below Hardin Castle, from 
Avhich they might see what became of her ; which was 
accordingly done. Soon after which the tide from the 
sea came and carried the said image to some low land, 
being an island, near the walls of a city called Caer 
Lleon (now Chester), where it was found the next day 
drowned and dead ; and they erected a monument of 
stone over it with this inscription : 

The Jews their God did crucify ; 
The Hardeners theirs did drown 
Because their wants she'd not supply-, 
And lies under this cold stone. 

"There is now (IS 11) the pedestal of an old cross 
consisting of three steps with a part of the column in 
it, of the red sandstone of the neighbourhood, standing 
on the Eood Dee or race-ground below the walls of 
Chester, on the very spot probably where the holy 
rood was found. ''- 

1 There was a descendant of this Corbin, believed to be in the 
direct male line, living (1811) at the house called " The Gate" (i. e., 
from its situation near the gate of the Castle), and in possession of 
part of the same freehold, with a family of three sons and four 
daughters. The names of Leach, Milling, and Hewet, are still 
numerous in the parish ; and those of Span, Pate, Comberbach, and 
Gill, are frequent in the neighbourhood. - Carlisle's Did. Top. 


Tliis Lady Trawst, who is tlius stated to have been 
killed by the fidl of the holy rood, appears to me to be 
identical -^A'ith the Lady Trawst, the daughter and 
heiress of Elisau, who was the second son of Anarawd, 
Prince of Gwynedd, who died in a.d. 913. She married 
Seisyllt, Lord of Maes Essyllt, by whom she had two 
sons, Cynan, and Llewelyn ab Seisyllt, who at the age 
of fourteen married, as before stated, Angharad, the 
only daughter and heiress of Meredydd ab Owain, king 
of Powys. By this marriage Llewelyn became king of 
Powys, and in A.D. 1015 king of all Wales by \isurpa- 
tion. He was slain in a.d. 1021 through the treachery 
of Madog Min,^ Bishop of Bangor. There is a great 
colnmn with an mscription in memory of this illustrious 
prmce, at a place called March Aled, or Capel Foelas, in 
the comot of Uwch Aled, in the cantref of Pihufoniog. 

In 1651 Llawarden castle fell into the hands of the 
Commonwealth, and it was purchased from the agents 
of sequestration by Serjeant Glynne, ancestor of the 
present possessor. Sir Stephen Pt. Glynne, Bart. 

Ewlo castle is situate in the township of Coed Ewlo, 
and is now in ruins. It is memorable as the place 
where a detachment of the army of Henry II, then en- 
camped on Morfa CaerUeon or Saltney Marsh, sus- 
tained a check from David and Cynan, the sons of 
Prince Owam Gwynedd in a.d. 1156. 

Leland speaks of it as " a ruinous castle or pile be- 
longing to Hoele, a gentleman of Flyntshire, that by 
auncient accustume was wont to give the bagge of the 
sylver harpe to the beste harpir of North "Walj-s, as by 
a privilege of his ancestors. ""^ This gentleman is su^:)- 

' Madog Min was the son of Cywr^-d ab Ednowain Bendew, one 
of the fifteen tribes of Gwynedd. He afterwards betrayed Gruflydd, 
the son of Llewelyn ab Seisyllt, for three hundred head of eattle, 
which were promised him for bis treachery by Harold, King of Eng- 
land. After succeeding in his treachery, Harold refused to pay the 
cattle, upon which " Madog went in a ship towards the town of 
Dublin in Ireland; but the ship sank without the loss of any life 
except that of Madog Min, and then the vengeance of God fell on 
him for his treachery." (Williams, Eminent WehTimen.') 

2 Ithi. V, 66. 


posed to be Thomas ab Eicliard ab Howel, Lord of 
Mostyn, in -whose family that privilege was iong in- 
vested, and who was contemporary with Leiand/ 

The manor of Ewlo was reckoned an appurtenance to 
the manor of Montalto or Mold. ,. It was in the Crown 
in the 26th of Henry VIII, who granted a lease of it to 
Pyers Stanley, Esq., a gentleman of his household, with 
the tolls of the market of Flint." This lease bears the 
date of the 7th April, a.d. 1535. The pedigree of this 
branch of the Stanley family is as follows : 

Sir William Stanley, Knt., standarcI-==Margaret, daughter and sole 
bearer to Richard III at the battle heir of Sir John Heley or 
of Bosworth | Heighlegh, Knt. 

Pyers Stanley of Ewlo Castle, Esq., appointed==Constance, daughter of Tho- 

Escheator and Sheriff of Merionethshire, | mas Salusbury Hen, of 

22 Sept., 1 Henry VII (1485) Llyweni, Esq. 

I 2 I 3| 4| 5| 

Pyers Stanley=Janet, d. of Ffoulk John Harri Edw. Stanley of Iliir- 
- " ■ Sir Thomas lech, M.P. for iMeri- 

Butler,Kut. oneth,1542; appointed Constable of Har- 
lech Castle by letters patent dated 26th 
March, 5th Edward VI (1558) 

of Ewlo 
Castle, Esq. 

I G I 7 I 

Pyers Stanley of Ewlo=JaDe, d. of ... Parker Thomas William 

Castl e.'Esq. | 

Edward Stanley of Ewlo Castle, Esq.,=pMargaret, d. of Sir James Stan- 
living 15f)7 | ley, Knt. 

Robert Stanley of Ewlo == Alice, d. of Thomas Salusbury of Flint, third sou 
Castle, Esq. I of Sir Thomas Salusbury of Llyweni, Knt. 

Anne, heiress of Ewlo Castle=John Mostyn of Coed On, Esq., of the 
'house of Mostyn of Mostyn.^ 

Caergwrle castle is situate in the township of that 
name, in the parish of Llanestyn or Hope, and is now 
in ruins. This place was once a Roman station, and 
several Eoman anticpiities, some bearing the stamp of 
the XX Legion, have been discovered here. On the 
surrender of the castle of Caergwrle to Edward I in 
A.D. 1282, he bestowed it, with all its appurtenances, 

1 Pennant's Tour, vol. i, p. 119. "- Harl. MS. 19G8. 

3 Lewys Dwnn, ii. 





on his beloved consort Queen Eleanor, from which cir- 
cumstance the parish acquired tlie name of Queen's 
Hope ; and here the Queen stayed on her way to Car- 
narvon, where she was proceeding to give the Welsh 
nation a prince born among them. 

The chief families in the comots of ]Merflordd and 
Yr Hob were : the Lloyds of Pentref Hobyn, descended 
from Owain ab Edwyn ab Goronwy, Prince of Tegeingl. 
Owain, who was elected Prince of North Wales in a.d. 
1196, bore gules, three man's legs conjoined at the 
thigh in triangle argent; but this family, in common 
with the other descendants of Prince Owain, appear to 
have borne the arms of Prince Edwyn, viz., argent, a 
cross flory engrailed sahle, inter four Cornish choughs 
ppr. The Youngs of Bryu lorcyn, and the Trevors of 
Argued in Yr Hob, both of whom were descended from 
Tador Trevor. The Lloyds of Estyn, descended from 
Meredydd of YrHob or Estyn, who owned the greatest 
part of the parish of Estyn. He was the son of Gruffydd 
ab Llewelyn ab Ynyr, of lal, who bore gules, three 
pallets or, in a border of the second charged -^vith eight 
ogresses, for Ynyr of lal. The ]\Iatheys of Estyn, now 
extinct, and the Bowlds of Plas y Bowld in Caergwrle, 
who were descended from Sanddef Harold, Lord of 
Morton, in the parish of Gresford, who bore vert seme 
of broomslips, a lion rampant or. 

There were four English families who had lands in 
these comots — the Piavenscrofts of Bretton, who bore 
argent, a chev. inter three raven's, heads erased ppr.; 
the Hopes of Hawarden, who bore argent, three storks 
sahle ; the Whitleys of Aston, who bore azure, three 
garbs or ; and the descendants of William Sneyd, the 
second son of Thomas Sneyd, chief justice of North 
V/ales, who had lands in the township of PJian Ber- 

Of these families the Lloyds of Pentref LIt>byn and 
the Youngs (now rejji-esented by the Conways) of Bryn 
lorcyn are the only ones that still retain possession of 
their estates m these comots. 

■ITH SER., VOL. IV. 5 


2. The comot of jMaelor Gymraeg, wlilcli we have to 

3. The comot of Maelor Saesnaeg, which contains the 
parishes of, Worthenbury, which consists of the town- 
ship of Worth enbuiy (in Welsh, Y Gwrddymp), Bangor 
is y Coed, Hanmer, the chapehy of Overton Madog, 
that part of the parish of Erbistog Avhich contains the 
township of Maelor, part of the parish of Estyn or 
Hope, the townships of Button in Holt parish, Aben- 
bury Fechan in Wrexham parish, Merford in Gresford 
parish. Is y Coed in Malpas parish, Penley in Elles- 
mere, Bodidris in Llanarrnou in Yale, and the township 
of Osley. The township of Park Eyton, in the parish 
of Erbistog, is in Maelor Gymraeg. 

The castle of Overton, in the parish of Bangor, was 
built by Prince Madog ab Meredydd, and it was here 
that he chiefly resided ; from this circumstance the place 
received the name of Overton Madog. In A.D. 1278 
(7th Edward I) it was in the possession of Eobert de 
Crevecceiu-. In a.d. 133], the 5th of Edward III, it 
was granted, with other lands in this comot, to Eubule 
L'Estrange, Baron of Knockyn.-' There are now no 
remains of this castle, which stood on the banks of the 
Dee, in a field still called the Castlefield. 

The parish of Bangor contains the township of 
Bangor in Maelor Saesnaeg, and the townships of Eyton, 
Picyllt, Ehwytyn, and Seswick in Maelor Gymraeg ; 
and the chapelry of Overton, which is divided into the 
townships of Knoltyn, Overton, and Overton Foreign. 

Bangor was the Banchorium Static of Pvichard of 
Cirencester, and in this township stood the celebrated 
monastery of Bangor, which contained two thousand 
four hundred monks ; who, dividing themselves into 
seven ba.ncls, passed their time alternately in prayer 
and labour ;- or, accordmg to Camden, a hundred by 
turns passed one hour in devotion ; so that the whole 
twenty-four hours were employed in sacred duties. 
This monastery was destroyed, and twelve luuidred of 
' Du^Jale's r>aronfujr. 2 Bede's Ecdes. Uisf., ii, c. ii, p. 80. 


the monks were put to death by yEthelfrid, King of the 
Angles, for pvayuig for tlie success of their King, 
Brochwel Ysgythrog, against the Saxon infidels. After 
this the monastery -went to decay ; for William of 
Malmesbury, who lived in the reign of King Stephen, 
says, "There remained only," in his time, '^" the foot- 
steps of so great a place, so many ruinous churches, 
and such heaps of rubbish as were hardly else\\'here to 
be met with." 

The lordship or comot of Maelor Saesnaeg was granted 
by Henry IV to Sir John Stanley, Knt., and it con- 
tinued in his family till the 41st of Elizabeth; when 
William, Earl of Derby, devised it to Sir Handle 
Brereton of Malpas, Knt., and it now belongs to the 
families of Hanmer and Gwernhaeled.' 

The chief families of ancient descent in the lordship of 
Maelor Saesnaeg were : The Lloyds of Talwrn, Halch- 
dyn, and theBiyn,Hhe Dymocks of Willington and Pen- 
ley Hall, the Broughtons of Broughton. and the Eytons 
of Maes Gwaelod, who were all descended from Tudur 
Trevor; the Philipses of Gwernhaeled, descended from 
Einion Efell, Lord of Cynllaith, and now represented 
by the Fletchers of Gwernhaeled. The Pulestones of 
Emerallt, and the Hanmers of Hanmer, Bettisfield, and 
the Ffens, v/ho got lands in this lordship, after the con- 
quest of Wales by Edward I, and the Ptoydons of Isgoed, 
who bore vei't, three roebuck's heads erased in bend or, 
in dexter chief a rose of the second. This last family came 
into Maelor from Kent with the commissioners of Lord 
Abergavenny in 1442. The ancient and distinguished 
family of the Eytons of Park Eyton in Maelor Gymraeg, 
had formerly large possessions in this lordship. 

III. Cantref Tkefeyd, which contained the comets 

1 Pennant's Tour, vol. ii, p. 300. 

- Tlie Lloyds of tlie Bryn are now repi-esented, tbi-ougli heirs 
female, by the Lord Kenyon of the Bryn and Gredington, and the 
Chevalier Lloyd of Clochfacn. The Eytons of Maes Gwaelod were a 
branch of the Eytons of Eyton Uchaf, who were descended from 
Tudur Trevor through the line of Cyuwrig ab Rhiwallon, who bore 
ermine, a lion rampant sahle, armed and langued gides. 


of— 1, Croes Faen ; 2, Tref y Wauu ; 3, Croes Oswallt 
or Oswestry. 

The comots of Croes Faen and Tref y Waun, and all 
Cantref Ehaiadr Avere united by the Mortimers into 
one territory, called Swydd y Waun, the lordship of 
Chirk, or Chirkland. It contains the parishes of Llan- 
fair or Y Waun Isaf (Chirk), Llanarmon Mynydd MaAvr, 
Llanarmon Dyft'ryn Ceiriog, Llanrhaiadr ym Mochnant, 
Llangedwyn, Llansilin, Llangadwaladr, Llangollen, and 
Llansantffraid Glyn Ceiriog. 

Of these parishes that of Chirk contains the manors 
of Chirk, Bryn Cunallt, Halchdyn or Halton, Pen y 
Clawdd, and Gwern Ospin. 

The manor of Halchd}-n or Ilalton A\-as given by 
Prince Madog ab Gruffydd Maelor, in A.D. 1200, to the 
Abbey of Yalle Crucis. This manor and certain lands 
belonging to it remained in the possession of the Abbey 
till it was dissolved in A.D. 1.535, when they were seized 
by Henry YIII, and they remained in the Crown till the 
1 4th James I, a. P. 1 G 1 7, when they were granted (for tlie 
sum of £75 and £-40) to John Knight, John Weddall, 
Wilham Dickenson, senior, William Dickenson, junior, 
Matthew^ Robinson, and Sir Thomas Middleton, Knight, 
Sir Thomas Middleton, Knight, and Pdchard Swale, of 
Green Hammerton, in the county of York, gentle- 

The following are the names of the places granted by 
James I to the above-mentioned persons : All the 
seignorial lands (" omnes terras dominicales") of the 
manor of Halton or Halghton ; all the separate lands in 
Halton and Chirk of Maes y Mynydd ; Y Bryn Krayth ; 
Maes y Penylan ; Erw Vadog and Glidfa ; JMaes Llanerch 
Goch ; Pant j Fallt ; Maes y Lhvyn Gwern ; Maes y 
Court; Ty David ab Sir John and Meredith Trevor, £5; 
all once belonging to Yalle Crucis, formerly a monas- 

1 " Esceptis deciniis lanro et agnellornm eonim anditare preniis- 
sorum onaratis £5 12s. 0(^ de Rectoria de Pinchbeck. 

"Habendum impevpctuum. Tencnt niancriiim de Trunclianfs in 


tile monks were put to death by yEtliellVicl, King of tlie 
Angles, for pi'aying for tlie success of their Kino-, 
Brochwel Ysgythrog, against the Saxon inficlels. After 
this the monastery went to decay ; for William of 
Malmesljury, who lived in the reign of Kuig Stephen, 
says, " There remained only," in his time, " the foot- 
steps of so great a place, so many ruinous churches, 
and such heaps of rubbish as were hardly elsewhere to 
be met with." 

Tlie lordship or comot of Maelor Saesnaeg w-as granted 
by Henry IV to Sir John Stanley, Knt., and it con- 
tinued in his family till the 41st of Elizabeth; when 
William, Earl of Derby, devised it to Sir Randle 
Brereton of Malpas, Knt., and it no-^v belongs to the 
families of Haumer and Gwernhaeled.^ 

The chief families of ancient descent in the lordship of 
Maelor Saesnaeg were : The Lloyds of Talwrn, Halch- 
dyn, and theBryn,Hhe Dymocks of Willington and Pen- 
ley Hall, the Broughtons of Broughton, and the Eytons 
of Maes Gwaelod, who were all descended from Tudur 
Trevor; the Philipses of Gwernhaeled, descended from 
Einion Efell, Lord of Cynllaith, and now represented 
by the Fletchers of Gwernhaeled. The Pulestones of 
Emerallt, and the Hanmers of Hanraer, Bettisfield, and 
the Ffens, v/ho got lands in this lordship, after the con- 
quest of Wales by Ed ward I, and the Roydons of Isgoed, 
who bore vert, three roebuck's heads erased in bend or, 
iji dexter chief a rose of the second. This last family came 
into Maelor from Kent with the commissioners of Lord 
Abergavenny in 1442. The ancient and distinguished 
family of the Eytons of Park Eyton in Maelor Gymraeg, 
had formerly large possessions in this lordship. 

III. Cantref Trefryd, which contained the comots 

1 Pennant's Tow; vol. ii, p. 300. 

- Tlie Lloyds of tlic Bryn are now represented, througli heirs 
fcni.ile, by tlie Lord Kenyon of the Bryn and Gredington, and the 
Chcvfdier Lloyd of Clochfacn. The Eytons of Maes Gwaelod were a 
hrancli of the Eytons of Eyton Uchaf, who were descended fiom 
Tudur Trevor through the line of Cyiiwrlg ab Rhiuallon, who bore 
ermine, a lion rami^ant sable, armed and laugued gules. 


of_i, Croes Faeu ; 2, Tref y Wiiun ; 3, Croes Oswallt 
or Oswestry. 

The comots of Croes Faen and Tref y Waun, and all 
Cantref Pthaiadr were united by the Mortimers into 
one territory, called Swydd y AVaun, the lordship of 
Chirk, or Chirkland. It contains the parishes of Llan- 
fair orY Waun Isaf (Chirk), Llanarmon Mynydd Mawr, 
Llanarmon Dyffryn Ceiriog, Llanrhaiadr ym jNIochnant, 
Llangedwyn, Llansilin, Llangadwaladr, Llangollen, and 
LlansantfiVaid Glyn Ceiriog. 

Of these parishes that of Chirk contains the manors 
of Chirk, Bryn Cunallt, Halchdyn or Halton, Pen y 
Clawdd, and Gwern Ospin. 

The manor of Halchdpr or Halton was given by 
Prince Madog ab Gruffydd Maelor, in a.d. 1200, to the 
Abbey of Valle Crucis.' This manor and certain lands 
belonging to it remained in the possession of the Abbey 
till it° vas dissolved in a.d. 1.53.5, Avlien they were seized 
by Henry VHI, and they remained in the Crown till the 
1 4th James I, a.d. 1 6 1 7, when they were granted (for the 
sum of £75 and £40) to John Knight, John Weddall, 
William Dickenson, senior, William Dickenson, junior, 
Matthew Robinson, and Sir Thomas Middleton, Knight, 
Sir Thomas Middleton, Knight, and Pilchard Swale, of 
Green Hammerton, in the county of York, gentle- 

The following are the names of the places granted by- 
James I to the above-mentioned persons : All the 
seignorial lands (" omnes terras dominicales") of the 
manor of Halton or Halghton ; all the separate lands in 
Halton and Chirk of Maes y Mynydd ; Y Bryn Krayth ; 
Maes y Penylan ; Erw A^adog and Glidfa ; IMaes Llanerch 
Goch ; Pant y Fallt ; Maes y Llwyn Gwern ; Maes y 
Court; Ty David ab Sir John and jNleredith Trevor, £5 ; 
all once belonging to Yalle Cracis, formerly a monas- 

1 " Exceptis dcclmis Inns et agnellornni eonim auditare premis- 
sorum onaratis £5 12s. (jd. de Rectoria de Piticbbeck. 

"Habendum impcrpc-tuum. Tcncnt niaucrluin du Truncliaiifs in 


A further account of the lorclyhip of Chirk ^\•ill be 
given at a future page. 

3. The coniot of Croes Oswallt, or lordship of Os- 
westry, contains the twelve parishes of — 

1. Oswestry, which is divided into the townships of 
Middleton, Aston, Hisland, Wooton, Sweeney, Weston 
Cotton, Maesbury, Llanfordaf, Pentref y Gaer,^ Cyn- 
nynion, Coed tan y Gaer,^ Tref ar y Clawdd, Treflach, 
Trefonen, Morton, and Crickheath or Crngiaeth, which 
last toAARship once belonged to Einion Greulawn ab 
Einion, son of Ehiryd Flaidd, Lord of Penllyn.^ 

2. The parish of Llanftxrthin, IMartin's Chru-ch or St. 
IMartin's, which contains the townships of Iff ton Pihjni 
Uchaf, Iffton Eh)-u Isaf, Weston Pvhyn Uchaf, Weston 
Ehyn Isaf, and Bron y Garth. John Griffith of Cae 
Cyriog, in the parish of PJiiwabon, Esq., who died 
A.D. 1 698, states in his manuscripts that he saw in the 
lordship of Oswestry some deeds sealed by Gutyu 
Owain for the land of Iffton, where his name was 
w-ritten thus, " Gniffydd ab Ilugli ab Owain, alias 
Guttyn Owain de Iffton." 

3. The parish of Selatyn, which contains the to^vn- 
ships of Brogynt}-n Uchaf and Brogyntyn Isaf In 
this parish is the mansion and park of Brogyntyn, for- 
merly the residence of Owain de Brogyntyn, Lord of 
Dinmael and Edeyrnion, and now of his descendant, J. 
E. Ormsby Gore, Esq., I\1.P. 

4. A part of the parish of Llan y jMyneich, or the 
Village of the ]\Iinei-s. This parish contains the town- 
ships of Careg Hwfit,Llan y Myneich, LlwynTidman, and 
Tref Prennal, and lies partly in the comot of Mochnant 
is Ehaiadr, in the cantref of Ehaiadr, now called the 

capite per SDi-vicium 40nias partis ffeodi militis. Tenentes cfotei-fB 
de Eastgreenwick. 

" Cnstodis fiabrici Eeclesiaj INIetropolitana} Eboraci solubll. (Vitle 

" Teste Eege apud VTestmonasterinm 24to die Jnnii per warren- 
tum commissionariornm." (Calendar of Patent Rolls, vol. 61, p. S5, 
14 Jac. 1, pars 1 7, No. 5.) 

' Cucr 0-yrt-vu. = Cae Cyriog IMS. 


lordship of Chirk, partly in the comot of Deuddwr, in 
the Cantref of Ystlyy, now called the Hundred of 
Deuddwr, and partly in the lordship of Oswestry. _ In 
the north-west part of this parish is an insulated hill of 
limestone, called Llan y Myneich Eock, which the Romans 
explored in search of copper ore ; and in the Ogof 
several skeletons, Iloman coins, and other antiquities 
have heen discovered. Clawdd Offa divides this parish 
into nearly two equal parts, and crosses this insulated 
hill ; and parallel with two other dykes across it runs a 
stupendous rampart of loose stones, accompanied by a 
deep foss, which turning follows the brow of the hill, 
and encompasses about one-half of its whole extent ; 
this is probably Roman, intended to guard the passages 
and accessible parts when their ores lay exposed to the 
plunder of the Britons ; on its eastern brow once stood 
a cromlech, measuring seven feet by six, and about 
eighteen inches thick, called Bedd y Caw^r, and under 
it, according to immemorial tradition, the wife of a 
giant was buried, with a golden torques about her 
neck ; and to obtain this treasure three brothers, who 
hved in the neighbourhood some years ago, in a most 
reprehensible and sacrilegious manner, broke into this 
sanctuary of the dead, and, to accomplish their object, 
overturned the stone from its pedestals, in Avhich posi- 
tion it now lies."^ 

Who the race of men were that built the cromlechs 
in Britain we have no certain information, but " Dr. 
Hooker, at the meeting of the British Association in 
1868, described a race of men in a district of Eastern 
Bengal who erect at the present day monuments similar 
to those termed in Western Europe Druidical. With 
his own eyes he had seen dolmens and cromlechs not 
six months old. He says that they call a stone by the 
same name as is given to it in the Keltic idioms of 
Wales and Brittany, though, he adds, little of the 
character of their language is yet known. "^ 

' Carlisle's Top. Bid., 1811. 

' Traditions, by Charles Hardwick, 1872. 


With regard to a remark made in the previous 
chajjter reLative to the human remains found at Perthi 
Chwareu, that the ancestors of the ancient ilrlrabitants 
of Britain were to be sought for amongst the ancient 
races of Northern Africa, I find it strongl_y corroborated 
in a work Lately written by ]Mr. Hardwick, of Man- 
chester/ from which I shall cjuote a few passages, as 
tending to throw some hght on this subject. 

"The country about the Upper Oxus river, now 
mainly included in the dominions of the Khan of 
Bokhara, is generally agreed \ipon as the locality 
whence the various menrbers of the Aryan family ori- 
ginally migrated, some northward and westward over 
Europe, and others southward and eastward into India. 
The Kelts, the Teutons, the Greeks, Latins, Letts, and 
Sclaves are all European branches of this original stock. 
The Persians and the high caste Hindoos are the prin- 
cipal descendants of the southern and south-eastern 

"The chief elements of the British population at the 
present time are Keltic, re]:»resented by the "Welsh, 
Irish, and Gaelic tribes ; ancl the Teutonic, which in- 
cludes Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, and Danish and 
Norse Scandinavians. 

" The non-Aryan races inhabiting Europe are the 
Magyars, Turks, Tatars, and Ugrians in liussia, the 
Basques in SjDain and the south-west of France, and 
the Laps and Fins in Northern Europe." 

Thus far we have the history of the origin of the 
present inhabitants of Europe of Aryan descent, and for 
the origin of the more ancient inhabitants I shall quote 
the following from the same interesting and valuable 

"Mr. John Baldwin, in his Frehistoric Nations, con- 
tends that the ' bronze age in Western Europe was in- 
troduced by a foreign people of Cushite race, culture, 
and religion, and that for a very long period it was 
controlled and directed by their influence.'" 

" He further adds : 

' Traditions, by Charles Ilui-awiek, 


" ' The first settlements of tlic Arabian Cushites in 
Spain and Northern Africa cannot have been later than 
five thousand years before the Christian: era Pro- 
bably the Cushite race, religion, and civilisation first 
went to the ancient Finnic people of Britain, Gaul, and 
the Scandinavian countries from Spain and Africa. The 
beginning of the bronze age in these countries Avas 
much older than the period of Tyre. The Tyrian esta- 
blishments in those western countries seem to have been 
later than the Aryan immigration that created the 
Keltic people and languages ; and it may be that the 
Tyrians introduced the ' age of iron' not long after their 
arrival, for it was evidently much older than the time 
of the Romans.' 

" Professor Nilsson refers the ancient bronze instru- 
ments, etc., to Phcenician influence, and describes some 
sculpture on two stones on a tumulus near Kivik, which, 
Mr. Baldwin observes, ' even Sir John Lubbock admits, 
may fairly be said to have a Phoenician or Egyptian 

"Mr. Baldwin traces to Arahian Cushite colonies the 
very ancient civilisation of /Egypt, Chaldasa, and the 
southern portion of India, as well as Phcenicia and the 
western nations. Another stone, described by Pro- 
fessor Nilsson, is an obelisk symbolising Baal. Pte- 
ferring to this monument, JMr. Baldwin says : 

'"The festival of Baal, or Balder, celebrated on Mid- 
summer night in the upper part of Norway, reveals the 
Cushite race, for the midnight fire in presence of the 
midnight sun did not originate in that latitude. This 
festival of Baal was celebrated in the British islands 
until recent times. In the Irisli glossary of Cormac, 
Archbishop of Cashel, written in the beginning of the 
tenth century, the author says, in his time ' four great 
fires were lighted up on the four great festivals of the 
Druids, viz., in February, jMay, August, and November', 
('Nos Galan Gauaf, N'ox Kcil. Hyemis). 'What other 
people could have brought the woi-ship of Baal to 
Western Europe in prehistoric times ? ^Ye see them 


in tlie stone circles, in the ruins at Abury and Stone- 
Iienge, in the festival of Baal that lingered till our own 
times ; and there is something- for consideration in the 
flicfc that Arabia has still the ruins of ancient structures 
precisely like Stonehenge. It is probable that the 
Arabians, or their representatives in Spain and North 
Africa, went northward and began tlie age of bronze 
more than two thousand years before Gadc's (Cadiz) was 
built.' ' ^ 

"Mr. Baldwin draws a marked distinction between the 
modern Mahomedan Semitic population of Arabia and 
their great Cushite, Hamite, or Ethiopian predecessors. 
The former, he says, 'are comparatively modern in 
Arabia,' they have 'appropriated the reputation of tlie 
old race, and have unduly occupied the chief attention 
of modern scholars.' 

"Mr. Palgrave, in his Central and Eastern Arabia, 
describes the ruins of a ' structure' which so nearly 
resembles the famous Wiltshu-e rehc that he calls it an 
'Arabian Stonehenge.' He adds that the natives spoke 
of a similar ancient edifice as still existing in a part of 
the country which he did not visit. Mr. Davies, the 
author of Celtic Researches, refers to a passage in 
Diodorus Siculus, in which it is stated, on the authority 
of Hecata?us, that a round temple existed in Britain 
dedicated to Apollo. Mr. Davies conjectures that Stone- 
henge is the edifice referred to." 

The castle of Gareg Hwfa stood in the townsliip of 
that name, on the banks of the river Efyrnwy. There 
are no vestiges of it now remaining except the foss 
which guai-ded it on the east. It was taken in a.d. 
11G2 by Owain Cyfeiliog and his cousin, Owain ab 
Madog, the latter of whom, after keeping possession of 
it for twenty-five years, was besieged here and slain by 
his relations. 

Within a mile of this castle lies Gwerny Fign, Avhere 
a battle was fought about a.d. 1200.^ 

' Carlisle 'i Top. !):.:(. 
(To be continued.) 


OX so:me of oue EniTisn insctjptioxs. 

We Welsh are indebted to Irish antiquaries, either 
directly or indirectly, for all we know about ogmic in- 
scriptions in this country ; but I protest against their 
claiming them as Irish ; for this method of writing 
was undoubtedly common to the Celts of both islands. 
However, the scarcity of old Welsh materials and some 
important changes of consonants which have taken place 
in Welsh since the date of the oldest British oghams, 
render the Irish claim to them at first sight very 
natural. Thus, not only has s become li, but also qu 
has become p since these oghams were cut, whereas 
Irish still retains s unchanged, and only reduces qu to c. 
On the same ground, however, they might claim the 
oldest of our inscriptions which are cut in lioman 
characters, since the proper names they contain differ in 
no essential point from those in ogham. That they are 
able to identify some of them with names of frequent 
occurrence in old Irish documents, is nothing to the 
point, for the same thing may also be done to a cer- 
tain extent with Gaulish names, seeing that Celtic 
names, all the world over, are, as might be expected, 
much the same. The Irish claims to British oghams I 
hold to be sufficiently refuted by reference to the places 
where they have been found.- Now I venture to pro- 
pose a few conjectures as to how some of them should 
be interpreted. 

The inscribed stone described in the Arch. Camh., 
1861, p. 42, has on it in Iloman characters: 




This is accompanied by an ogham which is said to read 
Trenaccatlo, which I resolve into Tren ac Catlo="Tren 


and Catlo." Tren occurs here in the compound Tren- 
acatus ; also in "Trenegussi fili Macutreni," as to ^vhich 
see Arch. Camh., 1855, p. 9. Catlo I identify with 
Catleu, which occurs in the Liher Landavensis, pp. 132, 
135. The only difterence between Catlo and Catleu is 
tlKit the is diphthongised in the latter and retained 
without modification in the former : compare llo-er and 
llcu-ad. Possibly Tren and Catlo Avere the persons who 
had the monument erected. 

The Fardel stone, described in the Arch. Camh., 18G2, 
p. 134, etc., seems to read in Roman characters fanoxi 
MAQA^RIXI on one side, and on another sagraxvi. 
The ogham seems to read Maqiqici and Svaqquci. The 
latter I substitute, with Mr. Stokes' ap23roval, for the 
usual reading Sfaqquci, which owes its origin to Irish 
antiquaries antedating their f. Where Irish has f the 
Welsh has w with or without a g prefixed ; both repre- 
sent a more original v, which is to be restored to its pro- 
per place in the ogmic alphabet. Now Maqiqici and 
Svaqquci seem to be abbreviations for Maquiquici and 
Svaqquuci, and to be divisible into Maqiii Quid and 
Svaq Quuci respectively. Quuci and Quici are probably 
mere variants from an older i'orm,Quoci; the interchange 
of standi in such cases is very common in the Lib. Land., 
as in such names as Elcu and Elci,Gurcu and Gurci. 
As Mac[ui is just as likely to be a nominative plural as a 
genitive singular, I prefer regarding it as the former : 
then Maqui Qnici^='' filii Quici." Now comes the C|ues- 
tion,what is to be done with Svaqf In the first place, sy 
is the acknowledged antecedent of modern Welsh cliw 
(North Wales) and Im (South Wales and Old Welsh) ; 
in the next place, Svaq ends in a consonant ; words 
which answer to this description for Old Welsh are very 
few — I know of only one, and that is chwcch, "six," 
which must have been in Old Welsh svass or svaks from 
the Indo-European fonn ksvaks, as to which see Fick's 
Diet., Tp. 54. Thus the modern Welsh chice chant, "six 
himdred," implies as its antecedent svec cant, which 
comes sufficiently near our ogmic Svaqquci to induce me 

76 ON SOME OF ou;: eritisii lnscriftioxs. 

to suggest that Svaqquuci=Svaq Quiici=^Scx Quid. 
The two oghams taken together -svill thus stand for 
Svac Quid Maqui Quici^Sex Qulci fiUi Quid. May 
\ve take for granted that the Quici left their name to 
"Cuiclande", or the hundred of Quick, wliich will be 
found mentioned in the Cornish manumissions quoted 
in Haddan and Stuhhs Councils and Ecchs. Documents, 
etc., vol. i, p. 6S9 ? But what about the situation of 

The legend of the Bridell ogham is still suh judice ; 
Dr. Ferguson seems inclined to read Nettasagrommaqi- 
mucoigreci, which I should resolve into Nett a Sagroni 
Maqui MucoiGreci. One can hardly suppose (Sa^fro?/! to 
be other than nominative, as the usual -i of the genitive 
is wanting ; then Macqui must be nominative plural ; 
this forces us to find two nommativeSjiVei'i and Sagrom. 
Nett as Sagrom for Nett ac Sagrom might be expected 
rather than Nett a Sagrom ; but the conjunction seems 
to have been early written simply a, excepting before c, 
t, 2> •■ at any rate, we have a hleuou (=" and hairs") in 
the Luxembourg Folio. The whole ogham would ac- 
cordingly mean "Nett et Sagrom filii Mucoi Greci." 
Sagrom is represented in the Lib. Land, by Gur- 
haereu, p. 191, and also by ILaaru-biu, p. 194, which 
can hardly be anything but a misreading or misspelling 
of Haeruhiu. Mucoi reminds one o? Mocha {Lib. Land., 
pp. 253, 254, 261, 270) and Mugh {Cambro-Brit. SS., 
p. 274). Grcci is represented in theZ('6. Land, by the 
derivative ioxiiyGreciel-ia or G-'reci'eZ-i, pp.1 6 1-63,1 65,1 75. 

With Carantorius {Arch. Camb., 1846, p. 182) may, 
I think, be compared a name which occurs in the Liber 
Landavensis as Cerentir-i, p. 175; Cerennhir, Tp. 230; 
Ccrenhir, p. 203 ; Cherenir, p. 228 ; Cerdihir-o, p. 191. 

Dunocat-i {Arch. Camb., 1847, p. 25) becomes in the 
Lib. Land. Dincat, pp. 194, 217. 

Brohemagl-i {Arch. Camb., 1847, p. 30) is in the 
Lib. Land. Brochmail, pp. 149, 150, 221, 222, 223,225, 
226, 260 ; Brochmail-i, pp. 136, 206 ; Brocmail, p. 124; 
Brochuail, pp. 141, 191, 195, 216, 224. 

o-N SOME OF oxj ii r.niTisii iNsc:;iPTioxs. 77 

Etcrn-o {Arch. Camh., 18-47, jx 201) appears as Etern 
in the Lib. Land., p. 240. 

Yevaf{Arch. Camh., 1 852, p. 93) occurs in thiLih.Land. 
asJouaf, pp. 207, 250. The Annales Cainhrice has leuaf 
frequently, and once the older form lomh, p. 21 (MS. C). 

Moridic {Arch. Camh., 1852, p. 274) occurs also in 
the Lih. Land., pp. 263, 264. 

Vormvini {Arch. Camh., 1857, p. 371) is represented 
in the Ann. Camhrice by Gorvin-i, p. 28. As nearly re- 
lated may be mentioned Goronwy, which occurs in the 
Lib. Land, as Guoruone, p. 194; Guorgonui, p. 212; 
Guoronui, IX 260; Guronui, -0.261 ; Giioronoi,]-)]:,. iw' 

Vendon-i {Arch. Camh. ,1Sd7, p. 164) is represented in 
the Lih. Land, hy Gucnnon-oe (Guenuon-oe, O.), p. 182. 

Briamail {Arch. Camh., 1857, p. 306) occurs in the Bricmail, pp. 137, 140,207; Briavail, p. 135. 

Vitcdiani {Arch. Camh., 1860, p. 52) is represented 
in the Lih. Land, by Vi talis, p. 26. 

Chttorigi {Arch. Camh., 1860, p. 53) is in the Lib. 
Land. Clotri, pp. 168, 169 ; Clodri,pix 175, 176. 

Sagramni {Arch. C'o»i?>., 1860, p. 134) and Saffrom 
in the Biidell ogham are represented in the Lib. 
Land, by Guv-haei-eii, p. 191, and Ilaaruh in, p. 194, 
Avhich stands probably for Ilaeru-hw. 

Cunatami {ih.) is duly represented in the Lih. Ljind. 
by Canatam, p. 228, and Condaf,p. 132. 

Guodel and Guoidil occur as personal names in the 
Lib. Land., pp. 200, 201, 202. They would now be 
Gwyddyl and Givyddel, not to be 'confounded, however, 
with Gwyddyl, " Irishmen," and Gwyddel, "Irishman," 
for these would have been at that time Goidil, Goidel, 
or Guidil, Giiidel ; this might, perhaps, occasion a little 
subtraction from the evidence which is by some ad- 
duced to prove that the Gael once ruled over AVales, 
leaving reminiscences behind him of his sojourn here in 
such names as Gwyddel wern, etc.; with which compare 
Lecguoidcl, which occurs in the Co.mbro-Britifh Saints, 
p. 91. J. Ehys. 

citat;ter t,y i^tchat^b tti as lord of 

Vt'^HAT is writ ten in a previous number' concerning the 
charter by Eichard, Earl of Warwick, applies also to 
the elucidation of the present one, taken also from the 
St. Donat's muniments. Upon the death of the King- 
Maker in 1471, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, in right 
of his wife, held the lordship of Glamorgan. She died, 
as his Queen, IGth March, 1481, three weeks after the 
date of the charter, and he seems to have held the lord- 
ship till his own death at Bosworth, 22nd August, 1485. 
One of his acts seems to have been to provide for Sir 
JamesTyrrell, the chief of the reputed murderers of the 
Princes, as his deputy in Wales. The provision, more- 
over, must have been a handsome one, to judge from 
the schedule of Tyrrell's Glamorganshire property, drawn 
up by an inquisition taken on the accession of Henry VII. 

Carta likdrJi IIP" Reqis Anqlie, etc., Jolianni FpiscojW 


20 Fehr'ii, 1 Eic. HI, 14Si. 

Piicarclus dei gi-acia Eex Anglie et Francie et Dominus Hiber- 
uie uecnon Dominus Glamorganie et Morganie in partibus Wallie 
Eeverendo in CLristo patii domino Jolianni eadem gracia epi- 
scopo Landavensis saluteni Cum dilecti burgenses et tenentes 
nostri resideutes et inliabitantes villam nostram sive l)ui;gum 
nostrum de Ko-\vbrygge facere et procurare intendant quod unum 
capeUanuni idoneimi divina in ecclesia sive capeUa Sancte Crucis 
de Kowbrygge predicta eisdem inliabitantibus continue celebra- 
tururn atqiie sacramenta et sacramentalia quociens opus sit ad- 
ministraturum ex fructibus et preventibus decimarum ac obveu- 
cionum ab ipsis inhabitantibus proveniencium exliibitum et 
inventum habere valeant et ad id pro perpetuo stabiliendum 
quamdam ordinacionem sive provisiouem aliani quocunque no- 
mine censeatur inter eosdeni inliabitantes et resideutes et moder- 
num vicariura de Llanbletliean et successores suos quoscunque 
vicarios futures ibidem vestro arbitrio sive auctoritate ordi- 
naria semper valiturain fieri petant et exposcant nobis suppli- 

1 Arch. Camh., 4th Series, vol. iii, p. 33. 

Seal of } b lui III, 1=; DuVe of Glouce^tei mil I oi 1 of G 


cantes et qnatenus ad id ut piernittitur faciendum nostrum 
cnnsensum ct auxiliuni adhiliore dignaiemur Xos vero pie con- 
siderantes de\'otani intencioneui dictoruni Lurgensium residen- 
cium et tenenciiim iiostrorum villam nostrani sive burgum nos- 
trum do Kowbrygge predictum inhabitancium ad divini cultus 
augmentum et animanim eoruudeni salutem tendere justise.orum 
desidei'iis annuendum fore dimmus atque ordinaciouem liujiis- 
modi per vos faciendum nostrum consensum in hiis scrii^tis gra- 
ciose impartimur A''os nicliilhomiuus rec^uirendens per presen- 
tes quatenus ad perpetuam firmitatem dicte ordinaciouis nicliil 
quod in vobis est deesse videatur qiiiu ea celeritate C[ua poteritis 
vestrum pastorale officium et paternum favorem in premissis 
sicnt no! lis complacere intendetis indilate adhibere dignemini. 
Datum tam sub signeto nostro manuale quam sub sigillo cancel- 
larie nostre de Kaerdifi' vicesimo septimo die Ffebruarii anno 
regni nostri primo. 

The king's seal in red wax is affixed. It was about 
two inches and a quarter across, and, though mutilated, 
Avhat remains is remarkably clear, and boldly cut, and 
highly finished. On the upper side is a shield per pale, 
Baron and Femrne ; Baron quarterly, France modern 
and England ; over all a label of three points : Femme, 
per fess, — 1, Beauchamp; 2, Newburgh, on the chevron 
five ermine spots chevronwise. The dexter supporter 
is a boar ; the other is lost. There is no crest. On the 
reverse is a knight in armoiu- on horseback, his sword 
raised, and his shield shewn in full charge, with the 
arms as described. These are repeated on the caparisons. 
Below the horse is a boar passant. The legend is lost 
on both sides, but this is clearly the shield cut for 
Pilchard as Duke of Gloucester and Lord of Glamorgan, 
and still used when he came to the throne. 

The charter v/as probably drawn up in haste. The 
writing, though slovenly, is tolerably well preserved and 
perfectly plain. Richard, according to the Irish letter 
printed by Sir H. Nicolas, came to the throne 26th 
Jime, 1483, wherefore the date of this charter Avill be 

G. T. C. 



SixCE the accounts oi tlie Bi'oadward find in tlie last 
number of the Journal were printed, comnrunications 
have been received from several distinguished archaso- 
loo'ists, all agi-eeing that, whatever may be the real his- 
tory and nature of the more remarkable specimens, no- 
thing like them has yet been found in these islands. 
Even in Ireland, where, at least, they might have been 
expected to have been discovered, they do not appear 
to be known. Perhaps further light may be thrown on 
then* probable date when the numerous bones, most of 
which certainly seem to have been contemporaneous 
with them, can be collected together and submitted to 
the examination of Professor Owen. Some large teeth, 
in excellent preservation, being part of the same find, 
were submitted to that gentleman, who, with his Avell 
known courtesy, gave it as his opinion that they v/ere 
chiefly teeth of a small eciuine species. Two of them 
were identical with those figured in cuts 157 and 15S of 
\ns British Fossil Mojnmals. This species the Professor 
has traced from the deposits of the reindeer and mam- 
moth periods to the time indicated by bronze imple- 
ments ; and the blood of what the Professor then termed 
asinusfossilis, no doubt, he thinks, flows in some of the 
smaller existing varieties of the equine. But to distin- 
guish between the ass and small horse something more 
than mere teeth is required. It seems, therefore, highly 
desu-able that as many as possible of the other bones 
should be looked after and submitted to the Professor. 
Amono- the various bronze articles, one was purposely 
omitted, as it was considered desirable to have it ex- 
amined by more practised and experienced authorities 
before publishing it in the pages of the Society's Journal. 
Several have examined it with care, but do not seem 
quite certain whetlier it is a new kind of bronze imple- 
ment, not very unlike a modern spud, or whether it is 



only the mutilated stump of an ovdiuavy speav-head. 
To this hitter view one or two objections seem to sug- 
gest themselves, one of which is the small and slender 
proportion of the socket to the complete weapon, if that 
was a spear or lance-head. Another objection is that 
the form of the speai head must h"l^e been of a very 
unusual type is v,ill 1 i hl\ ] ticeued on a reference 

to the engraving from the accurate representation of 
the original by Arthur Gore, Esq. The ordinary raised 
central rib, which, by admitting a stouter wooden shaft, 
added so materially to the strength of a spear, is in 
this instance wanting, even to a still greater extent 
than in some of the large heads, — a peculiarity which 
formed so striking a feature of the Broadward find. 
On the opposite face of the implement not the slightest 
rudiment of such a rib exists, and never could have 
existed unless this face has suffered some enormous 
pressure, so as to have crushed it into one flat, uniform 
surface. But this does not seem at all probable, or 
even possiljle ; while the peculiar form of this ftice 
seems to preclude the notion of the implement having 

4th sek., vol. IV. 6 


been pai't of a spear or otlier head. What may be 
culled the cutting edge of the Aveapon, if taken as a 
kind of spud, has also suffered to some extent ; unless, 
as is not impossible, the edge has never been rubbed or 
filed down after coming from the motdd. The metal 
seems to be identically the same as that of the other 
articles found with it. 

As these cox-roded specimens, as previously stated, 
exhibit certain peculiar appearances, some of the more 
imperfect fragments might be advantageously submitted 
to an accurate analysis, so that it may be ascertained 
whether any other metals exist ; and if so, iii what pro- 
portions. The extraordinary alteration caused by the 
oxidation in these cases, is very unlike what is found in 
implements of the ordinary bronze period. 

In the same hole from which the bronzes were taken 
were found the imperfect remains of a small m-n, which 
is here represented from a ch-awing of the Rev. T. Owen 
Eocke, to whose active assistance in making piiblic the 
history of this important discoveiy the antiquarian 
world is so deeply indebted. At the time of its disco- 
very the nrn was perfect, but was broken in its removal 
by the men employed on the draining. A small por- 
tion of it, moreover, had crumbled away; but there 
was ample material to enable Mr. Eocke to reproduce 
it. As the water flowed in with great rapidity, the 
men, in their hurry, seem not to have noticed whether 
it stood in an inverted position or not; but as far as can 
be judged from the shape, it was probably not intended 
to be so placed. The form is by no means of the earliest 
character, while the diamond-shaped ornament is of 
common occurrence, and is more frequently found on 
GauUsh or Eomano-Gallic pottery. The height is five 
inches and three-eighths. The general outline of the urn 
itself is somewhat unlike that of ordinaiy British urns.^ 

It is much to be regretted that no opportunity occur- 

' The Penqiiite um figured ia Ncenia ConmhicB (p. 229) is exactly 
similai-; so also is that found at Droitwich, and that at Bagshot, 
both of which \yere said to be found near Roman remains. The 
latter was six inches high. (See AUics' Antiquities of Worcestershire.) 



red of superintending tlie labourers duiing their work- 
ing, not only in order to secure the more gentle handling 
and better preservation of the remains, but also the 
preventing any of them from being secreted, and subse- 
quently disposed of, as is thought to 'have occurred on 
this occasion. Judicious directions at the time might 
also, perhaps, have led to still further discoveries. How- 
ever, if such, opportunities did not occur, yet there 
remains the satisfaction that all that vi'as recovered is 
at present in good hands, and taken care of How far 

the present owner of them may be induced to consign 
some of the most perfect specimens to any of our three 
national museums, is a question that can only be 
answered by himself; but so deposited, they would not 
only be much more extensively known, but more likely 
to be preserved rn greater security than if made heir- 
looms of the family estate. E. L. Barnwell. 



There are few districts in Wales more deserving tlie 
notice of those who take an interest in its antiquities 
than the portion of Merioneth which is roughly marked 
out by the sea and its estuaries, north and south, and 
the Ardudwy range of hills. Protected to the east by 
this range, by water on its other sides, and sloping 
gently downwards towards the west and coast, it pre- 
sents advantages which must have attracted the atten- 
tion of intending settlers as being a desirable situation 
both as regards convenience and security. That such 
was the fact may be inferred from the vast number of 
remains left by some tribe or other Avho have bequeathed 
the ruins of their houses, enclosures, fortresses, and 
graves, to such an extent that it is not, perhaps, 
to name any part of North or South Wales where so 
numerous and important vestiges of the kind exist. 
That they are not more generally known is not surpris- 
ing, as they principally occur in situations seldom ex- 
plored by ordinary visitors ; the majority of whom, 
moreover, even if they traverse the district, would 
probably be looking out for romantic scenery or more 
picturesque ruins, and therefore might easily overlook 
these less striking remains. Even the majority of resi- 
dents probably do not attach much more importance to 
them ; or if they have paid some little attention to them, 
they have not given the pubhc the benefit of their ob- 
servations; so that, with the exception of one or two who 
have really devoted time and laboin- to the subject, it 
may be assumed that the whole district may be consi- 
dered comparatively unknown. Pennant, indeed, tra- 
versed a portion of this district, and mentions some of 
the more strikuig of its monuments in a ciu'sory manner; 
but from his omissions it may be fairly inferred that he 
was not aware how thickly tliese relics of former times 


are scattered tlirougliout its wliole extent. Even in 
liis imperfect account of the Carneddau Hengwm lie 
takes no notice of tlie numerous remains in their im- 
mediate neighbourhood, althougli those remains must 
have been much more numerous and perfect in his tune 
than they are at present. At the date of his visit the 
mountain slopes were unenclosed. Since that time 
innumerable lofty walls intersect the land hi all direc- 
tions ; and that these walls were principally built of 
the materials close at hand, is not only probable from 
the stones being easily obtained, but because the wall- 
buildei-s of the present day invariably find such stones 
much better adapted for their work than those which 
they could obtain from other sources. 

Although there is no question as to the early occupa- 
tion of this part of Wales, there does exist some doubt 
as to the route by which it was originally reached. 
There were apparently two principal modes of access, 
namely, by sea on the west side, or the mountain range 
on the east, through the natural defiles which occur 
here and there throughout their length. The two 
Traeths on the north, and the estuary of the Barmouth 
river on the south, were probably not the routes. They 
are inconvenient at the present time, and were, no 
doubt, still more so at an earlier period. 

But whatever the route (and there may have been 
more than one), there is indisputable evidence of a mari- 
time population where there is none at present. At the 
Machynlleth Meeting Dr. Griffith Griffith of Taltreuddyn 
first directed the attention of the members to the fact 
that on the sea-shore, by Mochras, aircl near the mouth 
of the Artro, are numei'o\is sand-heaps, under which 
are bones of various animals, stones more or less burnt, 
and other vestiges of human beings. These heaps lie 
along the shore at intervals, and must be considered 
identical with the "kitchen-middens" of Denmark in 
character, if not in their actual contents. That the 
authors of these mounds came by sea will be generally 
admitted. On the slopes of the hills running parallel 

86 raiM.LVAL MiaaoxKTii. 

with the hue of coast, at different elevations, are innu- 
merahle remains of dwelhngs, enclosures, graves, and 
fortified strongholds; which last, almost' without excep- 
tion, seem to be connected either with the passes and 
hnes of communication, or were places of retreat in cases 
of emergency. In addition to these are the two singular 
stone flights of stairs through passes in the mountain : 
one is above Cwm Bychau, the other is in Bwlch Drws 
Ardudwy, — a name, perhaps, indicating that this was a 
principal route, and which in Pennant's time retained 
the remains of a cross-wall, wdrich added still greater 
security to the pass. These stairs are built of large 
slabs resting on rude courses of rough masonry, and 
having shghtly raised curbs, especially on the outside, a 
sufficient protection in the niglit time. It is, however, 
here proper to observe that the real history of these 
stairs is not entirely free from doubt. They have been 
ascribed to tliose generally called ancient Bi-itons, to 
the Piomans, and even by some to a still later period. 
The more general opinion is, however, against this last 
suggestion. As regards the first two opinions, that 
which assigns them to the British is the one most in 
favour ; but whether prior or subsequent to Pioman 
times is a matter of considerable doubt. Whatever, 
however, may be their origin, it is unquestionable that 
they are of very considerable antiquity, and unlike any- 
thing of the kind in Wales. The accompanying repre- 
sentation of a small portion of the stepped road above 
Cwm Bychan, and which is from a drawing of Mr. J. T. 
Blight, will convey some idea of these curious mountain 
roads. (See Plate 1.) 

The most important remains principally occur between 
Harlech and Llanaber parishes. Above Harlech Castle 
are extensive enclosures more or less jierfect, with clus- 
ters of chcular dwellings, the whole assemblage being 
called in the Ordnance Map " Miuiau Gwyddelod," 
although the term seems to ajDply more correctly to the 
walls of the enclosures than to the dwellings. The walls 
of these latter were in 186S (when they were visited by 


tlie Association) from six to seven feet liigli. It is not 
improbable that the rock on %Yhich Harlech Castle 
stands was originally occupied by an earlier work, as its 
character Avould peculiarly adapt it for defensive pur- 
poses. If such a stronghold clid exist, and at a time 
vlien the sea washed tire base of the rock, it might have 
easily served as the temporary refuge of the occupants 
of the Muriau Gwyddelod above. Almost universally, 
in this particular district, such a place of refuge exists 
near the remains of habitations ; and although such 
strongholds generally occupy higher ground than the 
settlement, yet the Harlech Eock might, in this case, 
be an exception ; and being so easily reached, as well 
as being almost impregnable, would counterbalance any 
objectioii as to its being below the hill on which the 
houses stand. 

In such unsettled times the rude huts and enclo- 
sures could have been no protection against attack, and 
hence the imperative necessity of some strong central 
point of retreat. Hence, when the Normans overran 
South Wales, where two hostile races were near neigh- 
bours for so long a tune, they built their castles all over 
the district, which Avere not so much strong strategic 
centres, like the greater Edwardian castles, as places of 
temporary refnge. Even the towers of the churches, 
especially m the south, were utilised in the same man- 
ner. Similar causes must have led to similar effects, and 
hence the fact of oru- finding hiu-e the same arrange- 
ments ; so that in these remoter locahties an ancient 
fortalice is rarely found without vestiges of a neighbour- 
ing population. An instance of this occurs not far from 
Penarth, m Llanbedr parish, where we have a fortified 
height ; but in this case the graves that have been left 
in excellent condition, and which cover one slope of the 
hill, are more numerous than the vestiges of dweUuigs 
below, which have been principally removed in the culti- 
vation of the land. 

Another but smaller work is at Pen yr Allt, but it 
seems to have been rather connected with the valley of 


the Artro and tlie road leading to the mountain pass 
above Cwm Bychan. The h\nd, however (as in the case 
of Peoarth), around it having been under cultivation 
for a considerable period, the traces of early dwellings 
have been long since removed. But whatever the parti- 
cular importance of the work, it was fortified with great 
care ; the walls in some parts being nearly six feet 
high, and built with considerable cai'e, as may be seen 
from the accompanying specimen of the masonry. (See 
Plate 2.) 

But the most striking instance is that of Craig y 
Dinas, above the house of Cors y Gedol, and Avhich must 
have served not only as a refuge to the inhabitants of 
the buildings so thickly scattered over the intervening- 
ground, but must also have commanded all communica- 
tion with the mountains behind. How thickly this par- 
ticular district must have at one time been inhabited, 
is shown not only by the fovindation of houses and 
circles, but by tlie numbers of graves, independent of 
those marked out by the numerous cromlechs once 
standing, and still remaining, althougli in such greatly 
diminished number. 

Proceeding still further southwards, along the side of 
the mountain, now cut up into numerous enclosures by 
high stone walls, similar remains to those already men- 
tioned will be found scattered about ; which must have 
been much more numerous if they served as the quarries 
for the construction of the wall, as no doubt they did, 
for the reason previously stated. 

Among other examples mAj be noticed, near some 
running water, the remains of a wall which had been 
originally composed of two luies of upright slabs, the 
intermediate space having been filled up Avith smaller 
stones. Tills wall seems to have been part of a square 
enclosure or dwelhng, probably supplied by this very 

At some short distance beyond this wall Ls the ex- 
tensive fortress of Pen Dinas, diftering considerably 
from that of Craig y Dinas in extent, in mode of con- 


struction, and in situation. The elevated ground on 
Avhicli it stands eft'ectually commands the two routes 
running north, namely, the one between it and the sea- 
shore, and that which ran from Bwlch Ilhiwgwr to-svards 
Cors y Gedol, and apj^arently the older and more fre- 
quented one. 

In the vicinity of this latter road, and overlooked by 
Pen Dinas, originally existed a large population, who 
occupied the ground between the fortress and the Cwm, 
which is remarkable for having the prefix of " Hen," as 
if this valley was distinguished in early times as older 
than other valleys. The prefix is common enough in 
such words as Henllan, Henblas,Henffbrdd, Henegiwj's, 
etc.; but then such instances mark the works of men. 
The singularity in the present case seems to be that it 
is applied to a natural valley; for although such valleys 
may have been formed by natural causes at different 
periods, so that some are older than others, yet these 
changes must have taken place at such a very remote 
time, — anterior, in most instances, to the mammoth 
period, — that it is impossible to conceive that those who 
gave the name of Hengwm could have known or ever 
dreamt of the changes that had taken place centuries 
before their own time. But perhaps it is not so diffi- 
cult, in the present mstance, to account for this par- 
ticular valley being distinguished as old, because those 
who gave the name probably found buildings and other 
evidences of a people of whose history or name they 
knew nothing, and thus distinguished this particular 
sj^ot by designating it as old. 

The selection of this site for a settlement showed 
considerable judgment. It was suSiciently elevated 
above the lower and marshy land ; it was protected by 
the mountains on the east, and by the height of Pen 
Dinas on the opposite side ; it sloped downwards 
towards the south, and was am2-)ly pirovided Avith run- 
ning water and pasturage for cattle. That so few 
houses and enclosures have been left standing is ex- 
plained by the demand for materials for the numerous 


walls that now cut up the mountain. Still, however, 
sufficient indications remain which serve to give some 
outlines of the domestic arrangements in more than one 
instance. One has been selected for illustration, a por- 
tion of which is represented in Plate 3, from a careful 
drawing of the Rev. W. Eraser Handcock, who on this 
occasion kindly placed his skilful pencil at the disposal 
of the Society. This building consisted of a circular 
and rectangular chamber, — an aiTangement similar to 
the Bosphrennis house visited during the Cornish Meet- 
in g of the A ssociation ; the only difterence being that 
in the Cornish example a low doorway existed between 
the two. In this instance the only communication is 
a small window, as represented in the illustration. In 
the Bosjjhrennis house a window also occurs in the rect- 
angular chamber; but it was opposite to the door of 
communication, and therefore opened on the exterior of 
the building, diftering in this respect from the one 
here described. Another distinct feature is a narrow 
passage at the rear of the rectangular chamber, the 
pui'pose of which is not evident, although it clearly 
belonged to this building, and was no portion of an ad- 
joining one. The dimensions of the two chambers are 
as follow : the round one, 20 feet in diameter; the other 
nearly 12 feet by 7. 

At a short distance from this house is another group 
of chambers of very irregular form, and probably form- 
ing part of one dwelling, which must in this case have 
been of a much more elaborate character than is usually 
the case in such primitive structures. 

Thei"e are other numei-ous remains, but of a more 
simple character, scattered about, but sadly mutilated. 
One, however, of which a view is here given (Plate 4), 
has evidently been added to in later times for the pur- 
pose of enclosing sheep or cattle, and it is only by a 
careful examination of the masonry that the original 
portions can be distinguished from the modern addi- 
tions. Advantage has been taken of a running stream 
to convert it into what is evidently a washing-place of 

ITJM.iiVAL MKIUO-Ximi. 91 

These few observations ma}', perhaps, convey some 
idea of the traces of an early occupation, even after a 
continual destruction of them which may • have been 
going on for centuries. If, however, this early people, 
of whatever race they were, have not l,eft more substan- 
tial and enduring e\'idences of the dwellings they occu- 
pied during life, they have certainly made up for any 
deficiency of the kind by the manner in which they pro- 
vided the repositories of their bodies after life. To 
secure their graves from violation by men or animals, 
and provide, as far as they could, against tlie effects of 
tune, they built up those huge chambers and enveloped 
them in mighty motmds, little dreaming of the nonsense 
that future reputed antiquaries would, in after ages, 
talk and write about their sleeping-places. 

The Carneddau Hengwm do not, perhaps, contain any 
of those larger and more massi^'e chambers ; but liy 
their mode of construction and arrangement it is evident 
that those who built them endeavoured to carry out 
the same security. Whatever difference exists must be 
assigned rather to the nature of the available materials 
than to any other cause. 

These two earns lie nearly north and south, parallel 
to and near each other. The largest is about 150 feet 
long at present, but has evidently been longer, and is, 
in this respect alone, unequalled in Wales. It has, 
indeed, been the fashion, and is so even to this day, to 
divide mounds or barrows of this kind into various 
kinds, such as the conical, bell, flat, egg, twin-ring bar- 
rows, etc., as if they were distinct in essential points 
or in contents ; but such divisions are not only useless, 
but mischievous, as encouraging the not uncommon mis- 
take of trying to assign different dates and uses for 
what are in reality identically the same m all essentials. 
There is, however, one exception to the general miiform 
nature of all such mounds and barrows, and that is the 
division into round and long ones ; for in these two Dr. 
Thurnam (an authority on the subject not to be easily 
set aside) has shown that each kind of moimd contained 


the remains of a distinct race, one having long shaped, 
the others round skulls. Unfortunately no skull from 
Carneddau Hengwm has been preserved'; and although 
a portion of the larger of the two earns seems to have 
been undisturbed, yet the chance of finding any evi- 
dence that these earns were built by the same people 
that raised the long mounds on the Wiltshire plains is 
extremely small. At present, therefore, there is no evi- 
dence that these earns were erected by a different race 
from those that piled up the ordinary round ones. That 
these long ones may be earlier is not improbable, and 
the distinguishing the valley itself as old seems to con- 
firm the suggestion. There, at any rate, must have 
been some particular reason for a peculiar arrange- 
ment, as within three or four miles, on the same moun- 
tain rauo-e, are innumerable single earns scattered about 
Avithout any apparent order, presenting such a striking 
contrast to these tAvo elongated ones, which seem to 
have been the common, if not the only, burial-ground of 
the settlement. 

The smaller of the two cams has been almost entirely 
denuded of its tipper stones, so that the various em- 
bedded cists, more or less perfect, are visible. Plate 5 
presents the interior of one of the most perfect. It is 
nearly rectangular, measuring six feet by four; but the 
slabs are thin, and seem to have been brought from the 
rocks below, where a modern but unsuccessful slate- 
quarry has been opened. At the southern extremity is 
a more impoi-tant cist or chamber surmounted with a 
massive capstone, and having much more substantial 
sides than the exposed cists. The capstone lies nearly 
east and west; but which was the original entrance 
cannot be ascertained until the choked up ground is 
cleared out. The cists could not, apparently, have had 
capstones of the same massive character, as their more 
slender walls would not have supported such a pressure ; 
and some remains of them would probably have been 
left, which is not the case. The chamber that does bear 
the large capstone was probably the resting-place of 

> m..- 


i i 


some distingniishcd ineinbev of the community. What 
may have been the original length of this earn it is 
impossible to say, as it has certainly furnished materials 
for the wall Iwilt near it. 

As regards, ho^^■ever, the larger cam, the same uncer- 
tainty exists, although the wall already mentioned is 
carried over it, and cuts oft' its noithern extremity. This 
extremity in its present state is marked by the import- 
ant remains of a large chamber, some of the upright 
stones of which are still in theii- places. The height of 
these stones (about 9 feet) is such that if the earn 
terminated here, its termination must have been too 
abrupt, and could not have gradually sloped down to 
the ground, as does the southern termination. That 
the original mound was carried farther north than the 
ruined cromlech can hardly be doubted, especially as the 
stones would be useful for the wall, and the ground 
would at the same time be cleared. 

In Plate 6 will be seen the capstone, or one of the 
capstones. One capstone would not have been suffi- 
cient. It is much more massive than the uprights, as 
might be expected, but far inferior in that res|)ect to 
either of the great covering stones stiU remaining in the 
southern part of this and the extremity of the smaller 

On the other side of the wall is a chamber surmounted 
with a large capstone. Pennant's account represents a 
very difterent state to that which at present exists. He 
speaks of " a large cromlech supported with upright 
stones. It is now converted into a retreat for a shep- 
herd, who has placed stone seats within, and formed a 
chimney through the loose stones above." By "crom- 
lech" he means here the capstone only, although he has 
just before employed the word in its ordinary sense. 
At present the capstone is supported by the walls of 
the chamber, consisting of diy masonry, which must 
have been built before the removal of the upright slabs 
Pennant speaks of The iiTCgular form of the chamber, 
and perhaps the character of the masonry, point to late 

94 riini.EVAL meiuoneth. 

^vork; but there was certainly a gallery of approach, of 
about ten or eleven feet long, inferior layers of Avhich 
are still in position. The remains of a broken seat are 
still lying within the chamber, and may be part of what 
Pennant saw. Nothing remains of the chinniey. Pen- 
nant speaks of a third cromlech, whicli has entirely 

There is some evident confusion in his account. He 
speaks of only two earns or mounds of stones, and yet 
he describes the shepherd's hut as if it was covered by 
a distinct and separate heap : hence has arisen his error 
of stating the earn to be 55 ft. long, whereas it is nearly 
three times that length even as it now stands, exclu- 
sive of the portion on the other side of the wall. Of 
the three cromlechs he mentions, the only remains now 
existing are those partially represented in Plate 6, and 
the capstone over the shepherd's hut. Not even the 
site of the largest chamber is known, although it had a 
capstone of 12 feet by 9 feet in Pennant's time. What 
chambers or rehcs of chambers may still be concealed 
\mder this vast pile of stones is a matter of conjecture; 
but if any iinference may be drawn from the companion 
mound, there probably are such remains. 

Whether, in the parallelism of these two lines of 
stones, some traces of the alignment system may be 
recognised, is a suggestion respectfully submitted to 
the opinion of the learned. Had the covering of stones 
been so removed as to leave standing the various cham- 
bers they concealed, — and tliis would certainly have 
been the case even in such a situation, if, mstead of 
stones, the enveloping material had been rich and valu- 
able soil, — we shoidd have had at least thi-ee, if not 
more, rows of monuments ; or, rather, supposing that 
the larger earn does contain other rows of chambers, as 
the smaller one, two groups of parallel lines with a cer- 
tain space between each group. Some instances occur 
in Lower Brittany of such rows of cists, which would 
not be very dissimilar to the two hypothetically denud- 
ated earns. 

But irrespective of such conjectures, ^^■hich are seldom 
of much importance, althougii they may evince fertility 
of imagination, it may be confidently stated that no- 
where throughout Wales or England does there exist 
any monument equal to that of Carneddau Hengwm. 

E. L. Barnwell. 


The late Lady Frances Verxox Harcouut.— Arcbajologists will 
regret the demise of an intelligent and liberal sympathiser with 
their pursuits. The Lady Frances Vernon Harcourt, of the Homme 
near Weobley, and of Eywood near Kington, Herefordshire, died at 
the latter place on the Uth of October. The deceased lady was the 
widow of Colonel Henry Vernon Harcourt, fifth son of Archbishop 
Harcourt of York, and the fourth daughter of Edward, fifth Earl of 
Oxford and Mortimer. Within the last summer she had succeeded, 
npon the death of her sister. Lady Langdale, to the ancestral estates 
of Eywood and Brampton Bryan. 

Members of the Cambrian Archreological Society, who attended 
the meetings at Kington and at Hereford, will remember that by 
her loans of miniatures, water-colours, and other curiosities, she 
contributed not a little to the success of the temporary museuus. 
A clever painter in water-colours herself, she had made drawings of 
the best examples of the Herefordshire timber-houses, which are 
fast disappearing, and of which the memory, in years to come, will 
survive, if at all, through the preservation of such drawings. To 
the Rev. T. T. Lewis, late rector of Bridstow near Ross, and editor, 
for the Camden Society, of the Life of Lady BrilUana Barley, her 
heroic ancestress, Lady Frances Harcourt rendered much assistance 
in the preparation of that work; and of her liberality in aidino-, 
from her family papers, researches in past history or biography, a 
more recent instance occurs to us a propos of Mr. "Wharton Jones' 
Life and Death of Bishop Bedell, published this year for the Camden 
Society. One author of a Life of Bedell was his stepdaughter's 
husband, Alexander Clogie, some time vicar of Wigmore, Hereford- 
shire, respecting whom Mr. "Wharton Jones lacked all proof that he 
was a Scotchman until Lady Frances communicated to him a docu- 
ment settling the question. This was a petition on the part of the 
pnrish of "Wigmore for licence unto their vicar, the Rev. Alexander 
Clogie, to stay in England, an Act passed in IC50, "injoyning the 
departure of all Scotsmen out of England," notwithstanding. Other 
light is thrown on collateral matters in the same volume, through 
the Harloy Papers, which were rescued from oblivion and arranged 


by Lady Frances Harcourt in the later years of her father's life- 
time. This is not so much a personal as a public obituary notice, or 
■we might say somewhat of the charm of Lady Frances Harcourt 's 
conversation and genuine kindliness, which endeared her to an nn- 
nsually attached circle of friends. The deceased lady was in her 
sixty-eighth year. 

The late ilr. Edwix Nonius. — In the death of Mr. Edwin Norris, 
which took place at Brompton on the 10th of December last, not 
only has our Association lost an eminent member, but Celtic scholar- 
ship and Oriental philology have been deprived of one of their 
brightest ornaments. For the following particulars of his life and 
works we are mainly indebted to a notice which appeared in a recent 
number of the Academy. 

He was born at Taunton, Oct. 24, 1705 ; and in his youth spent 
several yeai-s abroad, in the capacity of a private tutor. His first 
appointment was a clerkship in the India House. He afterwards be- 
came one of the interpreters to the Foreign Office ; and his services 
in this capacity were acknowledged by a small pension, which enabled 
him to devote the last ten years of his life entirely to his favourite 
studies. The post, however, with which his name more readily 
associates itself is the secretaryship of the Asiatic Society, which he 
occupied for more than twenty-five years, and which was the real 
turning-point of his career. The duties attaching to his office, espe- 
cially the editorship of the Society's journal, and the constant 
opportunities afforded him for associating and corresponding with 
the best Oriental scholars and antiquarians of the day, English and 
foreign, coupled with a natural taste for philological research, went 
far to efface the traces of a want of early philological training, and 
to impart to his mind that breadth of information which soon be- 
came so well appreciated by the many students who consulted him. 

But the time soon came when the critical sagacity and patient 
industry of Mr. Norris were put to a more serious test. In 1845 
impressions, very faint and indistinct, on pieces of cotton-cloth, 
taken by Mr. Masson from the rock- inscription of King Asoka, near 
Kapur di Giri, were placed at the disposal of the Society; and 
Mr. Norris at once undertook the diflioult task of deciphering this 
curious document, and producing a correct representation of it on a 
reduced scale, for publication in the Society's journal. The mas- 
terly and thoroughly satisfactory manner in which he accomplished 
this fully deserved the terms of admiration freely bestowed 
npon it by scholars like Professor Wilson, then Director of the 
Asiatic Society. 

The following year, however, was destined to turn Mr. Norris' 
energies into a new channel of research, too attractive to be ever 
again abandoned. The immediate occasion was Major (now Sir 
Henry) Eawlinson's copy and analysis of the great cuneiform record 
of Darius Hystaspes at Behistun in Persia. It fell to Mr. Norris' 
lot to carry this important memoir through the press ; and so 

Or.ITUARY. 97 

thoronglil_y did ho penetrate, by unwearied exertion, tlie m3'steries 
of the newly disclosed dialect, that not only did ho render essential 
service to the early publications of Sir Henry Rawlirison (whose 
official employment at Baghdad prevented their being revised by 
himself, thus saving them from being ushered into the world in a 
comparatively imperfect state), but Oriental scholars soon learned to 
look upon him as one of the chief authorities in cuneiform philo- 
logy. Besides several papers on these subjects, contributed by 
Mr. Norris to the Journal of the Asiatic Socidij, the most important 
of which is his "Memoir on the Scythic Version of the Behistun 
Inscription" (vol. xv, 1855), he assisted Sir Henry Rawlinson in 
publishing, for the British Museum, two volumes of cuneiform 
inscriptions, thereby furnishing ample materials for more extended 
cuneiform researches (1861-C6). The chief result, however, of these 
studies, and the work which, though incomplete, and however 
modestly put forth, marks an epoch in cuneiform studies, is Mr. 
Norris' Assiirian Didionarij. Three volumes of this work were pub- 
lished in IStlS, 1870, and 1872, respectively, comprising the letters 
Aleph to Nun. iluch of the contents of these volumes may, no 
doubt, become antiquated, and many of the tentative meanings 
assigned to words may be rejected hereafter; still they will always 
be acknowledged to contain a great amount of useful and trust- 
worthy information, showing on every page the vast extent of Mr. 
Norris' reading ; while those who use his work cannot but admire the 
singular candour and modesty with which he places before his 
fellow students the results of his inquiries. 

The works hitherto mentioned, whilst they are the principal, aro 
by no means the sole fruits of Mr. Norris' philological labours. For 
some time he paid great attention to the Celtic di.alects, of which he 
possessed a most consummate knowledge ; and in 1859 he published, 
in two volumes, the text and translation of three Cornish Dramas, 
constituting by far the greater portion of the relics of Cornish lite- 
rature then" known to exist. By the publication of this important 
work, the Rev. Robert Williams was enabled to complete his Cornish 
Dictionary. Of Mr. Norris' other publications may be mentioned : 
A Specimen of the Vai Language of West Africa (1851) ; A Grammar 
of the Bornu or Kanuri Language (1853) ; and Dialogues and a Small 
Portion of the Neiv Testament r.i the English, Arabic, Haiissa, and 
Bornu Languages (1853). With many of the dialects of Oceania ho 
was well acquainted. His Maori Grammar was translated into Ger- 
man, and published in 1846. In 1855 he brought out a new edition, 
in two volumes, of Dr. Prichard's Natural ^Eistory of Man, with 
valuable additions of his own. 

A disposition naturally modest and retii-ing impeded the recogni- 
tion of Mr. Norris' merits in the gi-eat world. His only honours 
were a foreign membership of the German Oriental Society, and a 
Bonn honorary degree of Doctor of Philosophy. But none who had 
the happiness of his acquaintance, or who have carefully studied 
■1th si;r..,voi,. iv. 7 

98 r'or.KEsroNDEXOEr 

any of his works, will withhold their tribute to such a rare nnion of 

Mr. Norris, we may add, joined our Association at the time of the 
Cornish Jleetiiig, in 18G'2, and continued its lirm friend until the 
hand of death severed him from all earthly ties. 





Sir, — Leaving Blaenafon, the thriving town near the source of the 
Afon Lwyd or Torfacn, in the company of a friend, I strolled in the 
direction of the Blorenge Mountain. Climbing the ascent known 
by the historical name of Bunker's Hill (named after the first engage- 
ment in the war for American independence), on the right hand side 
of the road leading to Abergavenny wo saw a large upright stone, 
apparently about live yards above the surface of the ground, about 
a yard and a half broad at its base, and nearly as deep. It is com- 
posed of sandstone, and is situated at a spot which commands a fine 
view of the valley of the Torfaen, and of the large works which sus- 
tain the ueighboui-hood ; and v.'ere it not for its prosimitj- to so 
many large chimney-stacks, it would have served for an excellent 
landmark. There was nothing about its appearance which could 
justify the supposition of its being one of the old meini hirion. It 
had not that venerable look which would lead a Bickwickian, or an 
enthusiastic disciple of the " Old lolo" school, to the conclasion that 
the Druids, Julius Ca;sar,or that most industrious relic-manufactui-er, 
the Devil, had a finger in placing it on Bunker's Hill. Yet how 
came it there ? This was a question which puzzled us for some 
time, for we failed to elicit any information respecting its probable 
age and purpose from several individuals whom we met near it. 
Bortunatcly an elderly, intelligent workman shortly afterwards dis- 
pelled the romance that was beginning to attach itself to the stone, 
by stating that it was set up some thirty or forty years back, on 
the occasion of a lawsuit gained by the Blaenafon Work Company 
over the then representative of the Abergavenny manor. A barrel 
of pitch which blazed from its top published the legal victory to the 

After some difficultj- (for the mountain was enveloped in a fog, 


with only occnsional faint glir-imers of sunshine to guide ns), we 
flonudered tlirough bog, rushes, and heather, to the summit of'tlio 
Blorengc, some 1,720 feet high, wliere we found the earn we wore 
in search of. Its position is marked on tlie Ordnance Map, near 
the letter n of the word Bloreiuje. The greater portion of the stones 
which originally formed this earn has been displaced, some of 
them having been used in the construction of a circular heap some- 
thing like that on the top of Snowdon, only not so large, about six 
feet higher than the mass of stones at its base. This, from its 
appearance, is evidently modern. The rest were, perhaps, removed 
to form an elliptical enclosure attached to the east side of the earn. 
The latter measures about 45 feet in its longer diameter, and the 
walls which form it are about 4 feet high, the stones presenting the 
same appearance of age as the mass which constitutes the earn. 

Before we left the spot, our attention was attracted to what 
appeared to be a very large .slab when compared with the surround- 
ing stones ; and after some labour in clearing it, we were agreeably 
surprised to find that the slab measured 5 ft. 6 ins. in its greatest 
length, 3 ft. 8 ins. in its greatest breadth, was about 1 ft. in thick- 
ness, and formed the capstone of a cistvaen. As we had neitlier 
crowbar, pick, nor any other implement, we experienced considerable 
difficulty in removing it so as to take the measurements of the cist. 
This, however, we ultimately accomplished, and found its interior 
to be about 5 ft. long, 2 ft. 8 ins. broad at its northern end, and 
about 2 ft. 4 ins. from the lower side of the capstone to the surface 
of the black soil which formed its floor, which we left just as we 
found it. The stones which formed the sides of the cist were from 
4 to 6 inches thick, and placed upon their edges. The weather did 
not permit us to enjoy the magnificent prospect which the summit 
of the Blorenge commands, yet we could easily enter into the feel- 
ings of those who selected this glorious spot as the last resting-place 
of some great warrior or venerated chief to whom they wanted to 
render the highest honours. We sincerely hope that the Bill which 
Sir John Lubbock intends bringing before Parliament, for the pre- 
servation of national monuments, will not overlook the sepulchral 
relics so common in Wales. 

Shaping our course southward for about a mile and a quarter, we 
arrived at another earn known by the name of " Carn y Defaid" (the 
sheep's earn). It measures some 50 yards in circumference, and is 
from 2 to 3 yai-ds high. Its centre has either sunk, or the stones 
have at some time or other been removed. It is situated on the 
brow of a hill commanding an extensive and varied prospect. The 
Usk may be seen from here meandering through a fertile and plea- 
santly wooded valley. On the right is Llanover embosomed in 
trees ; and to the left, in the foreground, is the mass of the Blorenge 
we had just quitted, and the jagged crest of the Skyrrid, or Holy 
ilountain, in the background. While seated on this carn we enjoyed 
the lovely sight of watching the mist clearing off, rolling in large 
silvery masses up the sides of the surrounding hills, clothing their 


summits in dense clouds, and then trradufilly dispcrsin.c; before tlio 
sun's rays. Kear this earn is a smaller one, of shnilar form, willi a 
cireuniference of about 35 yards. 

Leaving Carn y Defaid, we tradged in the direction of Cajiel 
Newydd, about a mile and a half to the south. It is situated on the 
hill overlooking the Torfaen, or Afon Lwyd, rather more than a 
mile to the south-east of Blaeuatbn, with which it is now ecclesias- 
tically united. Although it is still known as Capel Newydd, we 
found it to be a low, mean-looking, and decayed building, situated 
in an enclosure measuring between .50 and 60 yards each way, wliich 
was doubtless the burial-ground, though no traces of graves exist. 
Several old trees, some of them ash, in the last stages of decay (per- 
haps they were planted when the enclosure was formed, and in the 
absence of other data would afford inferences of the age of the 
structure), together with young fii-s, and the ruins of a small out- 
house, are to be found inside the boundary- walls. The chapel is of 
rectangular form, measuring internally about 32 feet by 16 feet, 
badly lighted by two small windows on the south side. The entrance 
■was through a small porch, measuring 10 feet by 8 feet, on the 
•western side, the doorway at present being walled up; and_ should 
the visitor desire to see the interior, he must put his dignity into 
bis pocket, and get in through one of the windows. At the east 
end, instead of a chancel we found a fireplace ; the preacher's elo- 
quence, it appears, failing to keep the blood of the congregation of 
this mountain chapel in so warm a state as to dispense with peat 
and coal, the old grate being still in y^itu. The pavement is in part 
torn up, and a large portion of the tiling displaced ; and among the 
debris are portions of what appears to have been the old gallery, the 
old door marked with rudely cut initials, the old bell which once 
called the congregation together, and a stone scored with the letters 
IE . iw . EI, 1786. On the south wall, near the cast end, is a small 
niche or recess, probably a relic of the prevalence of Roman Catholi- 
cism in the district. If this suggestion is correct, the chapel must 
have been built prior to the Eefonnatlon. It figures upon maps 
published in the first decade of the seventeenth century ; and a 
gentleman in the neighbourhood has in his possession a deed bear- 
ing the date 1628, according to which four trustees of the chapel, 
" Evan William ap William, Eees Hoskyn ap Meyric, Morgan 
Howel David, and Henry Jenkyn Howel Loid," held a messuage aud 
certain lands called "Tyre y Cappell" for the benefit of this estab- 
lishment. The chapel was probably built to accommodate the 
dwellers in the mountainous portions of the then large parishes of 
Llanover, Aberystruth, and Llanflbist ; but the erection of a church 
at Blaenafon led to its disuse, and it is now allowed to fall into 
decay. Service has been held in the old chapel within the last forty 
years. My informant, who attended the service when a lad, stated 
that it commenced at 9 A.ii., and was very fairly attended. The 
fact which seems to have made the deepest impression upon his 
mind was the peculiar sound of an antiquated pitch-pipe used by 


the leader of tlic singing. Can no provision be made for the pre- 
sen'ation of this and similar disused ecclesiastical biiildino-s from 
falling into ruin ? 

Another climb of about a mile and a half, and we reached " Cam 
Cloehdy" (belfry-heap), known locally by the name of " The Devil's 
Heap of Stones," tradition ascribing its construction to his Satanic 
Majesty. We found it to be a natural mass of enormous cubical 
blocks of sandstone, being the northern end of a peculiar outcrop- 
ping which forms a miniature platform on the mountain-top. 

E. H. 

thp: wooden font, efexechtyd, denlighshiee. 

Sir, — In the last volume of this Journal (Arch. Camh., Fourth 
Series, vol. iii, p. '257) Mr. Barnwell has brought under our notice a 
i-emarkable font formed of oak ; not less unique, as I believe, in the 
peculiar fashion of its form than in the material of which it is con- 
structed. It had been noticed by Lewis in his Topographical Die- 
tionarij of Wcdes, published in ISoo, the name of the parish being 
there given as " Evenochtyd (T vynechdyd") ; derived, as supposed, 
from mijnach (a monk) and ti/d (land).i 

The depth of the bowl is not stated, and it is not quite clear, from 
the description given by Mr. Barnwell, whether the " maximum 
l.readth at mouth, 26 inches, gives the diameter of the cavity or 
that of the font, — the thickness of the sides included, about 8 inches. 
Some question may accordingly occur, whether the cavity may be 
regarded as well adapted for imi;iersion. 

The font at Efenechtyd had also been briefly noticed by Mr. P. 
A. Paley in his introduction to the Illiistrnttoiis of Baptismal Fouts 
(published in 184i by Van Voorst), p. 23, where it is described as 
"a plain octagonal block of oak"; and this description has been 
repeated by JNIr. W. W. Wynne, by whom a drawing of this object 
was brought before the Arch^tological Institute in 1856, and pub- 
lished in their Journal" 

The woodcut, however, lately given {id supra, vol. iii, p. 261) as 
"an accurate representation" from a drawing by the late Rev. H. 
Longueville Jones, would lead ns to conclude that the multangular 
bowl is not octagonal, and has at least fourteen sides. 

' Mynechtyd seems to be a derivative rather than a compound word, being 
formed of mi/nach (moulc) and tijd, liJ, did, or dj/d, the termination of a 
considerable class of words in Welih, as ieuenctijd, angenoctijd, i/lendid, etc. 
The word is found as an appellative in an old poem attributed to Llevoed 
(tenth century) preserved in the R..d Book of /Jenjesl {Four Ancient Books 
of Wales, ii, 3i)6) : 

" Da ynggnif porthi menechlit" 
(it is good in distress to support a monastery). Tijd or tud, at the time this 
poem was composed, meant people rather than land, the latter acceptation of 
the word being comparatively modem — Ed. Arch. Camb. 

* Arch. Journal, vol. xiii, p. 293, note. 

1 0'i C'Oi:Hi:sPOXDENCE. 

The absence of any ornamental feature renders it very difficult to 
offer any suggestion in regard to the date of the font at Efenecbtyd. 
Examples of the form, -which may be described as resembling the 
ordinar}^ flower-pot of our gardens, occurs in the Norman period, 
but commonly with elaborate sculptured ornament characteristic of 
that date. Fonts having the like general proportions and fashion, 
but presenting various decorative features, such as panelling, small 
buttresses at the angles, and the like, are probably to be met with 
in all the architectural periods. For example, a font at Hurley, 
Berkshire (figured in Mr. Paley's Illustrations of Fonts), bearing a 
general resemblance in its form to that under consideration, — in 
other respects, however, dissimilar, — is ascribed, on account of its 
panelled ornamentation, to the Perpendicular period. I must con- 
fess that my researches have failed to discover, by comparison with 
other examples of which the age maj- approximatelj' be ascertained, 
any distinctive feature that would justify a conclusion in regard to 
the date of the oaken font at Efenechtyd. 

Mr. Barnwell, in his memoir above cited, has given another object 
of wood found in a bog in Merionethshire, and supposed to have 
been likewise destined for baptismal uses (ui supra, vol. iii, p. 2-58). 
It is of very remarkable character as bearing the inscription, athry- 
wViV, the signification of which does not appear to have been satisfac- 
torily ascertained ; and also on account of the very rare, if not almost 
unique, peculiarity of a small supplementary basin (diameter, 3 ins. ; 
depth, 1 inch) formed in the thickness of the block, at the side of 
the larger cavitj-, — the supposed font ; it must be admitted that 
^\■c have no certain grounds for the supposition that it was destined 
for sacred nses. I should be inclined to ascribe this curious object 
to the twelfth or thirteenth century. 

I have been informed that ba))tismal fonts having a lateral and 
secondary basin for some purpose that has not been ascertained, 
occur not -nnfrequently in the churches of some parts of the north- 
western shores of France and in Britanny. I have sought in vain 
for any example in this country, v.'ith the exception of a cup-shaped 
font at Toulgrave, Derbyshire, figured in the Eomarls on EiiglisJi, 
Clnirclu's, by the late Dr.Markland (see p. 92). The bowl is of very 
simple form, raised on a plain cylindrical stem or base. The bowl 
is slightly ornamented with foliage in bas-relief, and a representation 
of a dragon, from whose jaws issues a little stem that supports a 
small semicircular basin projecting from the side of the principal 
bowl of the font. This font had long been used as a receptacle to 
catch rain-water, but it has been replaced within the church. Dr. 
jNIarkland observes : " The small basin is of very rare occurrence. 
Can a second example be shown ? It may have served either as a 
stoup for holy water, as the font itself would be conveniently placed 
near the enti-ance-door ; or, as Mr. Jevritt suggests, it may have been 
employed for affusion in the rite of baptism." (Ibid., p. 91, note.) 

In the church at Pitsford, Northamptonshire, there is a well sculp- 
tured font of Decorated character (fourteenth century), which has 


on tlio west side a singular trilateral projection forminn- a kind of 
bracket. It is pierced with four small holes that may have served 
to hold a desk for the service-book, or a crucifix may have been 
there affixed to the margin of the font. It is figured in Baptismal 
Fonts. Mr. Paley remarks that projections on the sides of fonts are 
not uncommon on the Continent. 

It is, however, possible that some appliance may have been here 
affixed for the purpose of securely placing the chrismatory, perhaps 
during the rite of baptism ; and it has been suggested that the 
small basin occurring at Toulgrave, as above described, may have 
served for some like purpose. 

I remain, Sir, yours truly, Albert Way. 

Reigate: Oct. 2G, 1872. 


Sir,— I am glad to find, by your October number, 1872, p. 3.55, 
that your esteemed correspondent. Dr. Ferguson, and I have been 
able to approach each other, so far, in our renderings of the inscrip- 
tion on the Bridell monument. I hope that we may yet be able to 
come to a satisfactory conclusion respecting the remainder. Havino- 
examined about one 'hundred and twenty Ogham inscribed stones', 
T am conversant with the for imdce of the legends and of the type of 
names found on them. 

The fonnnJa, with very slight variations, is the same on all; and 
the names are of a purely Irish type, most of them being recognis- 
able in our published and manuscript annals and other indices." In 
this respect the legend on the stone under consideration does not 
differ from its brethren across the Channel. I liave given corrobo- 
rative examples of the/orM!(?fi, and have placed the names given in 
my rendering under recognition. 

There can be no question but that the name of the individual 
commemorated is Sap-om, the Sagramnus of the Llanfochan and 
the Sagranus of the Fardel Stone, with the addition of a prefix. 
The first question at issue is, whether that prefix is necua or netta. 
The letter q is expressed in Ogham by five scores above the line, or 
to the left of the angle of the stone ; the double t by two groups 
of three scores each, in the same direction. Now in the present 
case I have maintained that the group consists of five scores, in 
which I am corroborated by the late Rev. H. L. Jones. Dr. Ferguson 
admits that the additional score which he claims as being in the 
group IS faint. Here, without question, the balance of evidence is 
in my favour. I most certainly admit that the five scores are not 
equally spaced, that there is a greater hiatus between the second 
anil third than between the fourth and fifth ; but I claim this to be 
carelessness in the engi-aver, of which I have seen several examples 
in this class of legends. 

Dr. Ferguson states that the fourth and last group consists of six 
scores. Mr. Jones' copy certainly contains the same. I examined 


this group carefully, and found that a natural fray iu the stone was 
mistaken by that gentleman for a score. They are equally spaced ; 
and six scores equally spaced would produce na letter, no matter 
whether prolonged across the angle or otherwise. This proloTiga- 
tion alluded to by Dr. Ferguson I confess I could not make out. 
There is not a trace of it on the stone as .far as I could discover by 
a good glass ; and were it the case, six scores across the angle, 
equally spaced, would be a more hopeless combination than if they 
were above or below the angle. 

That my rendering is a reasonable and a probable one will appear 
from the following considerations. Those who make the decipher- 
ing of ancient inscriptions their study are well aware that each 
class has its distinctive /o)-HUiia, and that the names found in each 
are of a distinctive type also. I now allude to monumental inscrip- 
tions. These rules are so well understood that our professed epi- 
graphists find no diflBculty in restoring inscriptions found in a most 
mutilated condition. These remarks apply in an especial manner 
to Ogham legends where both the formulae and name-types are so 
well understood. jSTow such a prefix as Netta is not to be found in 
any of our indices of ancient names, as fiir as I have been able to 
examine ; but the prefixes Nee or Nech are very common, as in N"ec- 
tan, Nechtain, Nechin. 

Again, the concluding characters must of necessity form a proper 
name. I read it Nee in the genitive form of Neci. That my read- 
ing is likely to be the correct one is very probable, for the following 
reasons. We have several instances, in inscriptions of this class, of 
the son taking the father's name as a prefix, as, for instance, in that 
from Llandawke, Carmarthenshire, which reads, " Barrivendi fillus 
Vendubari." A similar form is to be found on the stone at Cilger- 
ran, which bears a Romano-British inscription and the fragments ot 
an Ogham one. The former reads : 


An Ogham inscription from Dunmore, co. Kerry, has a somewhat 
similar form, " Ere, the son of Mac Ere"; and on that at Fardel, in 
Devonshire, " Faccuci, the son of Cuici." In the latter instances 
the son adopts the father's name, or a portion of it. I, therefore, 
submit that my rendering is a reasonable and probable one, the 
imperfection of two letters not being sufficient to invalidate it when 
all the rest of the inscription is complete. 

I have no objection whatever to the use of paper casts as collate- 
ral evidence in deciphering Ogham inscriptions. They are, doubt- 
less, of great value so used ; but they never can supersede the ex- 
amination of the actual monuments. I have detected worn down 
characters on the stone that no soft, pulpy paper could take an 
impression of, because there was no actual, perceptible indentation 
but the bare poUsh of the tool, which, though apparent to the eye, 
could not bo seen in any cast. 

EiciUKD KoLT Bkash. 

Suudii^'.'S Well, Cork ; Dec. 0th, 1872. 


p.EiDELL ciiimoir. 

Sir, — Your correspondent," Llfillawg," has in yourOctober number 
coiTecteJ a statement of mine respecting tbe situation of Bridell 
Church. I was misled by tbe maps, which show a road from Car- 
digan running by this church, and a short distance to the south of 
it turning due east for about three miles, after which it bends south- 
west, almost in a straight line to Haverfordwest. This, however, 
may not be the road usually travelled between the towns indicated] 
and I willingly concede to the superior local knowledge of "Llallawg." 
^ It is to be regretted that my late esteemed friend Mr. H. Longue- 
ville Jones and I were not acquainted with the facts stated by your 
corre.spondent respecting the graves discovered at the foot of the 
knoll called " Pen y Castell," or of the existence of the earthwork 
known as "T Gaer." This was our misfortune, not our foult. I 
also regret not having been aware of the existence of Mr. "Williams, 
of Pen yr Allt Ddn. It would have given mo great pleasure to have 
made his acquaintance, and to have availed myself of his local 
knowledge. I have always received the kindest and readiest assist- 
ance from the Welsh farmers in the course of my investigations in 
the Principality. They are an intelligent and patriotic race of men, 
who appear to take a strong intci'cst in the ancient monuments of 
their country. 

Richard Rolt Brash. 


Sir, — I am well acquainted with the existence of the Ogham sen- 
tences in the St. Gall Prlsciau, alluded to by your correspondent, 
Mr. John Rhys. So far from being evidence against my sweeping 
assertion that " we have not a scintilla of evidence that this archaic 
character was ever used for Christian purposes or in Christian 
times," they strengthen the position I have taken. My assertion 
was made more particularly in reference to its use for sepulchral 
inscriptions ; but I have not the slightest objection to extend it to 
MSS. It is well known to Irish archajologists that the knowledge 
of the Ogham was jireserved among the early scribes as a literary 
curiosity ; that they occasionally introduced a word or sentence in 
that character into the MSS. they transcribed, sometimes in the 
body of the text, sometimes in the margins. Thus in the copy of 
the Annals of InnisfaUen, translated by Dr. O'Connor, there are three 
such sentences, one of them the name of the scribe. 

The eight sentences in the St. Gall MS. occur as glosses in the 
margins. Five of them are but single words, three of them of two 
words, the eighth of three words. An accurate description, and ren- 
derings of these Ogham glosses, wjll bo found in the sixth volume of 
the Proc. Eoi/al Irish Acad. (p. 211), from the pen of the present 
Bishop of Limerick. 

It was customary for the country scribes who abounded in the 


south of Ireland during the last, century, to introduce a sentence or 
two of Ogham in the MSS. they copied, out of a pedantic afTecta- 
tion. They invariably ivrote their names in it. Such instances only 
go to prove, that the memory of an ancient and disused mode of 
writing was preserved and used in after ages by Christian scribes 
as a literary curiosity. 

Richard Eolt Brash. 

^[rcljnrologiral flotcs anti Qucrirs. 

Bq:ihj to Query 13 (vol. iii, p. 3C1). — Riiyd y Gors. This place, 
■which is so often mentioned in Welsh history, is situate nearly a 
mile below the town of Carmarthen, on the banlcs of the Towy. 
Its name is probably derived from a ford across the river, leading 
from Cors Goch, to which vestiges of an old road were discovered 
some years ago. Mtuddin. 

Quenj 14. — Bi.edkwys. There is a place, I believe, not far from 
Lampeter, called Bettws Bledrws. Is this ever written Ble/h-injs ? 
I find the name Blechnis in the Liher Lav.davensis, pp. 211, -ni. 

J. Rhys. 

Quenj 15. — Maxawyddan. In Lady Charlotte Guest's Malinofiion 
there is a story which she heads " Manawyddan vab Llyr." What 
authority is there for ManawijilJan ? Is it not rather Maaau-ydcui? 
i. c, gJi-r y myuairyd; for in the tale Manawydan is several times 
obliged to earn his livelihood by means of the saddler's or shoe- 

-° ■ wl. J. Rhys. 

Query 16. — Meini Hiriox. Are there many instances of meini 
lilrion, or pillar-stones, being found in churchyards ? I know of but 
one instance, and that is at Mellteyrn,in Lleyn, Carnarvonshire. This 
stone stands a few yards from the western gable of the present 
church, which was rebuilt in 18-48. A list of all tbe meini hirion now 
standing in different parts of the Prihcipality, would, I think, be inte- 
resting, and possibly would tend to their preservation. Pedrog. 

Query 17. — Bedd Ligach. Id a ilS. of Lewis Morris, who died in 
1765, I find it stated that Ligach was the name of an Irish general 
or prince who once had possessions in Anglesey, and that his grave- 
stone was to be seen in the antiquary's time. His words are : " His 
gravestone was shown me in the high road near Dulas, and called 
Bedd Ligach, where tradition had it that he was buried erect, in 
his arms, isot far ofl', near Bodavon Mountain, there is a place 
called Ffridd Ligach." Does the stone alluded to still remain ? and 
is it known at the present day by the same name ? Some members 
living in the locality may, perhaps, make inquiries on these points. 



frlisccllaurous 4^0ttCC3. 

Welsh Incised Stones.— The members are referred to tlie Report 
of the kite Meeting at Brecon (see vol. iii, p. 370) as to the prospects 
of the proposed attempt. At the General Meeting, on the last day 
of the Meeting (Friday), it was suggested by Professor Westwood 
that the work should commence with the Glamorganshire and 
Brecknockshire stones, and that the other counties should be simi- 
larly treated. Since the last issued notice the following new sub- 
scribers have given in their names : Professor Stevens, Copenhagen ; 
E'. R. Brash, Esq., M.R.I. A., Cork; Miss Davies, Penmaen Dovey ; 
John Rhys, Esq., B.A., Rhyl ; G. H. Wballey, Esq., M.P. ; Rev. J. 
Alban Morris; Rev. Robt. Ellis, Carnarvon ; "Mrs. Sandbach, Hafod 
Unnos ; the Bishop of St. Asaph (two copies) ; Edwd. Nixon, Esq., 
Buckley, ilold ; Wm. Rees, Esq., Tonn, Llandovery ; M. H. Gaidoz, 
Paris ; Thos. Powell, Esq., Llanwrtyd, Brecon ; Miss Wynne Edwards, 
the Vicarage, Rhuddlan ; Miss M. C. A. Wynne Edwards, ditto. 
Only twenty-seven names in all have been received. Nothing can be 
done until one hundred and fifty names are given. Each Part will 
cost 10.5-. 6(1, and it is proposed to complete the book in three Parts 
in three successive years. 

The Father of Edward Lhwtd.— Some weeks ago Mr. Spaull 
discovered, in the north chancel of the Oswestry old church, a stone 
bearing the following inscription, which is supposed to indicate the 
place of sepulture of the father of Edward Lhwyd, the great philo- 
logist and antiquary: "Here lyeth th.e body of Edward Lloyd, of 
Llanvorda, Esq., who dyed February lo, a.d. 1662. 

Temporis diris pietas regique Deoque 

Immota hao terra jam tvmvlata jacit. 
One who durst be lojal, just, and wise. 
When all were out of countenance, here lyes." 

It is well known that Lhwyd was an illegitimate son of one of the 
Lloyds of Llanvorda ; but whether that Lloyd is the one here com- 
memorated is doubtful. Lewis Morris, who wrote about fifty years 
after Lhwyd's death, and who was well acquainted with the old 
families in the upper part of Cardiganshire, states that the Christian 
name of Lhwyd's father was not Ediuard but Charles, which is at 
variance with the commonly received accounts. The following is 
Morris' notice of Lhwyd's birthplace and parentage, in the Celtic 
liemains (MS.), p. 462 : 

" YxYS Gkeigiog, a gentleman's seat in Cardiganshire. Here was 
born the famous Edward Lhwyd, Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, 
and nuthor o( Archaeologia Britannica und Litho2>hjlacii Britannici Ich- 
'iioijrapliia. His mother was Mary Pryse of Ynys Greigiog, a branch 
of the Pryses of Gjgcrthau ; and his f;xfcher was Charles Lloyd of 


Llanvorda, nn extravagant young fuUow, who sold LlanvorJa to 
Sir W. Williams." 

Those who contend that Lhw^-d was a native of Cardigan.shirc, 
tisuallj give Glan Ffiaid, ou the banks of the Eleri, in the parish of 
Llanfihangel Gcueu'r Glyn, as the place of his birth, and not Ynys 
Greigiog, as in the prece'ding extract. Ynys Groigiog is near Tre'r 
Ddol, a villasre nearly midway between Aberystwyth and Machyn- 
lleth. ^ 

CoswAY Charters. — A list of the recently discovered charters of 
Conway is being prepared. The North Wales Chronicle s.ays : "We 
understand that among the documents are charters signed by Prince 
Llewelyn ab lorwerth of Wales, and King Edward I of Engl.and, 
together with a renewal of Edward's charter under the hand of 
Queen Elizabeth." 

Corrigenda. — High Sheriffs of Denbighshire. — 1576. Edward 
Jones, of Cadwgan, Esq., was the son of Wm. Jones of Plas Cadwgan, 
son and heir of Edward Jones of Plas Cadwgan, by Jane his wife, 
daughter of Johu Wynn Decaf, of Rhwytyn in Maelor Gymraeg, Esq. 
He was attainted and put to death by Elizabeth, as previously stated, 
Sept. 21, A.D. 1-586. He married Margaret Wilson, by whom he had 
an elder dantrhter, Anne, heiress of Plas Cadwgan, who married 
Captain Roirer .Myddletou (^second son of Riohard iMyddleton, eldest 
son of Richard IMyddleton, Governor of Denbigh Castle, in the timo 
of Edward YI, Mary, and Elizabeth), by whom she had an only 
daughter and heiress, Elizabeth, heiress of Plas Cadwgan, who mar- 
ried Efoulke IMyddleton, of Gwaenyuog, Esq., father of John IMyd- 
dleton, of G'.vaenynog, Esq., who died in 1G87. (Cae Cyriog MS.) 

1653. — John Edwards, of Chirk, Esq., was the son and heir, by 
Magdalen his wife (who died in a.d. 1685, daughter of Randal 
Broughton,of Broughton in ilaelor Saesneg, Esq.),of John Edwards, 
of Plas KewyJd, Esq , who died in a.d. 1646 ; of John Edwards, of 
Plas Newyd'd, Esq., M.P. for Denbighshire in 1588 ; and Dorothy 
his wife, daughter and coheiress of Sir Richard Sherborne, of Stony- 
hurst in the county of Lancaster, Knt. He married Sarah, daughter 
of Sir- Edward Trevor, of Bryn Cunallt, Knfc., High Sheriff for Den- 
bighshire in 16"22; and died without issue in 1674, leaving his 
brother William to succeed him. 

1681. — WilUam Edwards, of Chirk, Esq. He succeeded bis eldest 
brother, John, at Plas ISTewydd, and married Jane, daughter of John 
Lloyd of Garrog, who was descended from Osberu Fitzgerald (,who 
bore ermine, a saltire giiJes, a crescent or, for difference), by wliom 
he had an only daughter and heiress, Catherine, who married Sir 
Roger Puleston, of Emerallt, Knt., who died in 1696, son and heir 
of Sir Roger Puleston, Knt. Catherine Lady Puleston died in child- 
bed, and the child died directly afterwards. (Cae Cyriog MS.) 

HiSTOET OF Maelor Gymraeg {Arch. Camh., Oct. 1872, p. 291). — 
The date of the second marriage of the Queen Angharud was A.D. 
1023, and not a.d. 1033, as erroneously given. (V. Brut j/ Ttjwijs- 
Oi/ion.) J. Y. W. Lloyd, K.S.G. 


N/ENIA CoRxnr.liE. 8vo. London : Longman, Green, Reader, and 
Djei'. Truro : J. R. Netliertou. 

Since the time of Dr. Borlase various additions have been made to 
our list of books illustrating the antiquities of Cornwall. Some of 
these, however, do not rise much higher than intelligent guide- 
books, while others are confined to particular localities. The latest 
addition, now before us, is of a character and importance quite 
distinct. That it should be of such a chai-acter might have been 
anticipated from the name of its author, who, we believe, is the lineal 
representative of the celebrated historian of his county. Nor has 
Mr. Borlase shown himself unworthy of his name as an intelligent 
observer and faithful recorder of facts : two essential elements in 
most matters, but above all in antiquarian ones, especially on points 
■which may be still considered not finally settled. Hence the most 
valuable portion of the work is that which gives the accounts of 
excavations made under the careful inspection of Mr. Borlase him- 
self, such as in the case of the Pridden Stone, the one on Trelew 
Farm, and another within a mile of it, or the Tresvenneck Stone 
(pp. 100-103), in connexion with all of which human remains were 

These results confirm those long since obtained by Mr. Stuart's 
diggings, and so far strengthen that authority as to the sepul- 
chral character of these stones. Mr. Borlase, however, does not 
appear to have been so successful in examining detached pillar- 
stones forming circles ; but he may not have been aware that 
remains are frequently found, not close to the base of snch pillar- 
stones, but at some little distance from them. His ill success, how- 
ever, in this respect seems to have inspired him with the notion 
that these stone circles are connected with some unknown object or 
purpose; although we think there is not much mystery about them, 
and that they are simply stones of taboo, marking oil' certain limits 
of ground consecrated, as it were, by the existence of a grave, beyond 
which men were not to pass nor disturb the soil. Mr. Borlase, how- 
ever, very properly distinguishes these circles, which may be called 
circles irroper, from those in which the stones are more or less in 
contact, and are almost universally the retaining stones of an earthen 
or stone barrow long since removed. But as regards the other cir- 
cles, he is evidently unable to make up his mind. After reiterating 
the usual arguments as to their civil or religious character, and 
quoting the Welsh triad which speaks of the Boscawen circle as 
one of the three poetic gorsedds in Britain, and which triad he seems 
to look on as of some authority, he comes to the conclusion that, 

Whether their origin is sought for in the dictates of policy and religion, 
their purely sepulchral purpose does not seem sufficiently substantiated 
either by tradition or investigation. 


What Mr. Borlase may consider snfBcicnt evidence we do not 
know. The only evidence on which rehance can be placed is that of 
the spade, and which in so many cases confirms the conclusion that 
common reason and analogy point to. 

A short chapter is devoted to the age of these Cornish monuments, 
but we cannot exactlj^ make out what our author thinks on the 
matter. He, however, evidently does not ])ut much faith in the post- 
Roman theory lately set forth in Iinde Stones. 

Not the least valuable part of the book is that which discusses the 
various urns and vases, admirable cuts of which riclily iUustrate the 
subject. Although a few of them are similar to those which have 
been found in Wales, yet the majority of them are of distinct charac- 
ter. The urn found at Penquite (p. 2'29) is almost identical in form, 
and probably in size, with that found among the bronze relics dis- 
covered at Broadward, Salop, and with another at Droitwich (Allies' 
Antiquities of Worr.esteishiro), which was six inches high, the Broad- 
ward one being half an inch lower. The Droitwich one was found 
near some tessellated pavement, and there is no doubt that the urn 
has something of a Eoman form about it. 

Of the general manner in which the book has been turned out, 
we cannot speak too highly. We have, however, some objections to 
make, the principal one of which is that the divisions and subdivi- 
sions of cromlechs and barrows into various classes have been once 
more repeated and endorsed by Mr. Borlase, whose actual knowledge 
of these monuments one would have thought would have shown 
him how little ground there is for these fixncifnl arrangements. Not 
only are such untrue and incorrect, but they lead to strange theories 
and ridiculous suggestions, as we have lately seen put forth by 
the author of Rude Stone Monuments, — a writer whom we confess 
we are astonished to see Mr. Borlase can gravely quote as an 
authority on such matters. He seems, it is true, to make a joke of 
that gentleman's battlefields ; but, nevertheless, he quotes him more 
than once, thus illustrating what a mischievous and dangerous book 
is that of Mr. Fergusson ; for if Mr. Borlase has been so taken in 
as actually to borrow from his pages, what are we to think of the 
more inexperienced, who seldom ca^n persuade themselves that what 
they find delivered with such unshaken assurance, in a formidable 
looking volume, is in reality nothing but nonsense and mistatement. 
We hope, however, the time is not far distant when writers on 
such subjects will find out that the cromlech question is a very 
simple one, and not that complex one as described even in so sober 
a book as that of Mr. Borlase. 

Under the title of Long Ago, a monthly journal of popular anti- 
quities has lately been started. The objects proposed by its con- 
ductors are stated to be, "to satisfy a taste that has extended 
beyond purely scientific circles, in the memorials of the olden time ; 
to popularise, without vulgarising, the study of the relics of the 
past ; to establish a reliable record of all lights thrown by modem 

cntevprlsc and discovery upoia the liidden ircasuves of mnny an-cs • 
and to allbrd a medium of reeipvocity of information amouo- lusrori- 
cal, antiquarian, and literary inquirers." We hope the delion ^vill 
prove successful. We cull from the February number the follow- 
ing announcement, which will bo read with interest: "We under- 
stand that a work which has long been expected by anti- 
quaries, the Charters of the Borourjh of Swansea, in the Lordsliip cf 
Goicer and Count}/ of Glamorgan, will shortly issue from the press of 
the eminent firm of Strangeways and Walden. No pains, we leara 
have been omitted by Colonel Grant Francis, the Hon. Secretary to 
the Society of Antiquaries of London, for South Wales, to make the 
work worthy of the Town Council, who, in the true spirit of the 
times, have liberally opened their charter-chest for the documents, 
and their purse for the cost of the printing. We regret to hear such 
a labour of historical interest is limited to an impression of one hun- 
dred copies : a mistaken policy, we imagine, both as to cost in pro- 
duction and distribution of a book that is pretty sure to be much 
sought after." 

Mr. John Roland Phillips, of Lincoln's Inn, author of the HL-^ton/ 
ofCilgerran, has ready for publication "A Collection of Papers and 
Letters illustrating the History of Wales and the Marches durino- 
the Civil War, with Sketches of the Principal Characters." Thil 
work, the prospectus states, is intended to form an interesting con- 
tribution towards illustrating the history of the Principality during 
the civil war,— an eventful epoch, which has hitherto found no his° 
torian. The materials are ample, though scattered. Numerous 
pamphlets and broadsides and a great many letters were written, 
which throw considerable light on the history of the period. The 
task of compilation, we are told, has been of a very laborious nature. 
" For the last five years the author has devoted the chief part of his 
leisure time to the work ; and no pains have been spared in collect- 
ing together the scattered leaves amongst the public libraries and 
from private sources. The most interesting feature in the work 
will be the large number of letters and other documents which have 
never before been published." 

The work, limited to subscribers only, will be published in an 
octavo volume of some eight hundred pages, price one guinea; and 
those who are desirous of securing copies should lose no tin'ie in 
sending their names to the local publishers, Messrs. Morgan & Davies, 
Welshman Office, Carmarthen; or to the author, at 4, Brick Court| 
Temple, London. We trust Mr. Pliillips will meet with due encou- 
ragement in his laborious undertaking. 



A VAST field of urns aud lacustrine dwellings lias just been disco- 
vered near Lussowa (Posen), in tlio slope of the lake, the water of 
■which had been let ofl". 

The Rev. W. C. Lnkis has explained to the Society of Antiquaries 
" certain prevailing errors respecting French chambered barrows." 
The rude stone monuments or dolmens of France, ilr. Lukis is con- 
vinced, after forty years' experience, have been misuiiderstood ; his 
theory being that these dolmens, even those now exposed, were at 
one time surrounded by barrows or envelopes, and that their expo- 
sure in the present day has been the work of time. There is scarcely 
one of them that does not show traces of the envelope. Mr. Lukis 
does not believe in the opinion that barrows were Christian struc- 
tures. It is maintained that some stone chambers were erected on 
the top of the artificial mounds, and were always partly or wholly 
exposed to view. The paper is in part intended as a review of 
Mr. Fergusson's recent work, The Rude Stove Monuments in all 
Countries. Mr. Lukis entirely dissents from that author's conclu- 
sions regarding French monuments. 

Celtic remains in East Kent are extremely rare. An account of 
a tumulus in which some urns and other remains of this period havo 
been described, has been laid before the Society of Antiquaries by 
Mr. C. H. WoodruS; 

M. Paulin (Paris) has issued separately his essay from Eoumania 
on the origin of the Holy Grail. He contends (says the Athenceum) 
that the legend sprang from the apocryphal gospel of Nicodemus ; 
that Joseph of Arimathea's bones were stolen from the Abbey of 
Moienmontier(?),and brought to Glastonbury, where Arthur was also 
buried ; that Joseph's dish of the Last Supper was woven into the 
Arthurian legends ; and that Walter Map, at the request of Henry II, 
wrote the romance of Joseph of Aritaathea, or the Grail, which sot 
up Joseph as the first Christian bishop, in order to place England 
on a level with Rome, and so help Henry in his struggle with the 

^rrliaeolo|ia CamlMveiifjifi 


APRIL, 1873. 




The establisliment of the Cambrian Archteological Asso- 
ciation in 1S46 happily proved the cause of renewed 
and greater care being paid to the lloman antiquities of 
the Principahty, and much light has since been thrown 
upon the subject by several of its members, whose re- 
searches have been recorded in many valuable papers 
which have appeared in the Archceolorjia Cambrensis, 
as well as by the public attention Avhich has been 
aroused to the further discovery and preservation of 
such remains, m the meetings and excursions of the 
Association which have taken place in various parts of 
"Wales and the marches thereof. 

The late Rev. PL Longueville Jones made these anti- 
quities a most special subject of, unwearied research. 
He also enlistetl the services of other members to con- 
tribute toT^-ards the formation of a Cambria Romana. 
Amongst the latter I undertook the exploration of the 
district around Llandovery, in the counties of Brecon, 
Cardigan, and Carmarthen ; the result of which is 
partly embodied in the following pages, the publication 
of which has been urged upon me by Sir Gardner Wil- 
kinson and other friends, and which are open to correc- 
tion and revision by more competent antiquaries. 

4th ser., vol. IV. 8 

Loventium, one of the two princijial towns of tlie 
Dimeta3 during tlie early occupation of this country by 
the Romans, has had several localities- assigned to it 
from the time of Camden to the present century, when 
it has by general consent beeii ascribed to the old 
Eoman station at Llanio Isaf in the county of Cardigan. 

According to the best authorities, the district o'i Di- 
onctia, or Dyfed, is comjDrised in the present counties 
of Pembroke, Cardigan, and Carmarthen, in one of 
which Loventium was situated ; AA'hich disposes of 
one of the original conjectiu^es of Camden, that it was 
submerged under the waters of Llyn Savathan, or Tal 
y Llyn, in the county of Brecon, having been swallowed 
up by an earthquake ! The historian of that county 
laboured hard to prove that Tal y Llyn formed part of 
the province of Dyfed, in order to give some colour of 
probability to the above conjectui-e. He had, however, 
the candour to leave the matter in doubt, saying, "But 
ask where Lovcntinum or Loventium was, 

'T was here, 't was tliere, 
At IS'ova Zembla, or the Lord knows where." 

The other conjecture mentioned by Camden, although 
apparently not his own, was that Newcastle-Emlyn, 
Carmarthenshire, stood on the site oi Loventium. Ed- 
^\ard Lhwyd, however, in his Additions to Camden 
(published by Bishop Gibson), says : " I dare not sub- 
scribe to our author's conjecture that the Lovantiniim of 
the Dimetae, mentioned by Ptolemy, was at this place, 
nor that it perished (which he also proposes as proba- 
ble) in the lake of Lhjn Savddhan in Breconshire. In- 
deed, the footsteps of several towns and forts that 
floiu-ished in the time of the Romans are now so obscure 
and undiscernible that we are not to wonder if the con- 
jectures of learned and judicious men about their situa- 
tion prove sometimes erroneous. I have lately observed 
in Cardiganshire some tokens of a Roman fort, which I 
suspect to be the Lorantinum ov Lovantium of Ptolemy, 
for which I shall take the liberty of offering my argu- 
ments when we come into that county." 

In the account of Cardio-anshire, Lhwyd, after de- 
scribing tlie remains of antiquity at Llauio (given here- 
after), adds: "Besides Eoman inscriptions, they find 
liere sometimes then- coins, and frequently dig up bricks 
and large freestones neatly wrought. The place where 
these antiquities are found is called KaerKestilh, which 
signifies 'Castle Field,' or, to speak more distinctly, 
' the Field of Castles'; though at present these remains 
have not, above groimd, the least sign of any building ; 
nor were there any (for what 1 could learn) within the 
memory of any person now living in the neighbourhood, 
or of their fathers and grandfathers. However, seeing 
it is thus called, and that it aftords also such manifest 
tokens of its having been once inhabited by the Romans, 
we have little or no reason to doubt that they had 
a fort or garrison, if not a considerable town, at this 
place; and that being granted, it will also appear highly 
probable that what we now call Llanio was the very 
same with that which Ptolemy places in the country of 
the Dimetfe by the name oiLovantinum or (as Mr. Cam- 
den reads it) Lovantium. If any shall urge, that to sup- 
pose it was only a castle, and not a city or a town of 
note, is to grant it not to have been the old Lovantium, 
I answer tliat jaerhaps we do but commit a vulgar error 
when we take all the stations in the Itinera)'!/ and 
boroughs of Ptolemy for considerable towns or cities, 
it being not improbable but that many of them might 
have been only forts or castles, witli the addition of a 
few houses as occasion requirecL" 

Mr. Horsley, in his Britannia Romana, coincides 
with Mr. Lhwyd's suspicions and probabilities, and 
therefore supposes that Llanio represents the old Loven- 
tium. In this supposition he is agreed Avith by Mr. Ward 
{Brit. Born., p. 372); and for want of knowing a more 
appropriate site, Llanio had the appi-oval of Sir Eichard 
Hoare, whose account thereof in 1806 is as follows : 

"In the parish of Llanio Isaf, which is distant about 
seven miles from Lanpeder, and three from Tregaron, 
are the remains of a Pioman city, supposed to be the 

8 = 


Loventium placed by Ptolemy under tlie dominion of 
the people called ' Demotie.' 

" The inscriptions mentioned by Camden still exist, 
viz., OVERION.... in the outside \\-all of the chimney 
to the farmhouse, and the more entire one built up in 
the walls of a neighbouring cottage, > . auti . M . Exxivs 
PKIMVS. But 1 had the good fortune to decypher ano- 
ther, far more interesting than the former, which stands 
before the threshold of the farmhouse. If I read it 
rightly, it appears to record some work done at this 
place by a cohort of the second legion : COH . ii . A...G 
F V p {cohors secunda (legionis) Augustce fecit quiuqac 
2Xissus)} I shall have occasion hereafter to speak of an 
inscription found at the station of Heriri Mons in 
North AYales, that accords exactly in form and sculp- 
trire with the one I am now mentioning. This city is 
situated on a gentle eminence, and in an open plain, on 
the north-west banks of the river Tivy, and nearly- 
opposite the deserted sanctuary of Llanddewi Bre\-i." 

Sir Samuel R. Meyrick, in his History of Cardigan- 
shire (published in 1810), says, without any doubt or 
hesitation, that Llanio "was the ancient Loventium of 
the Romans," and recapitidates the foregoing account 
of the antiqtiities discovered there. 

Having thus briefly stated the claims which Llanio 
has to be considered as the modern representative of 
the ancient Loventium, it will be obvious therefrom that 
the simple conjectures of Camden, and the prohahilities 
of Lhwyd, grew, in due course of time, into the more 
confident suppositions of Plorsley and Sir Richard Hoare, 
and at last culminated in the ahsolute fact of Sir Samuel 
B. Meyrick, whose authority scarcely any one seemed to 
dotibt; and almost every tourist, topographer, and writer 
wpon the Roman occupation of this country, including 

1 "This inscription is unqiieslionably not to be read ''Colors 
secunda [legionis) Augustce," but "cohors secunda J.," the name of 
its nationality being lost. Tho legitirnus ordo nominum is thus pre- 
served. In other words, it is evidently an au.vilianj cohort, not one 
of the legion itself."— W. Thompson Watkin. 


the comj^iler of the Moniimoita Ilistorica Brito.nnit-a of 
the llecord Commission, accepted the same as a settled 
question. But in opposition to all the foregoing, I have 
simply to put forward the evidence of but one witness. 
He is, however, the only witness whose testimony is of 
any value ; and which must be accepted as truth, unless 
contradicted \>y some genuine Eoraan inscriptions being- 
exhumed hereafter, giving a different locality. When 
this witness states distinctly that Loventium or Luen- 
tiniim Avas situated in certain degrees of latitude and 
longitude, which being compared with those of another 
well known town also mentioned by him, are certainly 
not applicable to Llanio, the only legitimate conclusion 
to be arrived at is that Lovcnthim must be sought for 

It scarcely need be mentioned that this veritable 
witness is no other than the old Egyptian geographer 
Ptolemy, who states : "Again, south of the tribes enu- 
merated westermost, are the Demette, and their towns 
are : Luentinum, 15° 45' — 55° 10'; Maridunum, 15° 30' — 
55° 40'." 

I will not enter into the question of the accuracy of 
Ptolemy's latitude ajid longitude oi Maridunum, \>\\i, 
accepting the same as stated, there cannot be any 
doubt as to the relative position which he assigns 
to the other town in the same district of Dimetia. 
Accordingly it will be seen that the position of Llanio 
is much too far north, and not far enough east from 
Carmarthen, to be the real Loventium. We have, 
therefore, only to seek for a Ptoman station in the same 
district, the site of which agrees with that given by 
Ptolemy. Such a station is that at Llandovery, which 
is ten British miles north and twenty miles east of 
Carmarthen, answermg the given position precisely. 
Such a plain and simple fact ought to set the question 
at rest for ever. 

The only other authority for the existence oi' Loven- 
tium is one that has been accepted as genume by Hatch- 
ard, Ritson, Whittaker, Roy, Chalmers, Hoare, Lenian, 


and many other antiquaries; but which appears to have 
been a forgery, and therefore of no vakie, — that of 
Eichard of Cirencester, whose De Situ Britannice, it is 
tolerably certain, was a clever production emanating 
from the fertile brain of Charles Julius Bertram of Co- 
penhagen, who hoaxed Dr. Stukeley to his heart's con- 
tent ; and in whose map of Great Britain, etc., Lovan- 
thim is placed near the estuary of the river Teivy, con- 
siderably o? Miiruhonun, which is itself placed on 
the east of the river Towy, showing the utter worth- 
lessuess of the work as a geographical authority. Pro- 
bably the situation of Lovantium was marked near 
Newcastle Emlyn, according to the pubhshed conjecture 
of Camden. It must, however, be observed that Pto- 
lemv mentions only two towns m the land of Dhnelia; 
but Bertram makes his Richard of Cu-encester add a 
tliird, that of Menavia, which he probably guessed at 
either from the ecclesiastical rendering of Mynijin into 
Menevia (which, from the correct text of the AnnaJes 
Cambria; , published by the Record Commission, does 
not appear to have been done long before A.D. 9 72, when 
it is stated "Gothrit et Haroldus vastaverunt i)ewet 
et Jleiieviam"; the previous entry being in 946, thus, 
'■'Eneuris eTpiscopus Mini u obiit"), or from that name 
given by Ptolemy to Waterford, situate in the midst of 
the tribe of Menapii,on the opposite coast to Pembroke- 
shhe. The placing of Menapia at St. David's gave 
rise to the supjaosition that the usurper Carausius was 
a native of Britain, as Aurellius Victor states, " Carati- 
sius Menapife civis." The transference of 3Ieriapia on 
the Elbe to St. David's was no difiicult matter, but it 
has deranged the histoiy of the countiy; and we may 
safely coincide with jMessrs. Jones and Freeman, that 
the existence of such a place as ]\[enapia near St. Da- 
vid's, rests entirely on the unsupported authority of the 
monk of Chencester. 

This apocryphal account states that " The cities of 
the Dimeciae were Menapia and Muridunum, the me- 
tropolis. The Romans seized upon Lovantium as their 


station."' If there be the slightest vakie m such a 
statement it imphes the existence of Loventium as a 
British town previous to its being conquered and seized 
upon by the Eomans and converted 'into a station. 
Such would, however, well suit Llandovery, which con- 
tinued a town during the domination of the Romans, 
tlie incursions of the Gwyddyl Ffichti and the sway of 
the native Welsh princes of South Wales, until William 
Piufus or one of his lords built the Norman Castle, the 
ruins of which occupy the rocky mound which doubt- 
less attracted the attention of the first settlers who 
made it a nucleus of their town ; but which was too 
small for a station to suit the exigencies of the Romans, 
who placed theii- citadel about one-third of a mile 

Llanio, on the contrary, appears to have been con- 
fined, even by Camden's account, to the Roman station, 
formed at the junction of the roads from Carmarthen 
and Llandovery and thence to Pennal, and to the Cwm 
Yst^^'yth mines. And after the departure of the Ro- 
mans it seems to have sunk into its pristine obscurity, 
wliich was the means of preserving more Roman in- 
scriptions in its ruins than have been found at Car- 
mai-then, Cardiff, Bannium, Gobanium, and Llandovery 
all put together, where the wants of subsequent gener- 
ations caused almost all the old memorials and materials 
to be utilized in the erection of mediaeval and modern 

The real geogTaphical position, of Loventium beino- 
thus determined, a brief account of its Roman occupiv 
tion and vestiges thereof, with the numerous roads 
which centi-ed there, is required. 

After the victory over Caractacus, in Shropshire, 
Ostorius retired through either the counties of Radnor 
or Hereford to Caerlleon, where he died, as Tacitus 
records — " worn out with anxiety he sank under the 
fatigue, and expired, to the great joy of the Britons, 

_ ' " Dimeciarum urbes jNtecapia et primaria Muridunum, Lovau- 
tium vero sibi habitandnm vindicavci-ant Eomaui." — Cap. vi, s. 24. 


who saw a great and able commander, not indeed slain 
in battle, but overcome by the AVHr",.A.D. 50. The 
conquest of Siluria was therefore averted till the com- 
mand of the second legion devolved ujDon Julius Fron- 
tinus in a.d. 75, who was too good a general to attempt 
the completion of the subjugation of the Silures with- 
out a force sufficiently strong to crush the incessant 
opposition of the natives ; and having accomplished his 
object, he was free to enter \rpon the conquest of the 
DimetPB. For this purpose it is evident that he em- 
ployed the whole legion, besides auxiliary cohorts of 
native allies ; otherwise the construction of so large a 
camp as that on Trecastle IMountain (which is on the 
boundary between Siluria and Dimetia) would not have 
been requisite, the outpost adjacent to which was 
also necessary as an arx speculatoria or "look out'"' to- 
wards the west. 

This camp consisted of two lines of cu-cumvallation 
not parallel to each other, and the angles of both 
squares were rounded. The outer camjj was 1,452 feet 
long by 1,254 feet wide, making a circuit of 5,412 feet, 
being one mile and 132 feet round its sides. The inner 
camp was 1,254 feet long by 966 feet wide, makmg a 
circuit of 4,440 feet. There are apparent gateways on 
each side of both camps not ojDposite each other ; these 
openings are about 29 feet each, and are protected by 
curved embankments on the inside, by which the 
entrances to the camp could be secured by two sets ol 
gates. This camp is nearly as large as the area in- 
closed in the walls of the Ptoman city of Isca Silurum 
(Caerlleon), and equal to that of Caerwent (Fewto Silu- 
rum). The absence of fragments of bricks and pottery 
at this camp shows that it was a summer iutrench- 
ment, formed as a secure basis for the operations 
against the Dimetee. It was not, however, constructed 
without some severe struggles, as in its Aacinity are 
several cairns or gi-aves of warriors, in one of which 
earthen vases and calcined human bones were 
foimd. There are also near the place two cu-cles of 


stones, one SO feet 10 inches and the other 30 feet in 
diameter ; whether they were druidical renjains or had 
been set up as temporary theatres by the Iloman war- 
riors is yet a question. 

Once having established themselves in this camp, 
Avhich probably was fortified in the manner described by 
Josephus, the Romans could with greater ease and 
safety push forward to Llandovery, the first Dimetian 
town that lay in their path, and having vanquished 
the inhabitants or having found the place deserted, 
forthwith settled themselves a quarter of a mUe from the 
town, on the gentle eminence whereon the church of 
Llanfair ar y Bryn now stands, and there formed their 
station, whence they could contend with the Britons 
Avho had entrenched themselves in various places in 
the neighbourhood to oppose the j^rogress of the enemy 
still further westward. 

One of the objects, if not the greatest, of the Eoman 
occupation of South Wales was the mineral wealth of 
its hills and mountains. The station of Llandovery 
was of the utmost importance in a civil as well as mili- 
tary point of view, for it was in fact the key to the 
country of Dyfed, and here the gold from the diggings 
at Caio, and the lead from the mines at Ystrad Ffin 
would be taken by regular convoys, as in Australia 
at the present tune. Llanio station was doubtless the 
depot for the lead mines of Llanfair Clydogau and Cwm 

The first notice of Roman antiquities being found at 
Llandovery is by Lhwyd in his'Additions to Camden, 
1695. He does not, however, appear to have been ac- 
quainted with the latitude and longitude of Loventium 
as given by Ptolemy, otherwise his usual acuteness 
would have identified the Roman station close to the 
place as the site of the Dimetian town. He mentions 
quantities of brick and pottery bemg continually dug up 
near the chm-ch, beside " other marks of Roman anti- 
quity, and there is a veiy notable Roman way of gravel 
and small pebbles from that church to Llo.nhran, the 


seat of a family of the Gwyns, which may be traced as 
they say between Llanvair and LIcoidilo Vawr, and in 
several other places." 

The same information is given in all subsccjuent 
editions of the above work, without additions, and it 
was not till 1805 that Sir Richard Colt Hoare pub- 
lished the result of his personal investigations on the 
spot as follows : 

"At Lkuicair o.r ij Bnjn, or the church of St. INIary 
on the hill, we have another undoubted station, hitherto 
but little known, but which I had the opportunity of 
fully ascertainuig, not only from the remains of its 
earthT,\-orks, but from the bricks and jDottery which 
were scattered about its precincts. Coins, antique lamps, 
and bricks such as the Romans used for their sudatoria, 
or baths, have been frecjuently found there ; and a 
peasant, on asking him the name of the spot, called it 
Tre CocJt, or the Jied City, a title most assuredly de- 
rived from its former construction of brick. The situa- 
tion of the station is tiiily pleasing, and such as the 
Romans generally selected for their stations ; on a 
gentle eminence, commanding three beautifid valleys, 
watered on the south-west by the river Towy, and on 
the north-east by the Bra en. From the many roads 
that met at this place (and which I shall have occasion 
hereafter to mention) this must have been a most im- 
portant station." 

Cair Gurcoc, the third British town mentioned in 
the history of the Britons attributed to Nennius, among 
other conjectures is supposed to be the same as " 'Tre 
Coch, the Red City, from its being built of bricks, pro- 
bably was once an important Roman station. It was 
near Llandovery." \G\mTi?, Historia Brit., ^. ^1.'] As 
the name of Tre Coch applied to the Llandovery Ro- 
man station appears to rest upon the authority of a 
peasant in the neighbourhood, and is not supported by 
other historical evidence, there would be greater reason 
to beheve that Cair Gurcoc was the name of the an- 
cient British town of Cam Goch, eight miles distant, 


in the parisli of Llangadock, an account of which ap- 
peavecl in theAirh. Camh., 1853-56. CaevGocli imACarii 
Goch bear a strong resemblance to each other. Jones, 
in his Circles of Gomer, derives or exphxins the word 
Loventiwm as " Spring water jjlace side," the same sig- 
nification as Llan-ym-ddiifri, " Town in the Avaters," 
and Lhm-tre-daf, '•' Water town church " (the probable 
original name of Llanfair ar y Bryn before it was re- 
consecrated to St. Mary), all descriptive of the town of 
Llandovery and its Roman station. AVhat the original 
British name of the place was must be left to conjec- 

The " many rciads," to which Sir Pdchard refers, are 
given in another part of his introduction to the History 
of Cambria prefixed to the Itinerary of Archbishop 
Baldwin, and in v.hich he states : 

" Llanvair ar y Bri/n, or the Tre Cock (Red City), 
appears to have been an imjiortant station. I have 
already mentioned three roads that met at it, and I 
shall add a fourth, pointing in a north-east direction to 
the post upon the Ython. At the distance of five or 
six rniles I distinguished a part of the causeway, upon 
a wild heath (pointing north and south) near a place 
called Ludlow Vach or Little Ludlow. I again saw 
faint traces of this road(for the stones had been removed) 
on the extensive commons near Llandrindod Wells, 
pointing directly to the station on the Ython, which I 
have before desciibed." 

Mr. Theophilus Jones in Vol. I. of his Ilistonj of 
Brechiocl'tiJure, published in 1808, confirms what Sir 
Richard stated about the remains of the Roman road 
from Muridunum to Cwm, and that it passed by Llan- 
dovery, and was visible on Llwydlo Fach. But in the 
second volume, published in 1809, he says that with 
respect to the anonymous Roman station at Llanfair ar 
y Bryn he had examined the place and could not dis- 
cover the smallest vestiges of the labour of man ; and 
adds, " The situation is certainly precisely such as was 
generally chosen by the Romans ; from this cii-cum- 


stance therefore, as Avell as the deference I wish to pay 
to the opinions of men of superior talent and greater 
learning than myself, and from a j7e?7'.s7i/«</ tradition in 
the neighbourhood, I am inclined to think that part 
of the Legio secunda Augusti may have made this their 
occasional residence." 

This latter admission from one, who, to support a pet 
theory of his <i\vn, tlint of a Pioman station at Llys 
Brychan, near Llan-ailnck, which has not been substan- 
tiated by stil).si'(pa'iit reseai-ches on the spot, denied the 
existence of the Via Julia to Llandovery. His admis- 
sion is therefore the reluctant evidence of an un willing- 
witness in favour of the Ptoman station at Llandovery; 
where the lines of the walls are still so well deKned 
that the most casual observer camiot fail to see them, 
although portions thereof have been obliterated by 
being built over in the erection of Llanfair Cottage 
and Sackville Place, as may be seen on the annexed 
map. These lines enclose an area of above 5 acres, 
being 582 feet long by 381 feet wide, with rounded 
corners, and a division across its centre. Traces of 
other lines of fortification are also visible at the foot of 
the hill. The present clmrch of Llanfair ar y Bryn 
occupies the site of the Prtetorium ; and the churchyard 
is entirely Avithin the walls of the camp.' Although 
some thousands of mterments have taken place therein, 
scarcely a grave is dug without turrdng up some pieces 
of Roman brick and pottery. 

There are also other proofs which may be brought 
forward to substantiate the existence of an important 
station at this place. The Eev. Richard Lewis, who 

1 I am indebted to the Rev. E. L. Earnwell for the following ob- 
servation : " This appears to be one of the numerons instances of 
early churches existing v.-ithin Roman camps or stations, as if occu- 
pying the sites of Roman temples which we may suppose erected in 
a station of two hundred or three hundred years' occupation. Ex- 
amples are Caerhun, Holyhead, Caistor near Norwich, Porchester, 
Richborough, most probably Pevensey. It may be a mere chance ; 
but the fact is curious, certainly as regards Caerhun and Caistor, 
where there is no population now in or near the church." 


Avas vicar of Llandovery from 17G5 to 179G, during liis 
inraunbency secured and preserved many lelics of tlie 
Romans Avhicli were from time to time dug up at tlie 
old station and in re-building tlie vicarage house. 
Amongst these were part of an altar, large quantities of 
bricks, portions of baths, coins of the reign of Constan- 
tine, lamps, and fragments of pottery, which at his 
decease were either thrown away or taken by his exe- 
cutors and were lost to the public. 

The Rev. Thomas Lawrence, successor to the above 
Mr. R. Lewis, found some coins, a copper one of Clau- 
dius Cassar, and a silver one with a bull on the reverse, 
not nnlike one of the coins of Cunobeline ; pieces of 
Samian ware, one having disati . . imj^ressed on it, as 
if it were the maker's name ; another smaller piece has 
either letters or some ornament embossed thereon, but 
the fragment is too small to decipher the same ; also a 
piece or ring of sandstone an inch and a quarter dia- 
meter and a Cjuarter of an inch thick, with a quarter 
inch hole through its centre (? pixies' grindstones), and 
other Roman pottery, such as the bottom of a jug or 
some similar vessel, and a piece of coarse red ware, all 
of "which are in my possession, having been given me 
by the late Miss M. S. Lawrence, of Blackheath, 
daughter of the above vicar. I have also various pieces 
of bricks and earthenware, portion of a bath, &c., 
picked up by the late Rev. W. J. Rees, F.S.A., rector 
of Cascob, Avhen the garden belonging to Llanfau- Cot- 
tage was formed and trenched, outside the camp. 

When Llanfair Cottage was rebuilt early in the pre- 
sent century, the workmen in excavating for its foun- 
dations discovered a large c^uantity of Roman bricks, 
which were so perfect that they were used up in erect- 
ing the walls of the house. 

The Rev. W. Harris, of Caerau, near Cardii^:', in a 
paper read at the Society of Antiquaries in 1763, 
states : " Silver and mixed coin, wliereof I have a 
dozen of Hostilianus, Gallienus, Gordian, Licinius, Va- 
lerian the yoimger ; reverses, Jovi Crescenti and Divo 


Volcano, Saloniiia, &c., wove found near Llandovery, 
seven or eight years past."^ 

Fragments of Koman bricks are still to he seen in 
the walls of Llanfair ar y Bryn Church, and there can 
be no doubt but that the external walls of the station 
were used up not only in building the church and houses 
adjacent, but also in erecting the old Norman Castle of 
Llandovery, as pieces of Roman bricks can be seen in 
the walls of the latter ; so that although the lines of 
the walls of the station are yet chstinctly visible, the 
walls have entirely disappeared. 

It is supposed that the fields below the turnpike- 
road in front of Llanfair Cottage and Sackvihe Place 
were once covered with houses, and also a field called 
Cae Brics from the quantity of broken bricks found 
there. Excavations at a considerable depth below the 
present surface might possibly disclose the foimdations 
of houses, &c. ; but here, as at Bannium, the destruc- 
tion of the houses at the station Avas not sudden, but 
gradual, and consequently the building materials were 
removed elsewhere as they were required, and much of 
the present town was originally built out of the debris 
of its predecessor. 

The Roman roads which centred at Llandovery sta- 
tion met each other at the foot of Llanfair ar y Bryn 
hill, near the present Union workhouse. The occupa- 
tion road and pathway running eastwards are partly 
upon the Via Julia Montana from hence to Caerlleon, 
the head quarters of the secoijd Augustan Legion. Its 
course was across the river Bran, and joining the turn- 
pike road from Llandovery to Trecastle, it ran along 
the same as far as Velindre, where it crossed the I'iver 
Gwytherig and proceeded straight to the top of the 
hill southward of "Wern Felen, then by Pant to PwU 
Harri, across AVaun Groes, by Dagfa and Hafod to the 
Black Cock, thence to Trecastle Mountain, on the 
summit of which, called " Y Pigwn," or the Beacon, near 
the tile quarries, it went to the large camp, previously 

' Archfcologia, 1763. 


noticed on ]5age 120. From tlience it proceeded pa- 
rallel Avith the old road to Trecastle, and is Cjuite perfect 
as a causeway in many places. 

At Trecastle the Via Juha was guarded by an arx 
speculatoria, on the site of which in later times Idio 
Wyllt erected his castle. Thence it followed the direc- 
tion of the present turnpike road to Craig Gock, over 
Avhich it passed by Pthyd y Briw, where it crossed the 
Usk and proceeded on by Cwm Wysg, below which it 
appears to have recrossed the Usk and went along the 
north side thereof by Aberlliw, Celynos, Trallong, and 
Pont ar Fran to the Gaei-, or Bannium, the camp of 
which it passed on the north and continued onwards by 
Maen y Morwynion and Peniibint along Yr Hen Heui 
to the Stritet, Brecon, whence it proceeded above the 
bar-racks, by Bryneich Newydd, jManest, Ysgethrog, 
Llansaintffraid, and Tal y Bryn to Bwlch yi- Allwys, 
thence to the Pioman station of the Gaer in Cwm Du ; 
Avhence it took the direction of the present turn- 
pike road by Crickhowel and on to the town of Goba- 
nium or Abergavenny, thence to Usk andCaerlleon, and 
on to Gloucester. 

The nest road is one merely conjectured by Sir 
Richard Hoare as " uncertain but probable," and as 
such is marked on his map of ancient roads in Wales ; 
yet no one has since then attempted to trace its 
course or even dreamt of its existence as a Pioman road. 
In the accoimt of the large Roman camp on Trecastle 
Mountain, before mentioned, it is stated that " from 
Trecastle two Roman roads branched off, — one direct to 
Llandovery, and the other through Tcdsarn, in Llan- 
ddeusant, towards Llangadoc and the Garn Goch." 
This latter road Mr. Theophilus Jones insisted upon as 
the continuation of the Via Julia Montana from Gh- 
vium or Gloucester to Muridunum, as before stated. 
Supported as it was by the name Talsarn, it appeared 
as an indubitable fact ; but I never could satisfy myself 
as to the course of the road from Talsam to Carmar- 
then. Notwithstanding all the pains bestowed by Mi". 

128 i.ovEXTirxM. 

Jones in nursing up liis Llys Brychan into a lloman 
station ; but the bricks and other lloman remains wliich 
he so sedulously sought for there, not having been found, 
I presumed that the Romans might have occupied the 
old British town of Cam Goch as a camp or station. 
Smce then I have discovered that the name ofTaharn, 
in Llanddeusant, does not properly belong to the sup- 
posed Via Julia, but to a Roman road that crossed the 
said coiu^se at right angles, and which branched off from 
the Via Julia at or near Llandovery ; and probably ran 
across High Street in that town, where, in digging a 
well for water some years ago, foundations of an old 
bridge were found, indicating that the river Bran must 
have flowed somewhere near the King's Arms Inn. 
From tliis place the road took nearly the same course 
as the present road to Myddfai ; thence by Forth y 
Rhjd to Sarnau and Rhyblid over to Talsarn, Llan- 
ddeusant ; thence on by Carreg yr Ogof, over the Black 
]\Iountain, to Sam y Fan and Fensarn, about two miles 
above Ystrad Gynlais. Passing this place and Ystrad 
Isaf, it either went over the Rhos, and onward along 
the Dulais to Niclmn, or Neath, joining the Sam Helen 
fromBanniumhehve its entrance into Neath ; or passed 
from Ystrad Gynlais to Ystradfera, now called Ystaly- 
fera, and thence to Cihjhehyll, and on to Neath. This 
road, I presume, Avas called Sam y Fan, — a name pre- 
served near the Carmarthenshire Vans, which range it 
crossed at Carreg yi' Ogof 

The supposed Roman road up the Usk from Ban- 
rtium to Llandilo is marked by Sn Richard Hoare_ on 
his map as a continuation of the old British Ryknield 
Street, which led from Gloucester through INIonmouth, 
Abergavenny, Brecon, Llandilo, and Carmarthen, to 
St. David's in Pembrokeshire. It might have been the 
British trackway prior to the Roman invasion, and pro- 
bably led to the British towm or stronghold of Carn 
Goch, above the Vale of Towy. Its direct course to 
Llanchlo would, however, have been south of Trichrug 
Mountain, whereas Cam Goch lies to the north there- 

O R 



fr<ira. It is, however, not Im25robable that the Romans, 
after the country was subjugated, made use of the 
trackway from Trecastle to Talsarn ; then branched off 
to the right by Blaen Crynfe, Pant y Gwin, Stange, 
Ehiwau Isaf, and on hy LIanse/in,GivannYstrad Fcirus, 
and Uangadock, to reach the main road from Lhxn- 
dovery to Carmarthen on Cefn GLnsfryn. 

The third Roman road radiating from Llandovery 
^^■as that to Mxridunum or Carmarthen. It crossed the 
river To wy about midway between Blaen Nos and Nant 
yr Hogfaen lands, where, in the spring of 18i25, several 
massive piles of oak were discovered in the bed of the 
Towy, which the gravel had for an indefinite time 
covered over, but which had been recently removed by 
the very heavy floods that rose that time and changed 
the course of the river. I carefully measured the dis- 
tance from each other, and the size of the piles, on the 
20th of May the same year. Each of the piles apj^eared 
to have been originally about 15 inches diameter, and 
placed at an equal distance from each other. How 
many sets of piles, placed 20 feet apart, there were ori- 
ginally, cannot be ascertamed, as the river shifted its 
course soon afterwards, and the piles have been covered 
over ever since. Traces of the Roman road may be 
observed lower down, on the farms of Pen y Goulan and 
Pant Llwyfen. This road was formed of large stones 
with the interstices filled up with smaller ones and 
gravel, by which a most durable causeway was made. 
The late Mr. John Prichard, \v]\er\ proprietor of Pant 
Llwyfen, dug up the greatest part of the causeway on 
his land. 

From Pant Llwyfen the road ran where the present 
turnpike-road passes, through Ystrad, Llwyn y Brain, 
Glan Mynis, Gallt y Cloriau, Croes y Ceiliog, Brown 
Hill, Maes Gwdyn, Abermarlais, Cefn Glasfr3m; and 
along the old road towards Llandilo, where there do 
not appear to have been many Roman remains, with the 
exception of a Roman temple, supposed to have occu- 
pied the present site of Llandyfeisant Church in Dyn- 


evor Pai'k, some revnains of wljicli were discovered 
several years ago in levelling the cliurchyard ; and 
Avitliin three hundred yards thereof 'an urn full of 
Pioman coins was subsequently found. 

Edward Lhwyd, in a letter from Llandilo in 169 7, 
states having seen "a piece of an altar dedicated to 
y'' Enip'' Tacitus, and the Is. is 'Impcixttoj'i M. C. E. 
Tacito pio fdici Augusti.' This was the corner-stone 
of a small farmhouse near Dynevor." A rough sketch 
is also given. 


By which the "invicto" appears to be omitted in the 
above inscription. Although I liave made inquiries in 
the neighbourhood, the above stone cannot be foimd ; 
nor another stone mentioned in the same letter as being- 
near Llandilo churchyard, with an iriscription, iacet 


The Roman road does not appear to have gone into 
the town of Llandilo, but passed northward, near New 
Inn, Gurrey, Treffortune, and Llwyn Helyg ; thence 
onward near the foot of Grongar HiU, and along the 
Sam Aged (or " the causeway of the spoils of war") 
tow&xdiH LlunjnFfortune,\\\\e\e its remains are to be seen 
in a sunken track across the iarm. At this place a vase 
full of Roman coins was found, containing those of 
Domitian, Probus, Aurelian, Constantine, Constantius, 
and Carausius. From Llwyn Ffortune the road went by 
Pont ar Gothy, Ystrad Wrallt, and Cwan, where its 
course can be traced, and on to Carmarthen ; at ^vdiich 
place it is tolerably certain that the Roman camp occu- 
pied the site of the Castle, which in its turn has been 
converted into a county gaol. The remains of a cause- 

• Arch. Cumh., Third Series, vol. iv, p. 34G. 


way from the Priory, in a straight line to the Castle, 
were broug'ht to liglit some years ago, and fix the tei- 
miniis of the road at the latter place, where it joined 
the Via Julia Maritima, which jaroceeded thence by 
Ystrad, Sarnau, and Mydrim, to St. David's, or Forth 
Mawr, the port of embarkation for Ireland/ 

The foiu'th Roman road from Llandovery was to the 
gold mines of Calo and thence on to the Eoman station 
at Llanio Isaf, Cardiganshire. It started from the 
general point of junction at the foot of Llanfaii- hill, 
thence across Tonn and Glan Towy to Bwlch Cymmanfa 
and Cwm Sam Ddu, by Quintain and Bwlch Trehan- 
nau to the pass ne^a- Bcrisbrooh and on to Forth y Rhyd, 
thence over the hill by Aberbowlan and Maes Cadoc to 
Cynwyl Gaio and the Gogofau gold mines, where there 
there are abundant vestiges of the occupation of the 
Romans, a full description of which from the pens of 
Mr. or Miss Johnes of Dolau Cothy would be a bi3on, 
ensuring the gratitude of present and future anticiuaries, 
and being well illustrated would enrich and enhance 
the value of the Archceologia Camhrcnsis. 

From the Gogofau the road followed the present one 
by Pumsant, Dafadfa, Pont ar Twrch, Bryn Maiog, 
Henllan, and Pandy, to Melin y Rhos, and Llan y 
Crwys, thence by Bwlch Blaen y Corn, over the hill to 
Troedrhiiv Sarnau and Llanfair Clydogau, thence to 
Llanio Isaf Before reaching Llanio it was joined by 
the road from J\Iuridunum, which came up by Lampeter, 
the exact course of which ought to be more fully ex- 

From Llanio the road proceeded in two branches, 
one by Ystrad Dewi, Ystrad Garon, and Ystrad Meuricj 
up Cwm Ystwyth to Caei'sws ; and the other went 
northward towards Pennal near Machynlleth, where 
the station of Maglona was situated. 

'^ See Li'i-fio of Camhro-British Saints, p. 603. A full account of 
the Roman antiquities of Cai-martlien and its vicinity, with the 
roads leading therefrom, is a desideratum which it is to be hoped 
will be supplied by some intelligent local antiquary. 

132 LOVEXTir.xr. 

At Portli y Tiliycl, five nilles from Lhiiidovery, a liraiu'h 
from this Sam Helen ^veiit by Pentref Cwu, Gil^\■en, 
and Cefn Trenfa,to join the fifth Roman road from Llan- 
dovery on the farm of Diflyn, jsrobably not far from an 
old tumulus on the side of the Towy in D61 Wgan on 
Diflyn, which might have been thrown up to defend a 
passage across the river, to joui the Sco-n Ddu from 
Llandovery, which, although not noticed by the Ord- 
nance surveyors, is most clearly defined. 

Passing from the junction near Llandovery Work- 
house it proceeded to Dolau Hirion, some of the out- 
houses of which are built across it ; thence it preserves 
the same straight course through the fields beyond 
Dolau Hirion and opposite Belli Glas, where it appears 
as an elevated causeway, sufficientl}' straight and level 
for a modern first-class railway. After joining the pre- 
sent road by Pencarreg Collen, it runs at the foot of the 
Forest hill to Sarnau on the farm of Lh^yn y Berllan, 
close to which are remains of a small camp called Pen y 
Gaer, which was admnably situated for the defence of 
the passage along the upper vale of Towy and the ad- 
jacent ford of Erryd. From Sarnau the road passed 
near Llwyn y Berllan and across Diflyn to Y Graig 
Goch, thence by Nant y Fforest, westward of Cochmain 
along Sai'n Ddu to the summit of the hill, and on to 
the old Roman workings in the Earl of Cawdor's lead 
mines above Nant y Mwyn, called Cerrig y Mwyn ; 
from thence it went to Ystrad Ffin. If it proceeded 
farther on, its course or destination has to be ascer- 
tained. Most probably it went up the Towy to Ystrad 
FJlur, or Yr Hen Fonachlog, and joli:ied the Llanio and 
Cwm Ystwyth road near Ystrad jNIeurig. Another 
conjecture is that it crossed to a place called Cam 
Gron, and went thence to the Llanio and Cwm Ystwyth 
road along the " Cwys Yclien Banog," about two miles 
in length. If such was the case the mystery as to the 
purpose and construction of the Civys would be satis- 
f'actoi'ily solved. 

The sixth road from Llandovery is that partially 


described in Gibson's Additions to Camdeti's Brifanuic/ 
HS a cause\\'ay leading to "Llan Bran." Its course from 
tlie station is almost identical with the present turn- 
pike road along- the vale of the Bran opposite Ystrad 
Walter to Neuadd Fach, thence straight onwards by 
Cefn Pal, Cefn, and Penrhiw to Cefn Llwydlo Fach 
(previously mentioned), thence to Sam y Cijrtau, pro- 
bably the causeway of the cohorts, thence near Gelli 
Creigion, Caer Du, and Cefn Llanddewi, by Aberdulais, 
where it crossed the Irvon, thence by Glan Camddwr 
and D61 y Gaer to Caerau, where there is a circular 
mound 240 feet in circumference and IS feet high, sup- 
posed to have been the site either of an ancient British 
or Roman fortress ; bvrt as there are neither any remains 
of the walls nor of the fosse it is impossible to ascertam 
its exact origin ; no Roman coins, nor any antiquities 
of that people have ever been discovered there ; but 
from its situation it is not unlikely to have been the 
site of a watch tower on the Roman road. The course 
of the road from Caerau onwards to the river Wye has 
not been well determined; whether it \\e\\t\)j Simddn 
Licyd to Troedrhiwdalar and thence by Erw Beudv, 
Afallen Wherw, and Forth Lunjd to Ystrad, and cross- 
ing the Wye proceeded along the present straight road 
over Rhos Llanyre to the station at Castell Collen or 
Cwm; or wdiether it went from the above Sirndda 
Livijd by Ty'n y Coed and Dol Lhvyd to Fencarhelem, 
crossing the Wye, thence by Penminca, Rhos Goch, 
Rhewl, across Llandrindod Common, and by Norton 
Terrace, through the garden of Dr. Bowen Davies at 
Ithon Terrace, where it was recently found, thence by 
Llanerch and crossing the Ithon near Cae Bach reached 
Castell Collen station, and thence up by Llanddewi 
Ystrad Enni to Caersws, and on to Chester. 

Sir Richard Hoare says — " From Llanfair ar y Bryn 
was probably a road of communication with Magna 
or Kencliester." If this was the case it would have 
branched oft' from the Llandovery road to Castell Col- 
len, somewhere in the vicinity of BuiUh. The llev. 

134 I,ovEXTR■^r. 

Jonathan Williams in his History of liddnorsJure makes 
out a route via Builth from Castell Collen to Kenches- 
ter, which would answer the purpose rather better as a 
line from Llandovery to the latter city. He states : 

" This branch, commencing at Llechryd, passed by 
Llanelwedd and proceeded in a straight line to Colwyn 
Castle ; leaving Glasgwm Church a little to the left, it 
passed on in a line parallel to the river Arrow till it 
came to Newchurch, it then ascended BrUley liUl, by a 
place called Gwyrful Fachar Rhewl, that is, 'the watch 
tower on the road'; and, having crossed that eminence 
with a gentle and easy sweep it proceeded in as straight 
a direction as possible through Bolingham, Elsdun, 
Lyonshale, Noke, Milton, &c., to Mortimer's Cross, 
where it formed a junction with the two roads that 
came from North and South Wales. This course is 
rather circuitous, but it has the recommendation of 
avoiding the impassable hills which impede the route 
pointed out by Sir Richard Hoare" (that of a straight 
line from Castell Collen to Kenchestev). 

Whether there are any vestiges of a line of Eoman 
road as described by Mr. Williams, or that surmised 
by Sir Richard Hoare, remains yet to be ascertained. 
But from a knowledge of the locality I infer that the 
Romans were not deterred by such obstacles as " im- 
passable hills", which do not exist between the two 
places. If the road from Builth vid Castell Colwyn and 
Glasgwm can be proved as a fact, it must have been 
made chiefly for the purpose of communication between 
the city of Marina Castra and the town of Loventium} 

The occupation of this country, and the formation of 
camps and stations by the Romans, were not accom- 
plished without hard struggles by the Britons to pre- 
serve their hearths and homes from the ruthless invad- 
ers ; the evidences of which are still to be seen in the 

' The vecm-rence of the worJs Stone Street as the names of Roman 
roads in Enghind, would justify the assumption that the Stone Street 
in Llandoveiy received its name from the circumstance of its being 
the thoroughfare from the Roman station to the centre of the town. 

LuVEXTir.M. 135 

numerous Biitiwli crnn[)S not ilir from those of the llo- 
nians, and along the loads from one Iloman statani tr) 

Tacitus, in his Annals, book 12, states that after the 
defeat of Caractacus " a camp had been formed in the 
country of the Silures, and a chain of forts was to be 
erected. The Britons in a body surrounded the 
officer who commanded the legionary cohorts, and 
if succours had not arrived in time from the neigh- 
bouring garrisons, the whole corps had been cut 
to pieces. The prefect of the camp with eight cen- 
turions and the bravest of the soldiers was killed 
on the spot. A foraging party and the detachment 
sent out to support them were soon after attacked and 
jjut to the rout." Such was the determined spirit of 
the Britons, that when overpowered in the ojDen field 
when opposed to the legions, they persisted in a most 
hai-assing and destructive guei-illa warfare. "They 
met in sudden encounters as chance directed or valour 
prompted, in the fens, in the Avoods, and in the narrow 
defiles ; the men on some occasions led on by their chiefs, 
and frequently without their knowledge, as resentment 
or the love of booty ha^jpened to incite their fury." 

The British remains of the above description, near 
Llandovery, are the following : 


About a mile and a half eastward from Llandovery is a 
circular camp or cadlys, 200 feet in diameter with a 
rampart, deep fosse, and an outer circle 24 feet wide. 
The interior is flat. An openmg through the rampart 
on the east side, and a corresponding one on the west, 
permitted a road to pass through the circle. From its 
position, being surrounded on three sides by adjacent 
high ground, it would not be well adapted for defence. 
Probably it was a Bord Gron for amphitheatrical pur- 
poses, like the " Plan au Guare" near St. Pirans, Corn- 
Avall, which it resembles in shape, but is 6.5 feet larger 
in diametei-. How far the name of Ynys y Bordau 


may have reference to the circle is a subject for conjec- 
ture. This i:)lace is visible from Llandingad Church 
and Llandover}^ old Castle, but not from the Roman 
station, the hill of the Crug interposing. 

The next in contiguity to the lioman station is 


An old circular British camp, m the hamlet of Fforest, 
about three miles north by east from Llandovery, of 
considerable dimensions, occupying the crown of a hill 
commanding most extensive views of the surrounding 
country, and especially of the Eoman roads to Ystrad 
Ffin and to Chester, but not visible from the Roman 
station. The outer lines of its earthen rampart were 
in excellent preservation and well defined until about 
1833, when the late Mr. Thomas Bishop, proprietor of 
the farm, in carrying out his plan of levellmg every 
shght inequality of surface on his grounds, destroyed 
the ramparts of the camp, so that in a few years the 
only trace of its existence will be merely in the name 
of Pen y Gaer. 

There is a sprmg of water on the above land not far 
from the Gaer, called Ffijnnon yr Army, near which 
may be found charcoal and other traces of a bivouac. 
A quern Avas also found there, and is in the possession 
of Mr. W. Bonnell Bishop, of Brecon. 


To the north of Llandovery, five miles distant, is a 
British camp of the above name, about half a mile 
from Sarn Dclu. Its size, as* may be inferred from its 
name, is not large ; it is situated on the summit of an 
eminence not far from the present road from Llandovery 
to Nant y Mwyn and Ystrad Ffin. 

About two miles further up the vale of Towy there 
is another camp, called 


Occupying the crown of an isolated hill above the river 
Towy, nearly opposite Nant y Mwyn, and from which 
Sam Dclu is visible. The dimensions of this fortress are 


alijut 200 feet by 100 feet, of an irregular oval form to 
suit the shape of the top of the hill. 

Still higher up the Towy there is another natural 


On tlie sttrnnnt of the conical hill so well known, by 
havmg in one of its sides the celebrated Tom Shou 
Catti's Cave. This Dinas did not require much art to 
strengthen its position, and could command any Roman 
road at Ystrad Ffin, as it towers above the lovely and 
highly picttiresque valley in which Ystrad Ffin and its 
episcopal Capel Peulin lie embosomed. 


Close to the Eoman road from Llandovery to Caio and 
Llanio, and distant about fotu' miles and a half from 
the former, is a British encampment, on the farm of 
Berrisbrook or Pencarreg Wen ; commanding the pass 
of Bwlch Trebannau, through -which the Roman road 
passed, and also the branch road by Pentref Cwn and 
Gilwen. This camp or Tref consists of a- large oval 
circle of loose stones, which rampart is much flattened 
and has several heaj^s of stone inside its area. To the 
east of the camp there is a remarkable trench reaching 
across the hill. 


A circular entrenchment, situate six miles east by 
north from Llandovery, on the road to Llandilo 'r Fan, 
and less than three miles from the Roman road on 
Llw}'dlo Fach, seems to have guarded the pass of 
Bwlch y Groes, which gives its name to that part of 
the Eppynt range of mountains. Its earthen rampart 
is tolerably perfect. 


This is another oval camp in the parish of Llansadwrn, 
about four miles and a half fi-om Llandovery, half a 
mile west of Croes y CeiHog, and still less distant from 
the Roman road to Carmarthen. At this place various 
remains of rusty armour and instruments of war have 
been found. 


Witli the foregoing Pvoinan and British probably co- 
eval, if not anterior remains. I must close this paper, 
and if I have successfully endeavoured to prove the 
geographical position of Loventium, and to describe the 
lioman roads of the centre of South Wales, I shall be 
satisfied in having thereby contributed some little to- 
Avards the formation of a " Cambria Piomana." It may, 
however, be objected by some that the latitudes and 
longitiides given by Ptolemy are not always to be de- 
pended upon for accuracy ; this I freely admit. But it 
must be remembered at the same time that there can- 
not be much error in the relative positions of two towns 
not 30 miles distant from each other, as given by 
Ptolemy, and if his evidence is rejected on that score, 
the very existence of Loventium must with equal rea- 
son be denied, as both its existence and geor/rcqyJiical 
jjosition rest upon his sole For the account 
of Britain attributed to Richard of Cirencester has been 
by general consent rejected as an ingenious forgery, and 
all that has been written on the faith of its statements 
will have to be re-considered, although some stations 
given therein and not mentioned by Antoninus or 
Ptolemy, have been found to confirm its accuracy, or 
rather the shrewdness of the guesses of its fabricator. 

In concluding I must be allowed to apply the words 
of Su- Richard Hoare to my own case : — " The account 
is by no means so perfect or satisfactory as I could 
wish ; biit with all its imperfections I submit it to the 
public, hoping that it may induce some intelligent 
Cambrians to fill up what deserves the name only of a 
mere outline of an interesting design." 

William Rees. 

Tonn, Llandovery : Nov. 29, 1S72. 

[*«* ^^ trust Mr. Rees may be indnced to extend his researches 
into other parts of the Principahty, as, from the foregoing paper, we 
may safely infer that, during his long experience in such matters, 
he must have stored up much valuable information which cannot 
but prove of essential service towards forming a complete Camhria 
liomana. — Ed. Arch. Cainh.~\ 



Since writing my former paper under the above title, I 
have had opportunity to use Sl^ene's Four Ancient 
Booh of Wales, the latest edition of the oldest extant 
MSS. of the old Welsh poets, to wit : the Black Booh 
of Carmarthen (Carm.), referred to the twelfth cen- 
tury; the Booh of Aneurin {B. An.), referred to the 
thirteenth ; the Booh of Taliesin (B. Tal.), referred 
to the begimiing of the fourteenth; and the poetical 
part of the Red Booh of Hergest {Herg.), "compiled 
at different times in the fourteenth and fifteenth cen- 
turies." These tests, though disfigured in the edition 
by numerous errors of typography, in general show less 
corruption of original forms than the Myvyrian texts, 
which are, in many cases, printed from later transcripts. 
The above MSS. contain a few poems belonging to 
the early middle period (say the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries), and a few also which, from internal evidence, 
may be adjudged to the almost blank eleventh century, 
the era of transition from old to middle Welsh. But 
the greater part are undoubtedly of old Welsh origin : 
indeed, there are strong reasons, in some aspects ably 
presented by Skene, for believing that some of those 
associated with the names of Aneurin, Taliesin, and 
Llywarch Hen, are really based on originals of the sixth 
and seventh centuries. The translations in Skene, pre- 
pared by the Eev. D. Silvan Evans and the Rev. R. 
Williams, add much that is important to our knowledge 


of these venerable remains. Yet they are avo\Yedly 
tentative and conjectural in many parts : nor, indeed, 
in the present staye of the study of eal-ly Welsh, is it 
possible that it should be otherwise. It would be un- 
just to the learned translators to take their rendering 
of every passage as the expression of their final judg- 
ment of its meaning. The elucidation of these ancient 
and obscure texts (a work Avhich they and others have 
so ably begun), it will require the best efforts of a whole 
generation of scholars to complete. 

In the extracts that follow I preserve the spelling of 
the editions; but freely deviate from them in punctua- 
tion and the use of capital letters, and sometimes also 
in the separation of words and the division of verse into 

XT. That species of initial-change which consists in 
the " provection of the mediae" has been pointed out by 
Zeuss and others in Armoric and Cornish, but not in 
Welsh ; yet in the oldest Welsh documents we may 
observe many instances of it. It takes place after strong 
consonants, notably s and th, ending the precechng 
words. It is, therefore, due to the assimilating ten- 
dency. Thus, in the Blach Bool: of Carmarthen (51): 

Keus tnc Tilananid 
Eis tull o Trywiuid ? 

Did not ilaiiawyd bring 
Perforated shields from Tribroit ? 

Here tuc is a mutation of due, brought. Other examples 
in the Black Booh are, ys true (21) for ys druc, "est 
malum," and ac nis tirmycco (36) for ac nis diriuycco, 
" neque eum despiciat." 

So also in the oldest copy of the Laws : peth pcccan 
(120, bis) for |:>e?// beccan, a smaU matter ; gued>^/ es tad- 
Jcario (148) for guedy es dadhano, after he shah have 
stated them ; kyfreitJi j^e'lfio march (266), the law of 
borrowing a horse; 2^^'lf^^ being a mutation of henfic 
(bineficium), modern henthyy, a loan ; etc. 

Codex B of Brut Gruffudd ab Arthur has, repeat- 


edly, 210}) 2^hri/(Ji/n{Mi/t\, u, 186,304, sen)) for 2:>ophIwijd- 
yn, every year. 

The provection sometimes continiies to take place 
after the infecting consonant has been dropped or de- 
pressed : thus, keill, if he can {Leg. A, 28, 15 6), where 
is for OS, and Jceill for geill ; hcd houenlio, though he 
ask (ib., 46), hed being for Icct, and hoitenho for goucnho. 
The same fact is seen in Armoric, e. g., ho i^reur, your 
brother; ho being for hoch, and j^re^f?- for hreur. 

In later Welsh this mutation disappears, except m a 
few compounds, e. g., attychwel, return, from at, modern 
ad, and dychwel. 

Among the lately discovered glosses to IMartianus 
Capella, an edition of which has appeared with the 
learned annotations of Whitley Stokes, 4s orcucetic cors, 
"ex papyro textili." I think cueetic is, by provection 
after a strongly uttered r, for gueetic, woven. Compare 
or Kocled for or Gocled (from the North), in the Veue- 
dotian Laws (104). 

In Prydain (Britannia) I suspect the provection of 
the initial was originally owing to the habitual use of 
the word ynys before it : thus, throughout the Triads, 
ynys Prydein and ynys Prydain, the Isle of Britain. 

xn. Zeuss overlooks the AVelsh plural-ending -airr, 
-iair)-, with which -\ve may compare the Armoric -icr. 
Plural substantives in -ator are frequent in the old 
Welsh poets ; nor are they very rare in the poets of 
the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. As primitive cZ 
into Welsh an and Armoric e, we may infer -dr 
the earlier form. This view is corroborated by the 
rhymes in the Gododin, of which the following stanza 
contains five of the most common plurals of this form 
{B. An., 73) : 

Gw}-!' a aeth Gatracth j-g cat yg gawr, 
Nerth meirch a gwrymseirch ac ysgwydawr ; 
Peleidj-r ar gycliwyn a Hym waewawr 
A llurngeu claer a chledyuawr. 
Kagorci, tyllei trwy vydinawr, 

1 See, ante, pp. 1-21. 


Kw_ydci b^ym pynnvnt rnc y Invnawr — 
Ruuawn Hir — ff rodei eur e alluwr ■ 
A diet a choelvein kein y g-crd;nvr. 

ilen went to Catrnetb arraj'ed and shouting, 

A force of horses and brown trappings and shields ; 

Shafts advancing, and keen lances, 

And shining coats of mail, and swords. 

He excelled, he penetrated through armies ; 

Five battalions fell before his blades, — 

Rhuvon the Tall. He was wont to give gold to the allar. 

And treasure and precious stones to the minstrel. 

Deprived of initial inflection, the plurals referred to are 
as-foUows : ysc/wi/dawr, shields, from ysf/wijd, " scutum'"; 
f/ime^Kiwr, spears, from gimcw ; dech/iia w)- {Armovic 
Idezeier), swovds, from cledyv, modei-n cZecW///', Irish claid- 
Jieandt,; hj/dhuurr, armies, from hydin, modern hyddin, 
old Welsh hod in ; Ilavnawr, blades, from llavn, modern 
llafn, "lamina." 

Allawr, rhyming with these plurals, i-epresents an 
older altar, Latin " altare." Ccrdaivr, modern cerddor, 
is not a plural but a derivative in -dr (Armoric -er, 
Irish -air, Latin -drius, Z. 781, 829), signifying a 
minstrel, from ccrd, i. e., ccrdd, song; so telynawr, 
harper, from telyn, harp ; drysau'V, a doorkeeper, from 
drws, door ; etc. Tliis class of derivatives, Avliich are 
numerous, form their plurals in -or ion : tlms, cerddor ion, 

Plurals in -aiur are unmistakably indicated by the 
associated words in such expre'ssions as yt lethrynt lafn- 
aivr {B. 7«L, 154), blades glanced; gwayivaivr ehrifet 
(ib., 172), spears Avithout number; lleithrion cu ijliiaivr 
(Gwalchmai, My v., i, 193), glossy are their plumes. 

As examples of the plural in -aivr in early middle 
Welsh, I take the following from Cynddelw : llafnawr, 
blades {Myv., i, 214), hydinaun-, armies ; acssaivr, tar- 
gets ; jyreidyawr, "praedse" (ib., 243). That plurals of 
this form disappeared in later Welsh was owing, doubt- 
less, to a natural tendency to choose forms not admit- 
tino- of more than one meanino-. 


The form -iaivr occurs a few times, as in the above 
^Jreichjav:)-, and in cadyawr, conflicts {B. An., 82). 

I had proposed to compare -awr with the Teutonic 
-er. Professor Hadley, of Yale Colle^-e, to Avhose learn- 
ing and genius I have often been indebted for aid in 
these studies, suggests that, as the Teutonic -cr origin- 
ally belonged to the stem, and became a distinctive 
mark of the plural only by being dropped in the singu- 
lar, so the Welsh -aivr probably had a similar history, 
though, on account of the long quantity of the latter, 
indicating as it does a piimitive -dr, it ^vould be unsafe 
to assume its identity with the Teutonic -cr ,- that more 
probably it should be compared with the Latin -dris, or 
Avith -ar, gen. -dris, as in "calcar," " laqueai'," etc. 

XIII. In the old Welsh poets I find a termination of 
the second singular, present indicative active, wbicli 
does not appear to have been noticed in Zeuss or else- 
where. It is risually written -tjcI, and always rh-\-mes 
with Avords which, in middle and modern Welsh, end 
with the del sound ; hence, in old Welsh, it must have 
been -id, not -it. Verbs with this ending have been 
translated variously, but by no author consistently, and 
scarcely ever correctly. I think the following examples 
wiU, after a carefid view, be considered decisive as to 
its true meaning. 

One of the Urien poems, attributed to Taliesin {B. 
Tal. 184), begins thus : 

tJiyen yr echwydj 
Haelaf dyn bcdydi 
Lliaws a rodyd 
Y dynyon eluyd. 
Mai y kynnullyd 
yt wesceryd. 
Llawen bcird bedyd 
Tra vo dy uucliyd. 

Uvien of the plain, 

Host generous of Christians, 

Much dost thou give 

To the men of earth. 

As thou gatherest 


Thou dost scatter. 

Jo^-ful are Christian bards 

AVhile thy life lasts. 

The words dy imchyd, thy life, in the last line, show 
that the passage is an address, and that the verbs end- 
ing in -yd are in the second person. 

Again, in the Booh of Taliesin (1-45) : 

A wdost ti peth wjt 
Pan vych yn kyscwyt r 
Ae corfi' ae eneit 
Ae argel canhwyt ? 
Eilewyd keluyd 
Pyr nam dywedyd ? 

Restore the rhyme of the second couplet by reading 
canheit, luminary (modern, then translate : 

Knowest thou what thou art 

When thou art sleeping ? 

A body or a soul 

Or a hidden light? 

Skilful minstrel, 

Why dost thou not tell me? 

The following is from a religious poem in the Book 
of Taliesin (180) : 

Ti a nodyd 
A ry-geryd 

O pop karchar. 

Thou dost help 
Whom thou lovest 
Out of every prison. 

The Red Book of Hergest pontains the dialogue en- 
titled Cyvoesi (Ages), between Myrddin and his sister. 
Gwenddydd says to Myrddin (231) : 

Llallawc, kan am hatebyd, 
jSIyrdin nab Moruryn geluyd, 
Truan a chwedyl a dywedyd. 

;My twin brother, when thou dost answer me. 
Skilful Myrddin son of Morvyn, 
Woful is the tale which thou dost tell. 

Note that truan a clncedyl is archaic for truan o 


In a dialogue found in theBIach Bool of Carmarthen 
(5G), -wliere, it should be observed, the (/(/ sound is I'e- 
presented by t, Ugnach says to Taliesin : 
T tebic T gur declnit, 
Ba hid ei dy a phan doit? 
Tlion that seemest a pnident man, 
Whither goest thou and -sThence dost thon come ? 

I submit Avhether after a comparative study of these 
passages, which together exhibit nine examples of verbs 
ending in -rjd, it is possible to avoid the conclusion that 
this termination marks the second person singular, of 
the present indicative active. It corresponds regularly 
to the Cornish -yth, -eth, and the Armoric -ez, which be- 
long to the same place. 

There are many other examples of ->/d scattered 
through the old Welsh poems, and some poems whose 
old Welsh origin has been cjuestioned ; but in place of 
it we also find -{, as in Irish and in later Welsh. In 
the uncj^uestioned productions of the twelfth and later 
centuries, I find no example of -yd. The proverb 
Gwell nag nac addaw ni ■tvneydd, better a refusal than 
a promise which thou dost not perform, I regard as 
old, though it comes to us in late orthography {Myv., i, 

We cannot account for -yd by supposing the pronoun 
ti, thou (Irish tu), to have been suffixed, without ad- 
mitting that this is a very old formation, that in fact 
the t was already depressed to d in old Welsh. This, 
as before stated, is proved by the words with which the 
termination rhymes. Thus, in the above extracts it 
rhymes with deduit, i. e. dedivydd, prudent, a com- 
pound which contains the root givydd, Irish, /iadh, indi- 
cating a primitive vid ; also with celuid,i. e. celfydd, 
skilfid, old Welsh celmed (Eutych. ) ; also with eluyd, 
later (?(/}/c?(:?, world, old Welsh elhid (Juv.); also with 
hedyd, modern bedydd, baptism, old ^Yelsh betid 
(Juv.) ; etc. 

XIV. The Irish -id of the third singular, present indi- 
cative active, is not used in "subjoined" verbs, that is, 


in verbs following certain particles, among which are 
the negatives ni and na, and the verbal ro (Z. 4i!5). 
This idiom obtains also in Welsh. The termination -it 
or -id of the same place, as I have elsewhere shown, 
occnrs often in the old Welsh remains ; but I have 
found it only in "absolute" verbs. The flict will be 
best illustrated by examples where the same verb occurs 
both as absolute and as subjoined, in the same passage. 
The following is from Llywarch Hen {Herg. 2S;») : 
2)ereid y rydieu, ny j^liara ae gorcu, the trenches re- 
main, they who made them remain not. Among the 
ancient proverbs interspersed through the alphabetical 
collection in the Mycyrian,! find the following : trengid 
gohid,ni threing molud (iii, 177), riches perish, glory 
perishes not; tricid gicrurtli ei harch, ni thrig wrtli ei 
gi/varwys (ib.), a man starves on honour, he does not 
starve on bounty; tyvid mahan, ni thyv ei gadachan 
(ib.), the child grows, its clout grows not ; chivarcid 
mab noetli, ni chivery mah neivynawff (ib. 152), a naked 
youth plays, a hungry youth plays not. So again in 
the Gosymdaith (A^iaticum) of Llevoed Wynebglawr, a 
versified collection of old Welsh aphorisms {Herg. 307) : 

Ky iir\wt eing Ilyfyrder rac lleith ; 

Eugliit glew oe gyfarweith. 
Kot usually does cowardice escape destrnction; 
The brave escapes from his conflict. 

I do not recognize an exception in the nyt cchventt 
clot kchryd of the Gosymdaith {Herg. 305). I know of 
no verb that will explain echiuenit unless it be acJuca- 
?}egu, to increase. The true reading, I think, is nyt 
echwenic dot kelmjd, falsehood does not advance fame. 
The umlauts here postulated are regular. There is a 
similar example in the Black Book (5), nydichiienic hut 
pedi, begging does not promote gain. Here Ave have a 
compound dychioanegu. 

XV. Dr. Davies and other Welsh grammarians very 
properly give -a as a frequent termination of the third 
sino-Lilar, present and future indicative active : compare 
the Irish -a of the subjoined indicative. Zeuss or his 


editor seems to consider this -a, iu middle ^Yel3^l ex- 
amples, as a part of the stem, as if all the. verbs thus 
ending were derivative verbs in -au (old Welsh -agu, 
modern -au, denominative and causative), which jjre- 
serve the a in conjugation. 

It is certain that in middle as well as in modern 
Welsh -a is often used as a termination ; and in deriva- 
tive verbs in -i'lu it is accordingly often added to the a 
of the stem, giving -aci, or -alia, or -liiia. Thus, in an 
early-middle translation of Geoffrey's Prophecy of 
Merlin {Myv., ii, 261-7), arwydocda, " significat," 
adurnoccia, " adornabit," atnewydaJia, "renovabit," 
grymhaa, " vigebit," etc. In modern Welsh, -ila has 
become -f? ; and in consequence of this spiaeresis the 
accent is thrown on the last syllable. 

Examples abound also in verbs other than those in 
-(iu : thus (ib.) doluria, " dolebit," from doluriau' ; jMlla, 
" peribit," irom. i^allu ; eheta, " convolabit," ixoxQ. ehetec; 
cerda, " procedet," from cerdet ; etc. 

The following examples, among others, appear in the 
oldest copy of the Laws : gua.da (S6), denies, from 
(juadu (ib.); jxdla (162), fails; gam (114), does; tru- 
harliaa (ii, 4), has compassion. 

The following are from one of the poems of Cynddelw 
{Myv.,\, 250-1): _2J»j///a, considers ; treidia, penetrates; 
hryssya, hastens ; atveilya, decays. The i or y before 
-a in the three last examples is foreign to verbs in -du, 
that is to say, there are no verbs in -idu. The infini- 
tives sxe, jowylkm, trciddiaw, hrysiuv:, and adfeiliaiu. 

In the old Welsh poems, as they come to us, -a as a 
termination is infrequent but not unknown ; thus in 
Llywarch Hen {Herg. 287, bis), yd aa, goes. We can- 
not here regard the first a as the verbal particle, for it 
is not used after the particle yd. 

XVI. In modern Welsh, the present subjunctive (and 
optative) terminations ai-e -of, -ot or -ycli, -o, -om, -och, 
-ont. I think it may be shown that the o in these ter- 
minations represents an old Welsh oi. In the earliest 
Welsh MSS., instead of o we often find oe and ivy and 



sometimes even oy, all of which point to an eaT'lier oi : 
compare loinou, gi. " frutices," later, llivynau; gloiu, gl. 
'■■ liquidum," latei-, gloyw and gloew ; etc. 

The first singular -uu/ffov -of is not yet obsolete ; in 
middle Welsh it was the usual form. The Venedotian 
Laws furnish one example of -oef in a talloef {120), 
" quod reddam." 

The anomalous -ych of the second singular prevails 
in middle Welsh ; it is found in one old Welsh gloss, 
cirtJiiic guell, " aue," later, henpycli giccll and henffych 
ffU'cU, " mayst thou fare better." This is undoubtedly a 
pronominal ending equivalent to -yth. The latter oc- 
curs once in the place of -ych in the Booh of Taliesin 
(116) : ry-prynhom ni an llocyth tydivah Meir, may we 
gain thy protection (lit. that thou protect us) Son 
of Mary. I find a comparatively recent example in 
Huw Llwyd of Cynfal [Cymru Fu, 352), who speaks of 
conscience as one nac a ofiiith moi gefnu, whose deser- 
tion thou Avilt not fear. In the Laws, ych law occurs 
for yth laiv, to thy hand (ii, 280, bis). So also in 
Armoric we find ecli for the more usual cz, as in cc'h 
euz, " tibi est." 

The other second singular form, -of, seems to be 
modern so far as it appears in books ; but it probably 
came down in some spoken dialect from an old Welsh 
-oit ; in fact the form -wyt alsp occurs (Z. 512). 

In the early poets the thuxl singular often has -ivy 
instead of -o, e. g-. gidedichuy, " dominetur" (Carm., 2G), 
cothvy, i. e. coddwy, " laedati" t(ib. 39), digomvy, "faciat" 
(jB. Tal, 121), carwy, amet (Gwalchmai, Myv., i, 193), 
rodiry, " det'' (ib. 202), sylhuy, " Yide'cit,"catwy, "servet" 
(Cynddelw, ib. 217). The Black Book (22) has one ex- 
ample of -oc, in creddoe, "credat." 

For the first plural -om we Und-irym in hivym, " simus" 
{B. Tal. 181). 

For the second plural -och I have observed no other 
form. From analogy, however, we may supjaose this 
to represent an old Welsh -oich. 

In the oldest copy of the Laws the third plural -ocnt 


is quite as common as -ont : thus Jcrjfoent, " acquirant" 
{lO),menocnt/'\<A\nt" (22), runocnt,'' (l\\idv^nt" (34),c!(o- 
cnt,'%\hs.\\t' {lOQi),deuedocnt/'di\Qm\t''(l52),'kcmcrhoent, 
"capiant" (260), etc. Codex E of the Laws has examples 
o?'Oi/nt: thus ddoynt, "veniant,'''e//^o?//;?/'eant" (i, 192); 
Z/es;e?/?-yio^«?, "impediant" (ib. 170); etc. In the Booh 
of Tcdiesin -wynt is frequent: thus 2"'Z/"^^7/"^ "asse- 
quantur" (109), ymgetivynt, "caveant" (128), atchwel- 
v:ynt, " revertantuv," ceissmynt, '-'quferant" (129), etc. 

It will hardly be questioned that the old Welsh forms 
in oi, thus clearly indicated, were primitive optative 

XVII. I think, however, that the present subjunctive 
in had one other source, or rather that there were cer- 
tain old fonns in au (aw), used as future indicative, 
which by the regular change of au to o early became 
indistinguishable from the subjmictive forms in o (from 
oi), and were lost in them. 

I begin with the third plural -aunt revealed in the 
cuinhaunt, "deflebit," (scil. "genus hoc,") of the Juven- 
cus Glosses {Beitr., iv, 404). I find this termination 
preserved in a few instances. Thus in the Booh of 
Taliesin (124) : 

Gwaetliyl gwyr hyt Gaer Weir gwasgarawt Allmyn ; 
Gwnahawnt goruoled gwedy gwah_yn. 
Tho wrath of rnen as far as Caer TTeir will scatter the Allmyn ; 
they will make rejoicing after exhaustion. 

Again (ib. 212-3), 2^ehyllijau-nt ar Trcn a ThararJion, 
they will encamp on the Tren and the Taranhon ; 
gwerin hyt yn ivir hydatunt lairen, the populace of the 
earth truly will be happy ; etc. 

As -aunt passed into -ont its indicative use did not at 
once cease ; thus we find iii the Black Booh (27) : 

Gwitil a Brithon a Romani 

A vvnahont dyhet a divysci. 
Gwyddyl and Britocs and Romans 
Will create discord and confusion. 

A third singular -au is also estabHshed by a few ex- 
amples. Thus in the Booh of Taliesin (loO) : 


Ac Owein ilon jMaelgynig douawt 

A wnaw Peithwj-r gorweidawc. 
And Owain of Mona, of Malgonian custom, 
'\\'ill lay the Picts prostrate. 

Here cjivnaio is for givndaiv, just as gwnant is for 

In a versified collection of proverlis in the Black 
Book (5) is the following : nid ehalath as traetha luj 
chaff'awae Jiarnhevo, he who does not relate a thing too 
amply vriH not find those that will contradict him. 

Meilyr ab Gwalchmai, who composed religious poems 
late in the twelfth and early in the thirteenth century, 
has the following {Mtjv., i, 332) : 

Ar Duw adef y nef uy lief llwyprawd 
Yny edrinaw ury rac y Drindawd 
Y erchi ym ri rwyf, .... 
Toward God's abode, toward Heaven my cry will jjroceed, 
Until it ascend on high before the Trinity 
To ask my sovereign King, .... 

This example, however, and the two next are not 
decisive as to the mood, the connexions being such as 
to admit of eitlier the indicative or the subjunctive. 

In Codex B of Brut GrufFudd ab Arthur {My v., ii, 
305) is the following : a ■pwy hynac a damweinaw idcno 
yr agcu Jionno . . . . , and to whomever that death 
shall happen. . . . 

In a reputed prophecy of Heinin Fardd addressed to 
Maelgwn Gwynedd {My v., i, 553), the language of 
which, however, is middle Welsh, is the following line : 
mi anfonaf udedd or sygnedd ir neb ai haeddaiv, I will 
send a feast from the constellations to any one who 
shall deserve it. 

As -aiv passed into -o its indicative use did not at 
once cease. Thus in a poem on the Day of Judgment, 
in the Booh of Tcdiesin (121) : 

Pryt pan dyfTo 
Ef ae gwahauo. 

When he shall come 
He will separate them. 

In the predictive poem entitled Daronwy (ib. 14S) : 


Dydeulio kynrein 

O auitir Rufein. 
There will come chieftains 
From the vicinage of Eome. 

XVIII. Of the third smgular -aivt, we have ah-eady 
seen two examples, gwasrjarawt and Ihr)jprawd, in the 
extracts of the last article. Mr. Silvan Evans was the 
first to point this out as a future-enchng (Skene, ii, 
424). It is not "-aiucl, -amid," however, but -awt, 
-aivd, as we may see wherever it is a rhyming syllable, 
as in the above llwyprawd. In the old AA^elsh poetry 
it occurs often. It also occurs a few times in early- 
middle productions. Thus in Codex B of Brut Gru- 
fiudd ab Arthur the clause " et Gallicanos possidebit 
saltus," of Geoffrey's original, is rendered a gwladocd 
Freinc a uedhmvt {Myi\, ii, 262). The Mabinogi of' 
Kilhwch and Olwen {Mah., ii, 201, 202) contains three 
examples : hydhmvt, it will be, metliauxl, it will fail, 
ymchoelaicd, it will turn. Ebel seems to regard the 
two last as used optatively (Z. 109 7). Lady Charlotte 
Guest, adopting the sense naturally suggested by the 
context, translates them as future indicative. 

I think this termination is not distinctively future, 
however, but another case of what in Welsh is a general 
fact, the use of the present to supply the place of a 
future. If so, we liave in -ciut, and probably also in 
-aunt, a remnant of the o-conjugation. This view is 
favoured by the crihof, " vibrat", of the Luxemburg- 
Glosses, which have o for au in final syllables. It is 
favoured also by a few examples in poetry, where the 
present tense woidd naturally be understood, as in the 
following proverb of the Gosymdaith {Herg., 307): 
givisgaivt coet hein goivyll, the wood wears a fair hood. 

XIX. The common middle Welsh conjugation of the 
perfect active indicative is -eis, -eist, -aicd{d), -asom, 
-asairch, -asant. The third singular, however, had 
besides -aivd{d), the endings -u'ys, -as, -es, and -is. To 
these I must add -essit, -yssit, -sit, of which there are 
evident examples in the early poetry, though they have 


generally been confounded by translators with tlic simi- 
lar terminations of the pluperfect passive iinpLrsunal. 

The Gododin {B. An., 71), in recounting the deeds of 
one of its heroes, says : scinm/cssyt e glecbjf ym pcnn 
mameu, his sword resounded in the head of mothers 
(that is, he killed the sons). 

The following is from a religious poem in the IJovk 
ofTaliesin (181): 

Prif teyrnas a due lonas o perued kyt ; 

Kiwdawt Ninieuen bu gwr llawen prcgothyssit. 
The Chief of Sovereignty brought Jonah from the belly of 

the whale ; 
To the city of Nineveh it was a joyful man that preached. 

Kiivclaivt is Latin "civitat-"; hyt is Latin "cetus." 

The translators in Skene recognise the perfect active 
'in the above examples. Why not also in the following ? 
Kewssit da nyr gaho drive {B. Ted., 14S), he has found 
good who does not find evil. This aphorism, in a later 
form, appears in the Myvyrian collection (iii, 150) : 
cavas dda ni chavas ddrwg, he has found good who has 
not found evil. 

The next is from Cynddehv {My v. i, 224) : 
Llary Einnyawn lluchdawn llochcssid 
Yeirtyon — vab kynon clod venwyd. 
Gentle Einnyawn, lavish of gifts, protected 
The bards — the son of Cynon, the glory of wit. 

The next is from Meilyr ab Gwalchmai {My v., i, 324): 

Delyessid Yeuan yenangc deduyt 
Diheu uab Duu nef yu dufyr echuyt. 
John the young, the, held 
The true Son of God in the water of the plain. 

From the same (ib.): pr?/?;cssjtZ mah Duu mad gcrenn- 
hyt, the Son of God purchased a blessed friendship. 

In Brut Grufiudd ab Arthur {Myv., ii, 249) there is 
an example of -assit : ar gwemvyn hwnnw tnuy lawer o 
amser ac llygrassyd, and that jjoison [the Pelagian 
heresy] for a long time corrupted them. Geofirey's ori- 
ginal here has the pluperfect : "cujus venenum ipsos 
multis diebus afiecerat." But the translation in tlie 


Brut is free. The rest of tlie nbove examples, cither on 
the face of them, or in view of the connexions in which 
they occur, are decisive, and indicate the perfect. 

May we not compare here the -sit of Latin perfects 
in si ? 

XX. The AVelsh perfect passive forms in -at and -et 
are doubtless perfect participles which passed into finite 
verbs by the habitual omission of the auxiliary, — the 
place of the participle being in the meantime supplied 
by the verbal adjective in -etic, with which Ebel com- 
pares Latin " dediticius," '"' facticius," " suppositicius," 
etc. These changes must have taken place at a very 
early period ; yet I find a few middle-Welsh, examples 
^■\-here the participle, in composition witli the auxiliary 
oedd, was, retains its proper meaning. I am not aAvare 
that tbey have been pointed out. 

The following are from Brut Gruftudd ab Artlnir : 
Jceyssyaiu y idat ry-vanagadoed udunt {Myv., ii, 103), 
to seek the country which had been mentioned to them ; 
j>ym oneyh hagen a anadoed ydaw (ib., 160), there had 
been born to him, however, five sons ; a rncgys y dysc- 
udoed ydaw, hrywatv y prycet a oriio (ib., 170), and as 
it had been taught him, he bruised the insects ; riiegys 
yd archadoed (ib., 286), as it had been commanded. 

The following is a stanza of \mcertain authorship, 
printed among the early-middle poems in the Myvyriua 
(i, 254) : 

Eurwas kyn llcas, yn llyssoet enwawc 
Mygedawc magadoet 
O bob da dofnytadoet ; ' 
O bob defuyt deifnyawc oet. 
The illustrious youth, before he perished, had been bred in famous 
and grand courts. Of eveiy good was he composed ; in every mat- 
ter be was skilled. 

The vei'bs here to be noticed are, managad-oedd, 
ganad-oedd, dyscad-oedd, archad-ocdd, inagad-ocdd, 
dafnyddad-ocdd. They are not imperfects, as the simi- 
lar combinations in Armoric are, e. g., oa caret, was 
loved; but pluperfects, like the Latin " amatus erat." 


rENTYEcn, carXxVi;yoxshii;e. 

The ancient fortress that forms the subject of the pre- 
sent notice is situated half a mile to the north-west of 
the village of Llangybi, in the hundred of Eifionydd, 
on the summit of an isolated hill named Carn Pentyrch, . 
which commands on the one hand an extensive pro- 
spect of the surrounding country, together with nearly 
the whole of Cardigan Bay and the distant mountains 
of Merionethshire, whilst in the opposite direction the 
view is bounded by the lofty peaks of Yr Eifl, Gyrn Goch, 
and Gym Ddu. Tre'r Ceiri bears west-north-west, dis- 
tant a little less than five miles; and about two and a 
half miles off to the north, the conical head of Pen y 
Gaer stands prominently forth. This stronghold still 
retains its outlines in tolerable pireservation, and ex- 
hibits on a small scale most of the peculiarities charac- 
teristic of this class of remains. I imagine the hill to 
have taken its n;i,me from the shape of the entrench- 
ments by which it is crowned : these, taking the form 
of the to)xli (pi. tyrch) torques, collar or wreath, encircle 
it as did that ornament the neck of the great and noble 
among the Britons. " Carn," in Welsh, is a term 
applied to anythmg heaped up, more especially moun- 
tain tops ; thus we have in this same district Carn 
Madryn, Carn Bodfuan, Carn Guwch, and in the present 
instance Carn Pentyrch, " The* hill with torqued sum- 

To the south-west, south, and south-east the ground 
is precipitous, but to the north-west, north, and north- 
east there is a considerable extent of table-land before 
the hill begins to decline rapidly ; on this latter side 
the greatest protection was needed, and here accord- 
ingly we find the strongest works. As will be seen 
from the accompanying plan, the remains consist of 
three lines of defence with intervenmo- trenches on all 


.^^^^ / ^^- 

V ^^Tl I . 0/?,, '\ 



sides, excepting the south and soutli-east, where, owing 
to the steep slope and rocky nature of the ground there 
are but two without any trench. There is, however, 
a piece of rock to the west, forming a kind of natural 
bastion which has been taken advantage of, being 
united to the second line of defence by a cross wall at 
t^^-o points. The main or inner rampart, in form nearly 
circular, is composed entirely of stone and encloses an 
area of 78 feet diameter, on which at present there are 
no circular or other foundations, unless a few scattered 
stones near the centre indicate the position of some 
such structure. It has been much quarried into for 
material to build a high modern wall that comes up to 
and passes through the works on the east, but where 
least injured (i. e. to the north) it shows a thickness, at 
bottom, of about ] S feet. Here too, the parapet, Avhich 
doubtless was originally carried all round, is most per- 
fect, being 6 feet broad and paved with stones laid 
flatways ; some few also of the facing stones of the 
inner side of the battlement remain here " in situ" (see 
engraving). On this same side in the thickness of the 
wall are seen traces of at least three chambers, one, 
apparently rectangular, measuring 6 feet by 4 feet and 
well faced on three sides (see engraving) : the others 
much jumbled up, but probably circular. Some of the 
inner lower courses of masonry ai'e tolerably perfect up 
to a height of 3 feet on the south-west. There is to 
the north-west a portion of the wall raised 10 feet 
above the level of the interior, li^vinga circular depres- 
sion at the top ; it takes the form of a ruined tower or 
site of a beacon, although probably it may be merely of 
modern origin and connected wdth the ordnance survey. 
Outside the stone rampart to the north is a trench 
20feet wide, to which succeeds the second line of defence, 
here consisting of an earthwork 35 feet wade and from 
10 to 12 feet high; then there follows another ditch 
1 6 feet broad, and finally, at a distance of 60 yards, 
comes the outer protection of all, which has been nearly 
levelled and has a modern Wall built upon it for some 


distance. This (probably an earthwork in parts at all 
events) starting from near the rock bastion takes a 
large curve outwards, and falls in again with the second 
line of defence not far from the supposed entrance. 
There is a remarkable wall, or at least the foundation 
of one, marked on the plan by dotted lines, running 
across the part enclosed between the outer and second 
lines of defence ; it is 9 feet broad and consists of two 
parallel rows of stones set on end, the intervening- 
space having been apparently filled with rabble, an 
arrangement reminding one forcibly of the style of 
masonry in use at Dinas Dinorwig near Llanddeiniolen, 
Carnarvonshire, and at Lligwy and Bwi'dd Arthur in 
Anglesey ; it dies off towards its outer extremity, 
but is carried at the other end right into the ditch, 
at the bottom of Avhich is a hole. The entrance 
is diflficidt to trace, but may I think be made out at a 
]3oint to the east where the modern wall crosses, the 
builders of which perhaps took advantage of that de- 
pression to the level of the natural soil for securing a 
firm foundation. Here there are openings through the 
inner and second lines of defence, in the former of which 
two or three courses of masonry are -s-isible on the side 
next to the squai-ed chamber ; after passing the outer 
opening the approach turns somewhat sharply to the 
south-east, being there bounded on one side by a row 
of upright stones ; from thence a beaten track winds 
round the hill to its southern side, and so down into 
the valley towards Llangybi. There is a heap of shat- 
tered rock, marked on the plan, close to the remains of 
the transverse wall before mentioned, and at the dis- 
tance of a furlong to the north-west, upon somewhat 
rising ground, thei-e is a much larger pile of rocks named 
"Maen Llwyd," perhaps surmounted by a cairn and 
used in connection with the fortress as a look-out or 
beacon station. Such is this most interesting fortified 
post, which, whether we regard it as a refuge for the 
inhabitants of the surrounding lowland district to be- 
take themselves to on the approach of an enemy, or else 


as an outpost to Tre'r Ceiri (witli which communication 
by signal woulcl be easy) so as to give warning of the 
coming foe and check his advance, must have formed 
an important link in the chain of defensive arrange- 
ments for the protection of this part' of the country. I 
may add, that although probably unconnected with 
Pentyrch, there are indications of a paved way between 
Llangybi and Llanarmon, running nearly north and 
south. I have had no opportunity of tracing it north- 
wards beyond the former village, but there is a strong- 
presumption of its being met witli near the farm of 
Pentyrch Uchaf, and thence by Pensarn in the direc- 
tion of Hengwm, Bron yr Erw and Tan y Clawdd in 
the parish of Clynnog. 

AV. Wykn AVilliams. 

Boclewrj-d, Anglesey : Dec. 12, 1872. 


After the declaration of the unwritten laws and cus- 
toms of Wales, known as the Laws of Howel Dda, no 
document throws a greater light on the subject of the 
laws and customs of Wales than the Record of Car- 
narvo-}! ,^ edited by Sir Henry Ellis, Avhose able and 
exhaustive introduction calls the reader's attention to 
and illustrates everything, which may be gleaned from 
the volume before him. 

The Pv-ecord itself is transcribed from a MS. of the 
time of Henry VII, in which the recoi-ds have been 
copied without regard to date ; as the date of some can 
only be inferred from their contents, some little confu- 
sion arises in the perusal of them. 

AA^ith a view to a better arrangement and undei- 
standing of the subject, it may be well to give a brief 
' Record Coiumissiou, 1838. 


enumeration of tlie contents of the MS. and to state, 
Avliere a doubt arises, Avhat is the probable age of each 
record before any use is made of it. 

1. Extent of the counties of Carnarvon and Anglesey 
made before John de Delves, deputy of Richard Earl of 
Arundel, Justiciar of North "Wales, 26 Edw. Ill, and a 
jury of twelve freemen on the examination of each 
tenant, whether freeman or villein. 

2. Statutum Walliffi made at Pdiuddlan, 12 Edw. I. 

3. Certificate of bailiffs of tlie city of Hereford (22 
Edw.III) to the mayor and bailiffs of the town of Ehudd- 
lan of the libeities of the city of Hereford, which confirms 
the notion of Mr. Black that the laws and customs of 
Hereford (as printed in the Journal of the British 
Archfeological Society for 1S71) were not then in ex- 

4. A series of minutes (without date), entered pro- 
bably from time to time in the records of North Wales, 
of ordmances in addition to Stat. Wallia?. 

5. A short entry of the conviction and forfeiture of 
the lands and efiects of Griffith Says before Eichard de 
Staftbrd and others at Conway, 44 Edw. Ill, from 
which Sir H. Ellis has arrived at the conclusion that 
the documents which follow are of that date. 

6. Eecords of proceedings before Eichard de Stafford 
and other justices itinerant in North Wales on Avrits of 
quo ivarranto at the instance of the Black Prince. Sir 
H. Ellis says, in i-eference to these proceedings, " The 
first of them is dated 44 Edw. Ill ; the rest, taken be- 
fore the same justices, all appear to belong to the same 
jDrogress or circuit ;" but in a note he entertains a doubt 
whether they were all taken at the same time, and re- 
marks that Matthew Bishop of Bangor, one of the per- 
sons against whom a writ of quo uxirranto was issued, 
died in 1357, 31 Edw. HI. Now, in this case it is clear 
that the hearing took place before 25 Edw. Ill; for the 
claim of the bishop to hold fairs and markets, which was 
disallowed on the hearing by the same justices, was 
regranted and confirmed to the bishoj^, with express 


reference to the justices' decision, by letters patent' of 
the BLack Prince, 8 Oct., 25 Edward III. Again, in the 
case of the Prior of Bedd Gelert, the proceedings aj^pear 
to have been taken seventy-seven years after the date of 
a grant, which proved to be a forgery, of Llewelyn ab 
Gruffydd in 1271, so that the hearing must have taken 
jjlacein 22 Edw. Ill, 1348. Queen Isabella Avas also 
summoned, and she died in 1357; in addition the cir- 
cuit of Tliomas de Aldon and his associates, 8 Edw. Ill, 
is referred to in most of the proceedings as the last pre- 
ceding iter. The view that all the proceedings took 
place on the same circuit is supported by the fact that 
in every case, save one, the mon'ow of the feast of the 
Holy Trinity is fixed for a trial before a jury at Conway 
of all disputed matters of fact. Taking this into con- 
sideration, and that the Prince's Commission is dated 
26 June, 17 Edw. Ill, the probable date of these pro- 
ceedings is 22 Edw. III. 

7. Ptecord of proceedings for recovery of possession 
of Ednevet Loyt of lands in the Commot of Dynllaen, 
held of the king in viUenage, before John de la Pole, 
Justiciar of North Wales, 7 Ptic. II. 

8. Minutes of petitions of communities and indi- 
viduals to Edward II, when Prince of Wales, and his 
council at Kenyngton, 33 Edw. I, and of the answers 
made to the same, and delivered to the justiciar under 
the Prince's privy seal. These petitions were presented 
from time to time, as the successive petitions from New- 
borough sufficiently show. Sii- H. Ellis has unaccount- 
ably attributed the date of these petitions to 33 Edw. 
Ill, and has added a note, calling attention to the let- 
ters patent, 9 Edw. II, "Pro hominibus North Wallie 
de consuetudinibus observandis,"- as containing a refer- 
ence to similar petitions in the time of Edward I, where- 
as the reference in those letters jiatent is obviously to 
the petitions incorporated in the record of Carnarvon. 
The title ought to settle the question, as "Edwardi" 

1 Inspexirans grant of Ricbard II, Rec. Cam., 2-54. 
- Eymer's Fcedera (2nd Ed.), vol. iii, p. 648. 


occiu'S without addition, but the sul)ject matter of tlie 
petitions removes all doubt as to tbeir date ; for in- 
stance, the petition of the burgesses of Newborougli for 
a renewal of their charter, that the name of lihosfeir 
might be changed to XeA\-borough, and that they might 
have the same charter as PJiud.dlan, a petition whicli 
Avas granted by the Prince's charter, 3 May, 31 Edw. I. 

These are followed by a series of docunrents which 
it is for the present purpose unnecessary to enumerate, 
and in the supplement by an Extent of the greater part 
of the county of Merioneth, supposed to have been taken 
7 Henry Y. 

The Roll of Fealty and Presentments, 1 7 Edward III, 
which is now for the first time printed,^ might well 
have preceded the valuable collection in the Record of 
Carnarvon, as it sets out the Kings' and Princes' letters 
patent, under which the commissioners acted, and nar- 
rates many additional facts. Read alone it is compar- 
atively uninteresting ; but when read as part of the 
proceedings to which it gave rise, it yields much valu- 
able information, and so an account will be given of its 
contents with illustrations of the subjects, which a pe- 
rusal of it suggests, with a view to further elucidate 
the state and condition of the Principality at the time 
of and after its conquest by the first and greatest Ed- 

In 1333 King Edward III created his son Edward, 
afterwards so celebrated as the Black Prince, Earl of 
Cliester, and granted to him the cormty of Chester with 
the castles of Chester, Rhuddlan, and FHnt. He Avas 
created Prince of Wales in the Parliament 1 2th of May, 
1343, and the grant to him of the Principality was pre- 
ceded by his investiture with a circlet, ring, and rod.^ 
By letters patent under the great seal, 28th of June, 
1343, the king granted to him the principality of Wales, 
Avith the lordship, castle, town and county of Carnarvon, 

1 Mr. Wynne of Peniarth, in an early number of the Arcli. Camh., 
published an extract from this Roll relative to Harlech. 
"' Sir H. Nicolas' HisloAc Femirje. 


tlie lordships, castles, and towns of Conway, Criccieth, 
Beaumaris, and Harlech, the lordships and counties of 
Anglesey and Merioneth, the lordship, castle, town and 
county of Carmarthen, the lordship, castle, and town of 
Lampader Vawr,^ the lordship and serieschalcy of Can- 
tref Mawr,^ the lordship, castle, and county of Cardigan, 
the lordships, castles, and towns of Emlyn,Builth, Haver- 
ford and Montgomery, and the lordships and lands for- 
jnerly of liees ab Meredith,'' including Dynevour and 
Drosselyn (Dryslwyn),witli all their rights and liberties; 
and by the same letters patent the king deputed Wil- 
liam de Enieldon, his clerk, to take possession of the 
princijiality and deliver seisiir of it to the prince or his 
attornies. William de Emeldon was also directed to 
survey the want of repair of the castles, and take an 
account of the provisions and arms, and to deliver the 
arms and provisions there found to the persons appointed 
by the prince. William de Emeldon thereupon seised 
into the king's hands the Principality. 

The prince by letters patent \mder his privy seal, 
dated at Kenyngton, 26th June, 17 Edward III, ap- 
pointed Henry de Ferrers, Richard de Stafibrd, Piers 
de Gildesburgh, his treasurer, Piichard de la Pole, and 
Hugh de Berwick, or any two or more of them, of whom 
H. de Ferrers, or in his default, Richard de Stafibrd 
was to be chief, to receive possession of the Principality 
and to demand and take recompence for him and in 
his name of all his loyal subjects of the Principality, 
and to do w^iat else was necessary ton his behalf 

Henry de Ferrers died about this time, and so R. 
de Stafford acted as chief of the commission, with R. 
de la Pole and Hugh de Berwick. 

On their circuit the Bishop of St. Asaph attended at 

' Llanbadarn Fawr. 

- Comprising the commots (in Cai-martliensliire) of Cethinog, 
Elvydb, Yclidryd, and Widigada. {M,jv. Arch.) 

3 Castle of Dynevour and lands of Maynertylan, Mathlaen, Cayo, 
and Wabelven. See agreement between tlie King and Rees ab 
Mereduc, 6 Ed. I (vol. ii, p. 81, Rymer). 

•iTH SER., VOL. IV. Jl 


St. Asaph on the 31st of July, 1343, and took the oath 
of fealty. 

The commissioners next visited Conway, one of the 
privileged towns of North Wales, of which some ac- 
count will be presently given, on the 1st of August. 
There Thomas de Upton took his oath of office as con- 
stable of the castle, and then as mayor of the town ; 
the two bailiffs of the town took their oaths of office, 
and then Matthew, Bishop of Bangor, aud the burgesses, 
one after the other, attended and cUd their fealty to 
the Prince. 

Inquiry was then made of the burgesses and tenants 
what aid they would grant for the repair of the castle 
on the Prince's accession, to which they made answer 
that King Edward after his conquest of NVales ordained 
theburgesses to be his garnishersin histown and required 
nothing more of them, that Edward II and Edward 
III confirmed what he had done and that on account 
of the previous wars and contentions in those parts they 
were so impoverished as to be almost unable to main- 
tain themselves, and so they were then unable to give 
aid to the Prince. All tlie arms, provisions, and other 
things in the castle, being first valued by a jury and 
enumerated in two indentures, were then delivered by 
W. de Emeldon to the commissioners, who handed them 
over to the constable of the castle. 

Similar proceedings took place at Beaumaris on the 
3rd of Angitst, John de Warwick being constable of the 
castle and mayor ; he also took his oath of oflice as 
sheriff of Anglesey^ John deHousom, seneschal of Queen 
Isabella for the comraot of Menai, which she held under 
a grant for her hfe, took the oath to regard the 
Prince's^ interests, and the tenants and others in An- 
glesey attended and did their fealty to the Prince before 
the commissioners. Judgingfromthe stateof the garrisons 
kept at the Castles of Conway and Beaumaris, a feeling of 
security from thechance of any outbreak on the j^artof the 
Welsh prevailed, for it appears by the presentments of 
1 "Es-enJi intendontis Domino Pilncipi." 


the juries of tliose towns that the constable of each 
castle received yeai-ly as his fee 100 marcs for the keep- 
ing and garrisoning of the castle, and that it was his 
duty to keep a chaplain, a watchman, and sixteen men 
as the garrison, but that the ntnnber' actually kept at 
Conway was sometimes ten, at others eight, and at times 
as low as six, and at Beaumaris the number was from 
ten to twelve and a watchman. Looking at the ordi- 
nance for the safe kee2:iing of the castles in Noi'th Wales 
(2 Edward III)^ and contrasting the number of men- 
at-arms, horse and foot, and the nuniber of archers 
du-ected to be kept at each castle, a thought occurs that 
the hea\y levy in the preceding year by Puchard, Earl 
of Arundel, the Justiciar, of 498 lancers, of whom Car- 
narvonshire was to supjDly 249, for the war in Brittany ,- 
may have drained the county of all the available sol- 
diers and have been another cause of the great reduction 
in the garrisons. 

On the 5th of August the commissioners attended at 
Carnarvon, where John de Bui-ton, as constable of the 
Castle and mayor, the two bailiffs, and coroner took 
their oaths of office, and each burgess attended and did 
his fealty. Following them, Thomas de Upton, as 
sherifl' for Carnarvonshire, and the several woodwards 
took the oaths of their offices, and the tenants and others 
in the county did their fealty. 

Next the ceremony of the delivery of a new seal of 
office by the commissioners to John de Pyrye, as Cham- 
berlain of the Exchequer of Cari:^arvon, took jjlace in 
the presence of the Bishop of Bangor and the assembled 
county. Proclamation Avas made that the old seal was 
of no avail, and it Avas delivered to W. de Emeldon to be 
deposited in the King's Chancery. Tlie new Chamber- 
lain Avas then directed to receive the oath of office of 
the Ehingylls, Baglots, and other ministers, Avho Avere 
accountants to the exchequer at Carnarvon. 

To the inquiry Avhat aid they Avere prepared to give 

' Airh. Camh., ovA Series, vol. viii. 
- Eymer, vol. v, p. 353. 


to the Prince, the chief men (magnates) and others of 
the counties of Carnarvon and Anglesey obtained leave 
to defer their answer until Micliaelmas following. 

Eobert de Helpeston, mason, John de Mere, carpen- 
ter and keeper of the engines, the plumber, tiler, ar- 
mourer and smith (probably the master workmen of 
each trade employed in the Castle) successively took 
the oath of oflice. It appears from the petitions before 
referred to that in the time of the first Prince of Wales 
the master of the works at the Castle held his Court, 
and had jurisdiction in cases of breaches of contract 
over his Avorkmen. 

Xext the Bishop of Bangor, the abbots, priors, and 
clergy were asked what aid they would give, and ob- 
tained leave to delay their answer until the next feast 
of the Nativity of the Virgin at Shrewsbury. Before 
the proceedings at Carnarvon terminated, a minute Avas 
made that John de Burton, the deputy of the Earl of 
Arundel, Justiciar of North Wales, delivered no rolls 
or minutes of the Justiciar's office when required so 
to do. 

The commissioners proceeded to Criccieth on the 
7th of August and to Harlech on the 9th of August. 
At these towns they in lilce manner received the oath 
of office of the constables of castles and mayors (William 
de Hopton and Bartholomew de Salle) and others, and 
the fealty of the burgesses. 

At Harlech Howel ab Gronow, as sheriff of Merion- 
ethshire, took his oath of offiqe. The Abbot of Cymmer 
attended and did his fealty, and the non-attendance of 
the abbots of Strata Marcella and Basingwerk and of 
Griffith de Glyndwrd wy were recoi'ded.' Next the 
barons, whose names are specified, of Edeyrnion and 
Abertanaut- AS'ith the commonalty of tlie county at- 
tended and did their fealty. 

They also obtained leave to adjourn their answer as 
to an aid until Michaelmas. 

1 Probably grandfather of Owen Glyndwr. See Powell's Hist, of 
Wales, p. 182. ' i Abortanat ? 


Before giving an account ofthe commissioners' further 
progress it may be well to mention the special jjrivi- 
leges which the towns of North Wales enjoyed. In all 
liis dealings, whether as Prince or King, Edward I ap- 
p)ears to have recognized that Wales was not to be won 
by mere conquest, and could only be permanently uni- 
ted to England by acts of conciliation and clemency. 
That this was his study and desii-e is shown by his 
declaration in the treaty with Llewelyn ab Griffith' and 
his proclamations after his concjuest that all who would 
submit to his allegiance should enjoy the same rights 
and hberties, and hold their lands subject to the same 
payments and services as theretofore ;■ and also by his 
maintenance of the existing laws of Wales with such 
additions and corrections as ajDpeared to him and his 
council necessary after careful consideration. 

In the acquisition of North Wales he probably perused 
and acted on the wMse counsels of Giraldus'' to the would- 
be conqueror of Wales to build castles in fit places in 
the interior of the country, to clear w^ays through the 
woods, and grant privileges to Chester and the towns 
on and to the west of the Severn ; for soon after the 
conquest he endeavoured to consolidate the footing he 
had obtained in North Wales, by creating a nimiber of 
borough tov.-ns, adjoining for the most part- one of his 
castles and colonising them with English, on whom he 
might rely in case of any fresh outbreak. 

Carnarvon, Beaumaris, Harlech, Criccieth, Bala, 
Ehuddlan, and somewhat later Newborough, each re- 
ceived charters of incorj^oration and additional privi- 
leges by subsec[uent proclamations. The names of the 
burgesses (17 Edward III) are almost all English. 

As a rule a fee farm rent was reserved, but every 
encouragement was given to the town, and, in the case 
ol Beaumaris, no rent was required to be paid for ten 

1 Rymer, vol. ii, p. 89. - Preamble Stat. JVaJUc. 

^ llesciiptio CanihrM. " Qualiter fifcns ista sit expugnanda." ('218, 
2-21, 2-23.) 


years after its foundation. The privileges granted by 
eacli charter Avere similar Avith shght exceptions. 

The town Avas constituted a borough and the towns- 
men free burgesses. The constable of the adjoining- 
castle was to be the mayor, and- the burgesses were to 
elect yearly from themselves two bailifts, and present 
them to the mayor. Each town had a prison for 
oflenders (except in cases of life and death, Avhen the 
bvngesses and others indicted were to be imprisoned in 
default of bail in the castle). All lands assigned to the 
borough were to be disforested. No JeA\s were to 
dwell within the borough. No sherift' was to enter 
there by virtue of his office, except in Pleas of the 
Crown. The borough Avas constituted a merchant gild 
Avith a right to take toll on merchandize entering 
(liansa), and no one could market there Avithout leave 
of the burgesses. The villein Avho stayed and held 
land in the toAvn and Avas in the gild, and paid scot and 
lot for a year and a day, could no longer be claimed by 
his lord and became a freedman. 

Then occur the usual Saxon general Avords used in 
grants of that period : " Sok and sak," the holding of a 
court and cognizance of pleas ; " tol," the right to take 
toll on things bought and sold ; " Theam," the right 
to tax their villeins and their progeny ; " Infangene- 
thef," the right to try and sentence a thief caught in 
the act within the borough, and in case he did not sub- 
mit to trial in the borough court, to send him to the 
next gaol of the Prince, in order that justice might be 
there done ; and other Avords, wdiich carried an exerap- 
tio!i from toll, taxes, Avorks and services in England and 
elseAvhere. Other privileges granted to the burgesses 
Avere freedom from arrest of person and seizure of goods 
Avithin the principality, unless they were sureties or 
debtors, from loss of their goods by their serA-ants' 
fault ; the right of successors to the goods of their de- 
ceased relative, testate or intestate ; freedom from 
conviction of an ofience by any other than a jury of 
burgesses, and from interference of strangers in any 


matter relating to the privileges of tlie borouo-li ; such 
cases being regulated accoi'ding to the liberties of the 
city of Hereford, which provided for the impanelhng of 
a jury, one half of burgesses and the other half of citi- 
zens or burgesses of a neighbouruig town of the same 

In the case of Bala the English residents were the 
burgesses ; the borough was to be inclosed with a ditch 
and stone Avail, and prisoners charged witli capital of- 
fences Avere to be taken to Harlech Castle. 

NeAvborough, as before stated, did not receive a 
charter until 31 Edwaixl I ; its priA-ileges, AA'hich were 
similar to those of the other towns, Avere granted Avith 
reference to the charter to Ehuddlan, and the burgesses 
Avere alloAved by Richard de Stafibrd and liis felloAV 
justices to elect a mayor, being an Englishman, of their- 
fellow burgesses on payment of a fine of 100s. Under 
the name of ilhosfeir this town had previously enjoyed 
some privileges. By a series of petitions to the first 
Prince of Wales they obtained the right to hold markets, 
leave that the constable of Carnarvon Castle should be 
their mayor, a change of name to Newborough, and 
ultimately their charter. 

The burgesses of Harlech held their toAvn, including 
all escheated land within the Commot of Ardudvy, at 
a fee farm rent, payable to Sir Walter de j\Ianny for 
his life.^ 

With a view to further promote the prosperity of 
these toAvns, ordinances and proqlaraations Avere made 
that no one in North Wales, save dwellers at a distance, 
should buy or sell cattle or other merchandise, except 
small articles, such as buttei', cheese, and milk, save in 
one of these towns, or breAv ale for sale within eight 
leagues of it. Each house Avas to send one person 

1 The dates of tlie charters were as follow : Carnarvon, Ehudillaii, 
and Conway, 8 Sept., 12 Ed. I ; Harlech and Criccieth, '22 Nov., 
IS Ed. I; Bala, 1 June, 17 Ed. I; Beaumaris, 15 Sept., 24 Ed. I; 
Newborough, 31 Ed. I. 

- Presentments, 17 Ed. Ill, No. 10. 


weekly to market in order to increase the number at 
the market, and in order to keep up the number of in- 
habitants no one burgess could hold 'more than one 
burgage tenement witliout license. Orders were made, 
on the petition of the burgesses of Beaumaris complain- 
ing of the withdrawal of people from their market to 
Newborough, that tlie former order that the three 
nearest commots of Anglesey should market at Beau- 
maris should be enforced, and that all coasting vessels 
should offer their merchandise at Beaumaris for sale. 
This town contained 154 burgess tenements in 10 Edw. 
III.^ It will be observed that there is no actual pro- 
hibition in any of the charters of a Welshman becoming 
a burgess; although in the case of Newborough it was 
stipulated that the mayor should be an Englishman ; 
it appears, however, by the minutes of ordinances of 
Eecord that a ^Yelshman was prohibited by order of 
the conqueror from acquiring any lands or tenements 
in the walled English towns on pain of forfeiture of 
the same, and from wearing arms at market towns 
and in churclies under a penalty of loss of his arms 
and one year's imprisonment. The privileges granted 
and exercised by these towns appear to have been 
viewed as excessive by the Black Prince's advisers, 
for in each case a writ of quo u-arranto was issued, and 
the claims of the burgesses were only allowed by the 
justices after the production of their charters, and a 
strenuous assertion of their rights. 

The unusual privileges exercised by some of the reli- 
gious orders and ecclesiastics* in North AVales likewise 
attracted the Prince's attention, and so tlie abbots of 
Conway, Cymmer, and Bardsey, the prior of Bedd 
Gelert and Bishop of Bangor were summoned to show 
by what authority they exercised them. It may suffice 
to refer more particularly to the cases of the abbots of 
Con-^'ay and Bardsey. 

Llewelyn ab lorwerth in 1198 granted to the Cis- 
tercian monks of Aberconwy a freedom from the cus- 

1 " Original Documents," Arch. Camh., p. xviii. 


tomaiy provision in Wales of food and drink for men, 
horses, dogs, and birds, and the entertainrnent of tlie 
Prince's ministers, of wliich mention is made in the 
Laws of Howel Dda ; a right to regulate the affairs of 
the monastery Avitliout interference, to wreck on their 
own shores, and to their own ships and goods when 
wrecked elsewhere ; freedom fi'om toll, passage and 
pontage ; license to buy and sell on their lands ; free 
passage on all ferries ; the sole iise of an iron mark for 
their animals, freedom from suit in any lay court, and 
from claim or action on account of the reception of any 
person into their order, unless the claim was made within 
the year of probation ; the right to erect mills on waters 
running between their lands and the Prince's lands, 
and to receive into their order the Prince's freemen, 
villeins, and men who placed themselves under his pro- 
tection,^ and all who had the first tonsure, and to hold 
lands in frankalmoign free fi-om all secular exactions. 
Llewelyn ab Griffith confirmed this gTant, and Edward 
I, when Prince, in recompence for the site of the ori- 
ginal abbey and lands adjoining, and of the grange of 
Creuddyn, ^\•hich the abbot and monastery had sun-en- 
dered into his hands, granted to the abbot and monks, 
Avhose monastery he founded anew at Maenan, the vill 
of Maenan with its ap2:)urtenances, and the right to 
accept all reasonable donations of lands with sok and 
sak, tol (the right to tax their villeins) theam, in- 
fangenethef, utfangenethef (the right of executing on 
the gallows (furcas) at Maenan any their men sentenced 
elsewhere in Wales by the justices to be hung, hom- 
soken (the amerciaments of their men and tenants) and 
other general words, under which the abbot claimed an 
exemption for the monastery and their freemen from 
all tolls, pa}Tnents, works, and services. Those grants 
were confirmed by Edward III, and by the Black 
Prince. The justices on the hearing of the case decided 
that all the privileges claimed were expressly granted 
and could not be taken away by their decision. 

1 " Liberos meos, spadarios, et homines tie advocationc." 

170 ox THE AVELSn IlECOllDS 

The abbot of the Cistercian Abbey of Cymmer also 
claimed under a grant of Llewelyn ab lorwertli (cou- 
flrraed G March, 1 7 Edward I) for his abbey a right of 
fishing in all waters and shores of the sea ; all goods 
of the monastery wrecked, wherever found ; to fell 
trees and jjursue and kill game, and to agist animals 
in their woods and lands ; to dig and carry away metals 
and minerals, Avhich might be reduced to another form, 
and sea coal' and other minerals, which could not be so 
reduced, and the right to accept a lease of lands in 
mortmain. The justices held that as the abbot was an 
ecclesiastical person, the rights claimed under the 
grants from the time of the conquest and before still 
remained in the Church of Cymmer, and so adjudi- 
cated in favour of the abbot's claims. 

In the case of the Bishop of Bangor those portions 
of his claims, which rested on prescription, were disal- 
lowed, and those which were supported by grants were 
allowed (save in the case of fairs and markets, which 
were disallowed as contrary to the conc|ueror's ordi- 
nances relative to the borough towns, but they were 
afterwards under an arrangement with the justices re- 
granted to the abbot by the Black Prince, as before 
stated, in 25 Edward III. The same course was adopted 
by the justices in the case of the abbot of Bardsey, but 
his claim to have amobyr, and to tax his villeins was al- 
lowed, as a necessary incident to the tenure of his lands. 

Before passing to another subject it may be here 
.mentioned that" no one in North Wales could be or- 
dained' to holy orders without leave of the king or 
prince, and that cehbacy does not appear to have been 
enforced on the clergy in North Wales by the diocesan, 
although the prince refused the petition of jMatthew, 
Archdeacon of Anglesey, that he might give a piece of 
land to liis daughter, alleging as a reason that he 
ought not to have a daughter or heirs, " p''^ l^'-'^'^'^'^'-' 

1 " Carbones maritimos." 
' Putitious, 33 Ed. I. ^ " Coronari." 


On the 11th Aiiq-ust the commissioners, pursuino- 
theu- circuit from North AVales, arrived at, Llanhadaru 
Fawr, ^Yhere Sir John de Montgomery, as constable of 
the castle, and the two bailifis took their oaths of office, 
and the tenants of the town, who we're chiefly of Welsh 
extraction, attended and did their fealty. The office 
of mayor does not appear to have existed at this time 
in any of the towns of West and South Wales. Llan- 
badarn received a charter (6 Edward I), creating^ it a 
free borough, and granting to the burgesses the right 
to inclose it with a fosse and wall and othei' privileges, 
less extensive than those of the North Wales boroughs, 
but including the right to have a merchant gild cum 
hansa, soc and sac, tol and theam, infangenethef and 
freedom from toll and other customs and exactions in 
England and elsewhere, with all other liberties which 
the burgesses of Montgomery enjoyed ; a right to hold 
fairs and a market, and a like provision as to the en- 
franchisement of a villein as in the North Wales 

On the commissioners' inquisition the jury presented 
tliat the land of Llys Newydd in the commot of Mefe- 
nydd and twenty acres of meadow in the commot of 
Geneu'r Glyn, with certain services or works of carriage 
from Aberbaghan and Trefnlleyn, belonged to the castle, 
that the King's chamberlain took one barrel of herrings 
as a prise from every small vessel, of the yearly value 
of 20s., which belonged to the castle, and that the con- 
stable of the castle by virtue of his office reserved for 
himself the right of fishing in the rivers Rheidol and 
Ystwith. The jury likewise made a further present- 
ment that the chief men (magnates) of the commots 
of Cardiganshire usurped to themselves all moun- 
tains and woods under the name of forest, and made 
there tenements, houses, and meadows, which belong 
to the Principality, of the yearly value of £20 and up- 
wards. At Llanbadarn William Denys, as seneschal of 
Cardiganshire and Coroner, attended and took his oath 

1 Charter Roll, C, Ed. I, No. 21. 


of office ; all the ministers, -who were accountants to 
the Prince's exchequer at Carnarvon also attended and 
took the oath of office before the new chamberlain. 
The commonalty of the seneschalcy, many of whose 
names are given, and the abbot of Strata Florida, also 
attended and did their fealty. They deferred their 
answer as to what aid they would give until IMichael- 
mas. The j my afterwards (among other matters) pre- 
sented that the chief seat of the lords a.nd barons 
of Wales was formerly at Cardigan, and that causes 
used to be heard and decided according to the law of 
Wales, and not according to the law of England, at the 
County Court there. 

On the following day, 12th August, the commission- 
ers were at Emlyn, where Llewelyn ab Wilym, deputy 
of Gilbert Lord Talbot, the constable and receiver, took 
the oaths of his office, and afterwards as bailiff" of the 
town ; the commonalty of the lordship then attended 
and did their fealty. 

At Cardigan on the 14th August William Denys 
again attended, as seneschal and keeper of the Rolls of 
Cardiganshire, and took the oaths of his offices, as did 
also John Matthew, the jjrepositus of the town, which 
enjoyed similar liberties to the town of Carmarthen.' 
The commonalty of the town and of the commot of 
Isgoed then attended and did theii- fealty. The jury 
presented that the English County Court was held at 
Cardigan on a Tuesday, and the names of the suitors 
there. They likewise preseated that William Tur- 
berville was constable of the Castle of Cardigan 
under the King's grant, with a yearly fee of lUOs. 
Among the suitors at the County Court the name of 
the Master of Slebeche is mentioned. The Knights 
Hospitallers of St. John of Jenisalem had two precep- 
tories in Wales, Halston, near Oswestry, and Slebeche, 
in Pembrokeshire. At each, iir accordance with the 
rules of their order, they exercised a large hospitality 
in bread and ale to the numerous applicants who flocked 

1 See charter, Me^-rick's Hist, of Ganlir/anilcirc. 


there day after day/ deriving their income as well from 
their lands as from yearly collections, nnder the name 
of Confraria, in England free gifts, hnt uiWales a yearly 
sum of one jDenny, recoverable hy distress of each house- 
holder who had goods of the vahie of £'10. On the 
report of his justiciars King Edward confirmed- the 
privileges, which their order appeared to have pre- 
viously enjoyed in Wales, of free chase in all Crown 
lands in South Wales ; a free comi: with jurisdiction 
over their tenants, excejjt in cases of life and hmb ; 
freedom for them and their tenants from all services, 
aids and works, amobyr or leirwit'' of the daughters of 
their villeins, and a specified portion of the goods on 
death and amerciaments of any villein given to the 
hospital in frankalmoign, with the right to the yearly 
collection before referred to. 

Haverford was the next town on the circuit. On 
the 15th August William Harald, seneschal, constable 
and receiver of the castle, did fealty and took the oath 
of each office. The three bailiffs of the town and the 
bailiff of the lordship foreign also took the oaths, and 
the commonalty of the town and lordship, and the prior 
of Haverford did their fealty. To the request of an 
aid for the Prince they made answer that if the Prince 
visited those parts they would do for him what they 
had a right to expect, free and of desert, from their 
lord the Prince and other answer gave they none. 
The jury presented that the castle was of stone, covered 
with lead and used as a residence for the lord and his 
ministers, for the defence of the cotmtry and for a gaol, 
and that there were two curtilages \\ithin its circuit. 
The jury for Haverford foreign presented that James 
Kelyng held one knight's fee, and that there were 
twelve knights' fees held by mihtary service. 

^ " Et pluribus aliis snpervenientibus de TTallia qui multum con- 
flunnfc de die in diem et sunt magni devastores et sunt imponderosi." 
(Compotus of Pliilip de Thame, prior of the order in England, for 
1338, under " Slebech". F. p. 35, KnighU HospitaUers. Camden 
Society.) - 17 June, 12 Ed. I. 

^ A payment to the lord on marriage or incontinence. 


The to^^^l of Carmarthen apjiears to have been recoo- 
nised as a borough from an early period. Henry IIJ, 
on 22nd July, 122G, granted to the burgesses their 
freedom from the payment of tolls, passage, and pont- 
age, and all customs, and his son Ed^^'ard, Avhen Prince, 
by a charter (confirmed 41 Henry III) granted to them 
all the laws and customs which they liad enjoyed in the 
time of King John ; an exemption from loss of their 
goods in servants' keeping by reason of the transgres- 
sion or forfeiture of their servants ; that the relatives 
of a burgess who died testate, or intestate, might have 
his goods ; regulations as to the liability of a debtor 
and his surety ; cognisance, as theretofore, of oftences 
committed within the borough ; that no one w^ho could 
find bail should be taken to the castle for any bailable 
off"euce ; that no burgess should be compelled to lend 
his bailifi:'more than 12d., and that inquisitions foreign 
to the borough should be made by free tenants of the 
country only. On the 9th December, 13 Edward I, he 
granted another charter to the borough, by which, after 
stating that the Welsh of Elved, Dercles,^ Widigada, 
Yskennen, Mahathan," Commot Pervedd, and Hirvrin, 
in the last war his enemies, had submitted themselves 
wholly to his allegiance, he, for the improvement of 
Carmarthen and defence of the neighbouring county, 
granted to the burgesses and all others of wdiatever 
condition of the town of Carmarthen and old Carmar- 
then, a right of common and a right to cut down and 
carry away the underwood, oak, and other trees in the 
woods of Mahathan and other districts before named, 
in which on account of the thickness of the trees depre- 
dations and homicides were frequently committed, and 
vested those woods in the burgesses accordingly. Ed- 
ward III granted the burgesses immunity from murage, 
pannage, quay and anchorage dues on their goods and 
njerchandise throughout the realm ; jurisdiction of of- 
fences within the borough against the assise of bread 
and ale, and assay of measures and weights, and a right 

1 DltIIvs? i Mullfi 

acn I 


to try fill borough matters, save where the crown was 
interested. Eicliard 11/ in 13SG, confirmed the pre- 
A'ious charters, gave the burgesses of New Carmarthen 
power to elect a mayor, two bailift's, and a coroner, and 
referring to the injuries and oppressiotis which the bur- 
gesses had suffered from the Welsh, directed that they 
should not be judged or convicted by any of that nation 
in the counties of Carmarthen or Cardigan, but by true 
Englishmen only, and that the County Court and Ses- 
sions should be held there. 

The commissioners arrived at Carmarthen on the 
15th August, wlrere Rees ab Griffith" (Chevalier), de- 
puty of Gilbert Lord Talbot the justiciar of West and 
South Wales, and seneschal of Cantref Mawr; Walter 
atte Berwick, seneschal of Carmarthen and constable of 
the castle; and Bernard Dun, the sheriff, took the oaths 
of tlieir several offices. The commonalty of the county 
and of Cantref Mawr, the prior of St. John the Evange- 
list, Carmarthen, the abbots of Whitland, Talley and 
Strata Florida, and Pontius, prior of St. Cleres, attended 
and did their fealty. 

They Avere followed by Eees ab Grifiith ab Howel, 
Richard de Penrhos, Richard de Stakepool, and David 
ab Llewelyn ab Philip, who did their fealty, as barons 
by tenure ; the absence of the Eai'ls of Pembroke and 
Huntingdon, and of James Lord Audley, who also held 
by baron's tenure, being recorded. 

Walter atte Berwick then, as seneschal for Henry of 
Lancaster, Earl of Derby, claimed for the earl the 
castle, tov,-n and county of Carmarthen and Cantref 
Mawr under two grants "(16 and 17 Edward III) for ten 
years ; livery of seisin was granted to the seneschal in 

1 CbartcT Eoll, and 10 Ric. II, Xo. 10. 

- Eees ab Griffith wa.s son-in-law of Lord Talbot. He is after- 
wards mentioned at Builth, and be is probably identical with the 
Welsh Baron Rees ab Griffith ab Howel, and with Roes ab Griffith 
to whom Edward II in 1316 directed a commission to raise forces 
in South Wales on the occasion of Llewelyn Bren's insurrection. 
(Rymer, vol. iii, p. 548.) 


tlie eavl's name, he doing to the Prince the services and 
paying the rents reserved. On an appeal being made 
to them for an aid for the Prince, the men of the county 
and senesclialcy said that many of the magnates of the 
county had not attended, and that in then- absence 
they could give no answer. Tliey, therefore, obtained 
leave to defer their answer nntil JMicliaehnas, in oixler 
that they might in the meantime confer with the chief 
men of the county. 

Henry Gower, Bishop of St. David's, when required 
to do his fealty, said that he had received the King's 
summons to attend his council at Westminster on 
Wednesday after the feast of the Nativity of the A'^'irgin, 
and would then in his own person approach the Prince 
and willingly do all that of right he was bound to do. 
He likewise promised to then state what aid the clergy 
would give. 

Proclamation was then made of the grant of a new 
seal to John de Pyrye, as chamberlain of West and 
South Wales, and that no one should obey other than 
the Prince's new seal. The old seal of otfice, with a 
silver chain attached, Avas then delivered by Thomas de 
Castle Godrich, the jsrevious chamberlain, to the com- 
missioners, Avho put it into a bag, sealed with their 
seal, to be taken by William de Emeldon to the King's 

Thomas de Castle Godrich also delivered to the com- 
missioners a chest bound with iron, containing a num- 
ber of rolls relating to pleas ^of the Crown, sheriff's re- 
turns, transcripts of inciuisitions, and fines for the 
counties of Cardigan and Carmarthen, and a volume 
containing the statutes of the realm, which were all 
handed over to the new chamberlain. The jury, among 
other matters, presented that the lords and free tenants 
of Yskennen, Kemmeys, Builth, and all lords and free 
tenants as well within liberties as without, from PwU 
Cynan on the south and the river Dyfi on the north, 
and the whole lordship of Builth on the east as far as 
the western marches, were bound to come to the County 


Court of Cai-marthen for eiglit days at the assizes and 
any juries, except tlie Earl of Pembroke and liis 

At Drosselan and Dynevour' on tlie 1 9th August tlie 
constables of the castles, Rees ab Griffith and George de 
Chabenor took the oaths of office, and the townsmen, 
AA-hose names are nearly all English, did their fealty. 

A curious entry next occurs in the roll as to the re- 
ception of the commissioners at Builth on the 21st of 
August. The Lordship of Bnilth, from its situation and 
the large extent of waste and mountainous land which 
it contained, was probably more inaccessible and less 
nnder control at this period than any other part of 
AYales. Owen ab levan, deputy of Philip ab Piees, 
constable and custos of the castle, failed to obey the 
King's summons and absented himself on the day 
named, ordering David Goch, the porter of the castle, 
not to permit William de Emeldon or the commissioners 
to enter. 

On the porter's refusal to admit them he was taken 
into custody, and on tlieir entry William de Emeldon, 
having seised it into the King's hands, delivered the 
castle with the lordship to the commissioners, who com- 
mitted the custody of the castle to Rees ab Griffith ; 
at his request the porter was released from prison ; the 
late constable was attached and sureties were taken for 
his appearance to answer the King for his contempt. 

Rees ab Griffith, as new constable and custos, and 
John le Ferour, bailift' of the town, and many of the 
town and lordship then readily did their fealty, obtain- 
ing a delay for their answer as to an aid until Michael- 
mas. Richard de la Bere was appointed custos of the 
castle, town, and cantred, in November following. 

The presentments of the jury will be noticed here- 
after — one presentment, however, that certain land was 
granted by LI. ab Griffith, formerly Prince of Wales, to 

1 An ordei' was made for the survey of Dynevour in 8 Ed. II, and 
to fortify Drosselan and the castles in South AVales, and fjr the 
repair of Emlyn, 9 Ed. II. (Close Bolls.) 

4th str..,voL. IV. 12 


Anian nl) jMnrlric and lii- heirs, namely Haverofl Yyreicli, 
-svliicli they then lield hy the siune tenure as thereto- 
fore,' — may be now remarked upon. 

An account of the proceedhigs in reference to tliese 
lands, whicli were extensive, and situate in, among 
other parishes, Llanafan, Llys Dinam, and Llan- 
fihangel, fortunately exists ; although tliere is no men- 
tion of Llewelyn's grant, there can "be but little doubt 
that these were the lauds referred to in tlie present- 
ment.' It appears that Eoger Strange, the then con- 
stable of Builtli Castle, inconsequence of the contention 
of the claimants, seised these lands which are described 
as late of Owen ab Meuric, into the King's hands, and 
was directed by the King's writ to certify the cause of 
his haAdng done so; but before he was able to make a 
return, the custody of the castle and lordship was com- 
mitted to John Giliard. 

The King, therefore, at the instance of the claimants, 
issued his letters patent 15th June, 27 Edward I, to 
Eoger of Burghill and Walter Haklutel, directing thern 
to inquire into the subject of the contention between 
Anian ab Madoc and his partisans and the heirs of Owen 
ab Meuric, and do justice according to the law and cus- 
tom of those parts by a trial before a jury of the Cantred 
of Builth. Eoger de Burghill and Walter Haklutel ac- 
corcUngly summoned the claimants and a jury as directed 
to attend at Weobley in Herefordshire. At the hearing- 
it was objected on the part of the king that the heirs 
of Owen could not be heard, because they were illegi- 
timate, and to tills it was answered that in those parts 

' Inquisitioi^ post mortem, 27 Ed. I, 1-39. 

- If it be thought that it is Efoing too far to thus assume the iden- 
tity of the Lands, the case may be strengthened by a reference to 
Shirley's Koyal and other Letters, iewjj. H. Ill (voL ii, p. 5 et seq.), 
where there are letters relative to lands in Builth, which Madoc 
Vychan,or Parvus, held and did service for to LI. ab lorwerth, con- 
trary to his treaty with the King at Nokesbury. Madoc was evi- 
dently Llewelyn's most influential supporter in the Bnilth district, 
and probably received a grant from LI. ab lorwerth. The jury may 
well have had an imperfect knowledge of the facts handed down by 
tradition after the lapse of a century. 


the illegitimate as well as legitimate succeeded to the 
inheritance of their ancestors, as always had been the 
custom there ; it was also objected that after Owen's 
death a certain Griffith ab Howel entered into the lands 
in question until he wtis hung and forfeited them, and 
so no one but the king had a right to them; to this 
objection the answer was that Grirfith had wrongfully 
intruded into the lands. The jury returned a verdict 
that the king had no right save "to the lordship, and 
that Angharad, Eva, and Tagiustel, daughters of Owen, 
were his next heirs ; that in those parts, according to 
the custom, illegitimate as well as legitimate succeeded 
tp an inheritance, and that Griffin ab Howel had no 
right, save a wrongful occupation of the lands. The 
commissioners returned this verdict to the Chancellor 
with a minute, that as the heirs were illegitimate they 
could not accede to it, and begged that they might be 
advised how to act in the matter. A fresh Avrit w^as 
accordingly issued, du-ecting a fresh trial before them 
to inquire whether in those parts illegitimate children 
succeeded to lands inherited as well as lands purchased 
by their ancestors, and if Owen's lands were inherited 
or purchasecl by him, and to certify the result. The ver- 
dict of the jury at the new trial was that illegitimate 
as well as legitimate succeeded to the inheritance, and 
also to the purchased lands (if any) of their ancestors, 
and that Owen had no lands save tliose which he inhe- 
rited. Whatever may have been the consequences of 
this verdict, the presentment at Builth seems to show 
that Anian ab ]\Iadoc afterwards became possessed of 
and held the lands in dispute. 

It is difficult to understand why the Crown did not 
assert its right and retain possession of the land ; for 
daughters could not inherit land in default of male heirs 
before the passing of Statutum Wallia' (12 Edw. I) ; 
illegitimate brothei-s were expressly excluded by the 
statute from taking a share with the legitimate in their 
father's land, and in detault of male heirs, the inherit- 
ance was to descend to legitimate daughters only. 

12 = 


Supposing that Owen ab I\Ieuvic died before the passing 
of the statute, leaving daughters his heirs, the land 
would, according to Howel Dda's Laws, have escheated 
to the Prince of Wales or the Crown. Although the 
difficulty was suggested by the commissioners, the 
chancellor seems to have recognised that a custom in 
that district contrary to the common or statute law, if 
established, might prevail/ 

The commissioners terminated their circuit at ]\lont- 
gomery on the 23rd August. Roger de Annewyk, 
seneschal of the lordship, and Walter Bacon, constable, 
took the oaths of office ; then the Prior of Chirbury 
and the commonalty of the town and lordship did their 
fealty. The jury had no presentments to make. The 
town was incorjDorated as a borough in 1 1 Henry III, 
and its charter is similar in terms to the charter of Llan- 
badarn Fawi- before mentioned. 

It remains to give a short account of the leading 
features of the Welsh tenures, prior to and after the 
conquest, more particularly with regard to the Welsh 
baronies before referred to. The chief of the kindred, 
deriving title by succession on the paternal side only, 
entitlecl to receive a payment from every one admitted 
to his tribe, and bound to act in concert with and pro- 
tect his kinsfolk, appears to have been the only indivi- 
dual, who in the time of the early Welsh princes held 
the j^osition of a feudal lord. It Avas to him that a 
father brought his son, when he attained the age of 
fourteen, and commended him to his chief's charge in 
order that the son might become his man and be on 
the privilege of his lord.- The feudal relations between 
the chief and his vassal, which in Wales as elsewhere 
were dictated by the necessities of society, appear to 
have been gradually developed by intercourse of the 

' It may be liere noted that a rent was paid by divers workmen 
for ironstone (^minera ferri), amounting to twenty-four shillings in 
Pcnbuelt and Irfon, in the lordship of Builth, and that there was 
then only a ferry over Wye. (Ministers' Account, 17 and 18 Ed. III.) 

2 Laws of Howe! Dda. 


later Welsh p]-inces with England, particularly the 
marriages of David ab Owen CT\vynedd with the sister 
of Henry II, and of LI. ab lorwerth with King John's 
daughter Joan, and probably in some measure from 
ambition to imitate the English court, until the chief 
of the kindred became a Welsh Baron, exercising a civil 
and criminal jurisdiction, and enjoying "jura regalia," 
like the Lords of the Marches, within his own domain. 
A few recorded instances will serve to show how this 
result came about. Rhys, Prince of South Wales, in- 
duced his lords, who were previously at enmity, to do 
homage to Henry 11.^ In 1201 LI. ab lorwerth sum- 
moned all the lords of North Wales to do homage to 
him.^ Again, on the eve of Llewelyn's death in 1238 
Henry IIP complains that David ab Llewelyn, the 
king's nephew, is taking the homage of the magnates 
of North Wales and Powys. Griffith ab Wenunwen 
and others are expressly styled Barons in the agree- 
ment between the King and Prince David, and it is 
there conceded that the homage of all the Barons of 
North AVales belonged to the king.-* The title of 
Welsh Baron is more expressly recognised in the treaty 
between the King and LI. ab Griffith in 12G7.^ Henry 
wishing to magnify the person of Llewelyn and to 
honour those who would succeed him by hereditary 
right, with the assent of Prince Edward granted to 
Llewelyn and his heirs the Prnicipality of Wales and 
the right to the fealty and homage of all the Welsh 
Barons of Wales, as tenants in chief to the Prince of 
Wales (except Mereduc ab Pes, whose homage and 
lordship the king retained) ; in addition the king 
granted to Llewelyn four cantreds in North Wales, and 
Llewelyn agreed to do fealty and homage with the 
accustomed services to the king. In a letter" to the 
Pope in 1275 Llewelyn writes in reference to this 

1 PoweU'.s Elslory of Wales. - Ibid. 

3 Rymer's Foidem, vol. i, p. 379 ; and Chronicle of the Princes under 
that dato. 

* Ryraer, vol. i, p. 389. '" Ibid., p. 8-14. ^ Ibid., vol. ii, p. 58. 


avningemeut, and styles his barons as " Barones 
Wallia?, ATallense." The articles of peace' Avitli Edward 
I, ratified by Llewelyn at Aberconwy in the same year 
also throw much light on the subject. After an agree- 
ment on Llewelyn's part to give up his four cantreds 
and all the lands which the king had acquired (except 
Anglesey), to do fealty to the king at Khuddlan and 
made other concessions, the king granted to Llewelyn 
for his life, with the reversion to the Crown of Eng- 
land, the homage of David ab Griffith ab Owen, Elisse,^ 
the two sons of Owen ab Bleddyn, and Res Vachan ab 
Rees ab ]\hielgon, Avith the lands which the last named 
held, but none of the land which the king had seised, 
and declared that all who returned to the allegiance of 
the Crown and so remained under the Prince might hold 
their lands as theretofore. It was also provided that 
Griffith A'ychan should do homage to the king for his 
lands in the lordship of Yale and Llewelyn for the lands 
which he will hold in his lordship of Edeyrnion.' 

The death of Llewelyn and the conquest of Wales put 
an end to all these arrangements, but King Edward's 
proclamations and ordinances expressly recognised and 
confirmed the tenures of all who submitted and became 
his loyal subjects. In two instances, which will be 
presently mentioned, the king further confirmed the 
previous teruu-e of Barons, by two grants in the same 
form, dated at Carnarvon, 2nd July, 12 Edward I.* 
Both relate to lands in the lordship of Edeyrnion,Svithin 
the district of Powys Fadog ; one grant is to David ab 

1 Eymer, vol. ii, p. 79. 

- There is no comma after Owen in Rjmer ; but it is probable 
Elisse was a distinct individual. He is referred to bj' those who 
claim under him as " quidam Elisse." 

' Selden accounts for this arrangement thus : " Therefore, in the 
concord between Llewellin and Edward, five barons about Snowdoa 
and their homages were reserved to Llewelh'n, ' quia se Principem 
convenienter vocari non posset nisi sub se aliquos barones haboret 
ad vitam.' " (Selden's Titles of Honour, p. 275.) 

■i- Rec. Cam., 151 and 1G9. 

5 Sir Henry Ellis remarks that the ilerionethshire Extent does 
not include this lordship. 


Griffin ab Owen and Llewelyn Yaghan of the Manor 
of Llandrillo, the other grant is to Elisse ab lorwerth, 
who was probably one of those whose homage Avas 
granted to Llewelyn for life, and Madoc ab Llewelyn, 
his nephew, of the Manor of Llangar : each provides 
that the grantees and their heirs may hold all their lands 
" per baroniam sicut antecessores sui eas tenuerint," 
that they may have view of frankpledge, the right to 
carry out sentence of death (liberas furcas) and jnris- 
diction in all pleas, which to a Baron's Court belong, 
and have the amerciaments therefrom, "sicut alii ba- 
rones nostri regni," Avith liberty to hunt and take game 
at will on their own lands without hindrance of the 
King or his Justices of the Forest. 

Owen ab David ab Griffith and Llewelyn ab David 
ab Griffith, two of the Barons, who attended and did 
their fealty at Harlech as before mentioned, probably 
represented David ab Griffin ab Owen, named in the 
first grant ; and Rees ab j\Ladoc and Griffith ab David 
ab Elisse, Madoc ab Elisse and the others, who attended 
there, were probably the heirs of the parties named in 
the second grant. 

Fortunately the quo u-arrardo proceedings again 
throw a light on the subject. David ab Madoc, Res 
ab Madoc, Griffith ab Llewelyn, leuan ab Llewelyn, 
jNIorvith, daughter of leuan, then under age, and 
Llewelyn ab Llewelyn were summoned as heirs of the 
grantees of the Manor of Llandrillo, and Madoc ab 
Elisse appeared on behalf of himself and IMenanewy, 
Griffith ab David's daughter, wlio was under age, as 
successors by inheritance to the Manor of Llangayr. 
The objection to each claim was that it did not appear 
in the grant that the king was advised at the time of the 
grant that the land was within the limits of his Forest, 
and so the grant as to the right of fi-ee chase was void ; 
the commissioners withheld their decision of this objec- 
tion, and referred it for trial before a jury at Conway. 

Two other cases occur of claims of baronial rights in 
the same lordship, although the parties did not ex- 


pressly claim to hold by Baron's tenure.^ Madoc ab 
Griffith, Angharad, daughter of lorwerth, Llewelyn ab 
David and others claimed view of frankpledge, liberas 
lurcas and infangenethef in their Manor of Llangar in 
Edeyrnion, alleging that their ancestors had enjoyed 
those rights for time out of mind. It was objected 
that they made no such claim on Thomas de Aldon's 
circuit, 8 Edward III, and that the conquest of Wales 
■svas a bar to their prescriptive title. The claimants 
replied that the conqueror's proclamation and their 
allegiance restored them to their former rights. The 
commissioners held that the claim of infangenethef in 
the absence of an express grant vv'as untenable, and 
referred the rest of their claims for trial by a jury. 

The other case is that of jMadoc ab Griffith A^'aghan, 
Madoc ab Griffith Owen, and his brother Howel, who 
claimed a free coui-t with jurisdiction in civil cases as 
well as in shedding of blood, infangenethef and leyrwite, 
in all their lands in Edeyrnion, as their ancestors before 
the conquest had enjoyed the same. This case was 
likewise referred for trial, and there is no record of the 
verdict in these and other cases so tried ; there can be 
but little doubt that these cases relate to the Welsh 
baronies, the homage of which was granted for life to 
Llewelyn. The descent of the inheritance aixiong all 
the legitimate sons equally, and the right of daughters 
to inherit in default of male heirs, coupled with the 
prohibition to alien lands in North Wales other than 
for a term of four years, were causes which Avould ope- 
rate to subdivide the inheritance, and in course of time 
render the assertion of baronial rights imtenable. It 
cannot, therefore, be a matter of surprise that all after 
trace of them has disappeared. As the "Welsh barons 
in South Wales expressly claimed to hold by baron's 
tenure, and their fealty, as barons, was accepted, we 
may assume that their claims were recognised as legal. 

The free tenant in North Wales, who was bound to 
do suit and service at the county and hundred courts, 
1 Rec. Carn., pp. 183, 150. 


and at liis own expense to follow Ins Prince in wai' for 
a. specified time in Wales, or the Marches, and \vho was 
liable to payment on death, or snccession to the inheri- 
tance, of the ordinary mcidents of tenure, obedlw or 
heriot, relief, and amobyr or leirwit,-but was free fronr 
all works and other services, probably represented the 
Uchelwr, entitled to hold his court-baron, to amobyr, 
relief and jurisdiction over the villeins within his own 
territory. Instances of such rights occur in the quo 
warranto proceedings, and in the case of Howel ab 
Gronw^ the jury on the great Extent found that he and 
his heirs held their land free from heriot, relief, and 
other sei'vices. Other freemen held the position of 
tenants in socage, liable, as in England, according to the 
varying custom of each district, to perform works for 
their lord, to grind their corn at his mill, and to supply 
him with cattle and grain at a fixed price. In the 
commots of Elved, Widigada, and Derllysg, in the lord- 
ship of Carmarthen, ancl in many other parts of South 
Wales,^ the Welsh tenants appear to have held Walles- 
caria, rendering in the commots last named seventeen 
cows, or 5s. for each cow at the lord's option, and 3s. 2d. 
for the entire district' so held, doing suit at the County 
Coiu-t of Carmarthen, following their lord's standard 
at their own expense in Wales in time of war, and J^ay- 
ing a fixed heriot of 10s. 

In the lordship of Builth the jury presented to Rd. 
de Stafford and his fellow commissioners that certain 
tenants were wholly free, and certain other "nobiles" 
were bound to render leyrwite, grind corn at the lord's 
mill, and give tak for pigs; they also presented that 
the whole of the land in that lordship answered for 
Treth Calanmai, as it was theretofore wont. In the 

1 26 Ed. III. Trefcastell. (Pp. 73 and 150, Eec. Carn.) 

2 "Pro honiinibus W. et S. Wallia;." ("Rj-mer, vol. iii, p. 549; 
Ministers' Acct., Builth, 17 Ed. Ill, No. 247.) 

' These renders, afterwards commuted into money -payments, were 
probably the origin of the chief rents in Cantred Maelienydd, where 
any one tenant is liable to answer for the entire rent due within the 


minister's account' it appears that this district paid a 
composition as the price of forty cows, styled Gwartheg 
Kalanmai, every other year to the lord 'at the feast of 
St. Philip and St. James. A similar composition under 
the same name prevailed in the Marches, in the Cantred 
of Elvael, and lord,ships of Huntington and Brecon, and, 
as Horngeld, in Cantred Maelienydd, payable every 
alternate or third year. 

In North Wales the villeins were at the time of Pvi- 
chard de Stafford's circuit, and probably at a much 
later period^ in a state of the strictest villenage. They 
were divided into two classes : " Nativi," who repre- 
sented the aillt of the Laws of Howel Dda and those 
who are vaiiously styled " advocarii, forinscci, or ad- 
venticii," the repi'esentatives of the " AUtud." The 
former class were hereditary villeins, attached to the 
land and the absolute property of its owner ; the 
Prince's aillts being located on the Maerdrev, or domain 
land, as tenants at rents fixed by the Landmaer, or at 
a later period the Raglot, who regulated their holdings 
and registered them on his roll. Their services varied 
with the district and were seldom commuted, as ap- 
jaears to have been the case, almost invariably before 
the close of the thirteenth century in England,'' the 
Marches and South Wales; but were obligatory works, 
performed in manual labour, carriage of materials 
for building and works of husbandry, for which they 
occasionally received a fixed sum daily ; they were also 
in some districts liable to furnish cattle and grain for 
the Prince at a fixed price, and, invariably, to the inci- 
dents of heriot and amobyr, which was fixed at a much 
higher rate than the amobyr of the Alltud's daughter. 

The other class of villeins consisted of those whose 
ancestors were under the Prince's protection,* of the 

1 34 and 35 Ed. Ill, No. 264. 

- Stat. 25 H. VI, which provides that the King's villeins in North 
Wales shotJd be obliged to do all works and services as theretofore 

3 Prof. Eogcrs' Hislory of Agrlcidtwe and Piiccs,\o\. i, pp. 12, 02. 

■• " In advocaria." 


villeins of freemen, who with their owner's hcense had 
left his land, leaving one-lialf of their g-oocls behmd, 
and of all who arrived in Wales from another country^ 
and were not in the condition of freemen in their owai 
country.! 'J'he Laws of Howel Dda contain a variety of 
provisions as to this class, which best show what their 
condition was. An alltud, placed on the Prince's waste, 
or on the lands of a freeholder, became a proprietor in 
tl-ie fourth man under the same lord; if he left before 
he became a proprietor, he might dejaart, leaving one- 
half of his goods behind. If he was a native of this 
island, he could not dwell after his departiu-e on the 
Welsh side of Ofta's Dyke ; if he came from bevond the 
sea, he was to depart with the first favoiu-able Avind ; 
and, if he was sent away by his lord before he became a 
proprietor, he forfeited his' goods. It was the Eagiot's' 
duty to receive the alltud on his arrival, to fix the rent 
\yhich he was to pay to his new lord, and defend his 
rights in any action brought for his recovery ; if within 
a year and a day an action was so brought, the new 
comer_ might depart, first making amends'" to the lord 
and his tenants, and paying double rent; but, if he con- 
tinued for a year and a day without suit of any other 
lord in the same condition on the same land, he Avas 
irremovable from the lordship for life, subject to pay- 
ment of his rent, heriot, amobyr, and the accustomed 
services. The Knights Hospitallers styled' this class 
of villeins their "forinsccci cxpcdores," and could not 
mark them with the cross of their Order, urJess they 
had left their former serA-itude with then- owner's 
license. The term " expedores" was apphed by them 
only to^ their villeins in Wales ; its meaning, or deri- 
vation, is not easily arrived at, but making allowance 
for the corrupt orthography of mediaeval Latin it may 
have been synonymous with " spadarios" in Llewelyn 

1 Sec petition of LI. Yoilram as to his tbrco IrisB yilleins (Rec 
Carn., p. 216). 

= Extract from Extent of Bromfield and Yale (Rec. Carn., p. 11). 
3 See account of Piiilip do Tliainc, uhl suina, and Kec. Carn. 


ab lorwertli's grant to the Abbot of Conway, and to 
"spadones" in the letters patent of Edward 11/ where 
he dh-ects that the goods of freemen shall not be seized 
by his ministers so long as the goods of his own villeins 
(villani) and the goods of spadones and men in advo- 
caria were sufficient, and that the goods of his villeins 
shall be first liable to seizure, and then t!ie goods of 
spadones and advocarii, as it was asserted was the cus- 
tom in the time of the Princes of Wales. 

Those who desire to form a more accurate notion of 
Welsh tenures, their various forms, and the payments 
and services which were their incidents, are referred to 
the Eecord of Carnarvon and the introduction of Sir 
Hem-y Ellis ;- for the foregoing account does not pre- 
tend to give more than the leading features of the 
condition of each class, as the object of the writer 
throughout has been in the illustration of the subject 
to break, as far as might be, new ground and avoid a 
repetition of tlie work of others in the same field. 

E. W. B. 


The south-west point of Barry Island is a rocky head- 
land of mountain limestone, running out into the Bristol 

On the extreme end of this* promontory will be found 
three rude mounds, composed of rough lumps of lime- 
stone, mixed with a certain amount of earth. 

The one nearest the point, which is the largest of the 
three, has been partially removed to make a beacon, 
but does not appear to have been otherwise disturbed. 

1 "Pro liominibus North Wallie et consnetud. observandis" (R}-- 
mer, vol. iii, p. 5-48). 

- The Jlerionethshire Extent of John de Havering, temp. Ed. I 
{Arch. Camb., 3rd Series, voL xiii, p. 183), may with advantage bo 
referred to. 

S Lt 5 




The other two cairns were opened in September last 
Ijy m3-self and some younger brothers who assisted in 
the digging. 

In the middle cairn nothing was found but a debris 
of shells and some argillaceous soil mixed with stones. 

The smallest mound is about ten feet in diameter, 
of slightly conical shape, the height of the apex above 
the surrounding ground being some three feet or there- 

The materials of which it was composed were similar 
to those of the centre mound, namely, clay, earth, 
stones, and shells. 

A trench was excavated across this barrow, and on 
reaching the centre we came on an urn of roughly 
baked clay, inverted on a flat stone. 

The urn contained bones, showing marks of burning. 
Though the greatest care was taken in removing the 
earth and stones round the urn it was found impossible 
to get it out whole ; all the fragments were, however, 
preserved, and it is now, I believe, restored and in the 
Cardiff Museum, to which it was presented. No flints 
or other remains of any kind w^ere discovered. 

Some further account of this island may not be un- 
interesting, especially to persons not acquainted with 
the locality. The following notice is extracted from 
Camden's Britannia: 

Scarce three miles from the mouth of the river Taf, in the very 
winding of the shore, are two small but very pleasant islands, 
divided from each other, and also from* the mainland, by a nar- 
row frith. The hithermost is called Sully, from a town opposite 
to it. The farthermost is called Barry from St. Baruch.i who 

1 The following is tho legend connecting St. Baruch or Barruc 
with Barry Island, as given in the Life of St. Cadoc {Cambro-British 
Saints, p. 357) : "It happened that at another time the blessed 
Cadoc'on a certain day sailed with two of his disciples, namely Bar- 
ruc and Gwalches, from the island of Echni (which is now called 
Holme) to another island named Barry. When, therefore, he pro- 
sperously landi d in the harbour, he asked his said disciples for his 
Encldridion, that is, manual-book ; and they confessed that they 
had, through forgetfulness, lost it in the aforesaid island. AVhich 


lies bmied tliere ; who as lie gave name to the place, so the 
place afterwards gave suniaiue to its proprietors,; for that iioLle 
family of Yiscount Barry in Ireland is thence denominated. 
" In a maritime rock of this island," saith Giraldus, " there is a 
narrow chest or chink, to which if you put your ear you shall 
perceive such a noise as if smiths were at work there ; for some- 
times you hear the blowing of the bellows, at other times the 
strokes of the hammers ; also the grinding of tools, the hissing 
noise of steel gads, of fire burning in furnaces, &c. These sounds 

he hearing, immediately compelled them to go aboard a sbip, and 
sail back to recover tbeir book ; and, burning with anger, said, ' Go, 
not to return !' Then his disciples, by the command of their master, 
■without delay quickly went aboard a boat, and by sailing got to the 
said island. Having obtained the aforesaid volume, they soon in 
tbeir pussage returned to the middle of the sea, and were seen at a 
distance by the man of God sitting on the top of a hill in Barry ; 
when the boat unexpectedly overlin-ned, and they were drowned. 
The body of Barruc being cast by the tide on the shore of Barry, 
was there found, and in that island buried, which from his name is 
so called to the present time ; but the body of the other, namely 
Gwalcbes, was carried by the sea to the island of Echni, and was 
there buried." 

Though the unfortunate disciples thus came to an untimely end, 
it is satisfactory to know that the precious Enchiridion, on account 
of which the holy man displayed rather unsaintly qualities, did not 
perish. " About the ninth hour, Cadoc, the servant of God, being 
desirous to refresh bis body wasted by fastings, commanded bis 
attendants to procure some fishes for dinner ; who went to the sea 
for the purpose of fi.shing, and found a very large salmon on the 
sand, and, rejoicing, brought it to their master ; in the bowels of 
which, when it was cut open, they found the aforesaid book, free 
from all injury by water, and white ; which the man of the Lord, 
giving thanks to God, gladly received, and declared that it was 
manifest to all that nothing was impossible to God." 

The ordinary copies oi Ai;hau n^i Bonedd y Saint take no notice 
of these two saints ; but in a short document containing " the Names 
of those who founded churches and choirs in Glamorgan," printed 
in the Mo MSS., p. 219 (trans,, p. 635), it is stated that " Saint 
Barrwg founded Barri and Penmarc." According to Cressy, as 
quoted by Professor Rees (TFeZs/i Sainis, p. 301.), Baruck was " a her- 
mite whose memory is celebrated in the province of the Silures and 
region of Glamorgan. He lyes buried in the Isle of Barry, which 

took its name from him." "In our Martyrologe," adds that 

author, " this holy hermit Baruck is said to have sprung from the 
noble blood of the Brittains ; and, entring into a solitary, strict 
course of life, he at this time (a.d. 700) attained to a life immortall." 
His festival day is the 29th of November.— Ed. Arch. C'ainb. 


I slioulil su]-ipose might he ooessioned by the percussion of tlie 
sra wrttuvs into these chinks, hu: that they are contiiuiecl at low 
ebb -when there is no water a: uU as well as at the full tide." 

The geological strata of ihe island consist of lieds of 
dolomite limestone overlying upturned beds of moun- 
tain limestone.' 

Amongst other curiosities nodules containing crystals 
of sul2:)hate of strontian mav be found, and also some 
good specimens of fossil encrinites. 

On tlie highest pari of the island there is a very 
good veil of pure vater. now much overgrown with 
vegetation, but protected by masoniy. 

There are two houses on the island, one an old ruined 
farm house, and the other a modern dwelling-house, 
built chiefly from the remains of wrecks in the inside. A 
short distance from the latter there is what appears to 
be a grave, perhaps of some sailor, just on the edge of 
the clift', composed of flat stones. 

There is a legend of a smtiggler's cave, and there are 
also said to be some vaults near the old farm house. 

Some years ago Mr. John Conybeare found a perfo- 
rated greenstone celt on the island lying on the surface. 
A few years since also a sixteenth century crock was 
dredged up from the mud of the adjoining harboitr. It 
is now in possession of CYJonel Eomilly. 

John Eojiilly Allen. 

1 Gcohgkal Suri-eii cf Brifahi, voL i, p. 215. 



During the rebuilding of Newcastle Church in the 
town of Bridgend, in 1853, the step, to what had been 
the priest's door, on being turned over, was found to 
be the interesting gravestone here represented from a 
drawing of Mr. J. T. Blight. It measures six feet four 
inches in length, and fifteen inches in breadth. The 
stone has sufiered to a considerable extent, particularly 
on the further side from that shown in the cut. The 
end of it has been so far damaged that it is not pos- 
sible to determine whether the shaft of the cross had a 
less simple termination than it has at present ; but 
from the care bestowed in details of ornament on other 
parts of the stone there was, in all probability, a more 
elaborate finish. The arcade on one side is tolerably 
perfect, except where the stone has been defaced by 
violence, or from weather and exposure. There is no 
corresponding arcading on the other side, so that it is 
evident that that side was affixed to the wall of the 
church, and probably that particular church which pre- 
ceded the structure removed in 1853. The upper part 
of the cross, including the limb, has an indented pattern 
which is continued as far as the two quadran^ar 
ornaments. From that point the shaft takes a twisted 
form, a form not of usual occurrence. One exampile of 
this cord pattern is figured in Cutt's Manua.L plate 
Ixxiii, and is also briefly noticed in the Archceolorjia 
Cambrensis of 1847, p. 315. It is, or at least was, 
in the churchyard of Llaiifihangel Aber Cowin, near 
St. Clears, Carmarthenshire, and formed one of three 
tombs, which local authorities afiirrn to be the sepulchres 
of certain holy palmers, who having -wandered thither 
in distress, killed each other, the last survivor btuying 


himself in oiie of the graves prepared beforehand. 
One of these is said to be the tombstone of a mason, 
and the one with the cord-hke moulding to be that of a 
ropemaker. The execution, however, is so extremely 
rude that it can hardly be compared with the Newcastle 
stone. Professor Westwood, in his account of these 
three graves, thinks they may be referred to the fif- 
teenth century, a date which can hardly be assigned to 
the stone now i;nder consideration. 

At the lower end, on the opposite side, is a quad- 
rangular ornament, and probably there was a corre- 
sponding one on the other side ; but the face of the 
stone in that part being much abraded, this is uncer- 
tain. Above the arms of the cross are two other quadr- 
angular figures of a more elaborate clraracter. The 
lines are, however, so famt on the further side that some 
doubt may exist if the two are as similar in all respects 
as represented in the engraving. Archdeacon Blosse is 
of opinion that these two figures do not correspond, and 
are in fact altogether difl:erent ; and the opinion of such 
an authority must be held to settle the question. It is, 
however, proper to state that ]\lr. Blight and myself in 
closely examining this particular part of the stone came 
to the conclusion that however much the details of or- 
nament had suffered from various causes, yet there was. 
sufiicient evidence to satisfy us that the figures on each 
side of the cross were the same. However, the matter 
is of no importance, as it is at any rate clear that some 
kind of interlaced ornament did once exist, although it 
may have cMered from the more perfect one, of the 
character of which there can be no question. 

The inscription still remains to be interpreted, for no 
one has yet succeeded in ascertaining its purport. The 
letters are fairly cut. It would be very desirable to 
get a rubbing and impression of them, which time did 
not admit of being done during the Bridgend meeting. 
The apparent date of these characters, however, does 
not appear to correspond with that which may probably 

194 COrKD COl'FlX-MD. 

l)e assigned to (lie tmriV) itself, namely tlie earlier por- 
tion of the tliirteentli century. 

The interlaced pattern common enough on the large 
crosses of Wales and elsewhere, is rarely found in 
either division of the Principality on tombstones. The 
Lantwit stones may be an exception ; but here, again, 
it is principally found on the former, and not on an 
ordinary tombstone. One instance, ho^vever, occurs in 
Fishguard churchyard, on a small upright stone, which 
appears to have been a gravestone ; but whence taken 
is not at present known. This stone has been assigned 
to the thirteenth century by some. The arcading on 
the sides is also unusual in Wales. Something like it 
occurs on a cofiin-lid at Sutton in Ashfield, Notting- 
hamshire, and is given in Cutt, plate lix ; but there 
is a marked difference in two respects : first, the arcade 
is on the upper face of the slab on each side of the 
shall of the cross ; secondly, the arches are pointed, and 
not semicircular. 

Whom this stone once covered must remain un- 
known until the meaning of the inscription has been 
ascertained. Neither is the sex or equality better 
known, as there are neither any heraldic charges nor 
badges of the soldier, priest, merchant, and all that 
can be reasonably conjectured is that the occupant of 
the original grave had been a person of distinction, and 
]3erhaps connected wnth one of the two Norman castles 
that commanded the district, namely Old Castle, of 
which no remains exist, and New Castle, the ruins of 
which still hang over the church and churchyard, and 
of which the most important part of the ruins is a fine 
late Norman archway. 

It only remains to add how nearly tliis interesting 
relic would have been broken up by the masons engaged 
on the rebuilding of the church, had not Archdeacon 
Blosse happily intervened in time to save it. It might 
have been discovered during his absence, in which case 
he would probably have returned to find the mutilated 
fragments w^orked up as old material. Even in its pre- 


sent position, and jirovicled with a substantial plintli, 
this stone must suft'cr from exposure to frost and Avet, 
or the still more dangerous attacks of mischievous boys. 
It is to be feared that there is no convenient space 
Avithin the building where it might be effectually secured 
from damage ; but an iron railing would at least fur- 
nish some protection from tliouglitless or evil-minded 

It is of the stone of the district, called "Sutton." 

E. L. Barxwell. 


During the meeting of the Association at Holyhead, in 
1870, the tumiUus at the back of Treiorwerth House 
was opened for the inspection of the members, by its 
owner, Archdeacon ^Y}^lne Jones, wdro was also Presi- 
dent of the Society that yeai\ At the time, however, 
of the arrival of the visitors only a partial examination 
had been effected, with no very important results except 
the proof that mterments had taken place, and that at 
least one previous disturbance of the grave must have 
taken place ; for during the morning's work several 
scattered fragments of pottery of various kinds were 
thrown up by the spade, the presence of which could 
hardly be accounted for except on the supposition that 
during a previous exploration urns or other vessels may 
have been found broken, or may have been broken by 
the workmen, and the mingled mass returned back on 
fflhng up the excavated parts. Among the fragments of 
urns was one bearing a not unusual pattern (see cut 
No.l) of what may be considered a rather late kind, per- 
haps Romano-British. The same pattern is frequently 
foimd in France, and more particularly Britanny, where 
it is generally considered as of the Gallo-Eoman period. 

13 = 


Not far fi'om it was found a not inelegantly shaped bead, 
the colour of which is black picked out. with white, and 
which was part of a necklace or some similar pendent 
ornament. An accurate representation of it is here 
given (cut No. 2), full size. 

The next discovery made, and tlie one ofrnost import- 
ance, was the finding human remains enveloped in, or 
rather so closely incorporated with, a fibrous mass that 
the bones, which were easily distinguished, could not 
be separated : in fact, the bodies, or parts of bodies, 
were in the form of a flat board, except that instead of 
solid wood there was this compound of fibre and bones. 
It was not only greasy to the touch, but had a greasy, 
luictuous appearance, nearly black, and much darker 
than the soil out of which it was extricated. Only 
a portion was removed, as time was pressing ; but 
there was evidently more of this same flattened com- 
pjormd. No traces of any wooden chest, much less of a 
stone one, could be discovered ; and it was evident, 
from the state in which the remains were found, and 
from the soil in which th^y were embedded, that no 
previous disturbance of this part of the mound had 
taken place. That other interments, and of the more 
usual character, had at one time taken place, may be 
fairly inferred from the presence of the fragments of 
urns already mentioned ; but no traces of any urns hav- 
ing been placed in close connexion with these remains 
could be made out. The ground too, as already stated, 
in this part had appai-ently not been disturbed ; so that 
if urns had been here deposited, they, or at least their 
dchris, must have been found. The bead was, indeed, 


discovered at no veiy great distance; but still the 
distance was sncli that it is not Jikely tliat it was con- 
nected with these bodies. At the same tin'ie this cir- 
cumstance can hardly be considered as free from uncer- 

If this ornament had been buried witli tlie body or 
bodies in question, it is very unhkely tliat tlieywere 
the bodies of slaves sacrificed at tlieir master's finieral, 
as the rude, unprotected way in which they seem to 
have been buried might suggest. But whatever the 
reason of this mode of interring bodies, Avithout any 
of the ordinary protection, or even attempt at protec- 
tion, it is certainly very unusual, and little in accord- 
ance with that pious care for the remains of the dead 
which originally led to the huge stone chamber and 
superincumbent earn or tumulus as the securest method 
of preserving the remains of the deceased. 

E. L. Bai!Nwell. 




Sir, — As to my remarks on the Bridell Ogham in the last number 
of this Journal (p. 76), the reader, if he tthinks it necessary, may 
substitute dual iov jilural in line fifteen from the top of the page ; 
and compare with Nett any one of the names Natan Leod of Ethel- 
werd's Chronicle, Noethan and Nwython of the lolo MSB., which 
stand, perhaps, for Nett-an and Nett-on and Ni/dawc (=A'e^(5c■) in 
the Myvi/rlau, p. 488. 
As to the inscription, 


found at Gwytherin (Arch. Camh., 1858, p. 40C), I find that Vlnrie- 
naijli has survived in the form Gwenfael, which occurs in the IjIo 
MSS., p. 144. In vain have I looked out for a rejircseutative of 
Scnciiuiijti in the form Uciifad. The ucarcst approach 1 have niado 


to it is Eiifael, tlic name of a mau iu tlie Miji-yrian, and of a woman 
in the lolo JISS. 

In the Mo ilSS. (p. 125) we read as follows : " Cynydyn, ap 
Bleiddyd, ap INIeirion INIeirionydd, ap Tybiawn,ap Cynneddaf Wledig, 
a fu 'u'Beriglawr yn Nglior Padaru Escob yn Llaubadarn fawr, yng 
Ngheredigiawn, lie y gorwedd"; and in the Myryrian (p. 422) we 
haVe the following: " Kynydyn ap Bleiddid ap Meiriawn ap Tib- 
iawn ap Cunedda Wledic. B. Ai onid yr un a Canotinn, yn yr ar- 
graf ar gareg yn mynwent Llanwnuws yn S. Garedigion ? L. M." 
Has this inscription been noticed in the Arch. Camh. ? Is there any- 
thing known of it now ? 

With respect to the stone oiT.iirnus, in the parish of Clydai, 
described in the Arcli. Camb. (1860, p. 225), the Roman characters 
read eterxi fili VICTOE; and the Ogham, as it stands in the draw- 
ing, makes ...Aturn nyliO'-. Ishonld be glad if it were again 

examined carefully. Possibly more of it may be made out. And as 
to the above,! doubt its correctness, as I am rather inclined to think 
that the reading will turn out to be lE\Uern[i Maqi Vic\tor [is], or 
nearly so. 

We read in ihe Arch. Camb. (1S69, p. 261) of a Roman altar found 
at Loughor, on which there is an Ogham, which Jlr. Longueville 
Jones made out to be l(?)as ic. But if the reader will turn to p. 314 
he will find, facing it, a drawing of the said altar from an original 
by the same energetic antiquarian. According to the drawing I 
maintain that the reading is L[:)vic, which, if the drawing be cor- 
rect, should be completed by inserting e, which makes it Lcvic ; that 
is, according to the Irish method of reading, Lefic. The former 
reminds one strongly oi lievxaruhi, the name of the Roman station 
in the neighbourhood. But which arc we to trust, Mr. H. Longue- 
ville Jones' reading or his drawing ? 

Facing p. 28S of the Arch. Camb. for 1803, he gives us a drawing 
of the Giilval Stone in Cornwall, and reads 


I would suggest, with great diffidence, that the character over which 
the horizontal I is written is a c, a^^d would accordingly read 


If I am right, Qucnatauci wotild probably be the same name, in an 
earlier form, as Conetoci, which also occurs in an inscription found 
iu Cornwall, and mentioned on the nest page. The blending of U6 
into is not unknown in Welsh, and possibly Conetoci contains an 
instance of it in old (/Ornish. 

In iheArch. Camb. for 1871 (pp. 266-70) Mr. Brash discusses the 
Penrhos Llugwy Stone, which has on it the inscription 

coia; ESPOXDExcE. 199 

There he tries to sliow that it couunemoratos a person belonging to 
the CTaedbelio race; tlie second Hne he resolves into Maccvi Decceti, 
^vhich makes the epitaph read partly Irish and partly Latin, as if 
we met in an English churchyard with a gravestone to the follow- 
ing eii'ect : Here lies James tliefilius of 6'mith. Then he proceeds to 
equate Lecceti, which would be a genitive in -i. with the Irish names 
Decedda, Beccedah, Ddecceda, whicli are also genitives, but not in -i. 
But even supposing he had succeeded in equating the names in 
question, it proves nothing, for we already know that Irish and 
Welsh names are often essentially the same. Besides " the Macutus 
theory," as he calls it, is not so easily set aside as he imagines ; but 
before proceeding further it is necessary to state that Machutus and 
not Macutus is the Latinized form of the name in question. It oc- 
curs as Machutus twice, as Macliutii once, and once as Jlachati in 
the ancient inartyrologies quoted, pp. 27, 28, 30, 31, by Haddan 
and Stubbs, in the first volume of their work entitled Councils and 
Ecclesiastical Documents relating to Great Britain and Ireland. Further 
we read in the lives of the Cambro-JBritish S-iints, p. 2(J1, of apuelln, 
Machuta nomine. Mr. Brash quotes from Rowlands' Mona Antiqtia, 
p. 156, as follows: " Mechell, or Macutus, as in the Roman kalen- 
dar, was the son of one Ecchwyd, the son of Gwyn, who was grand- 
sou of Gloyw gwladlydan, lord of Gloucester, in the time of the 
Saxon massacre at Stonehenge." What Roman kalendar Row- 
lands refers to I do not know ; at any rate in the one prefixed to a 
collection of Roman Catholic prayers, published under the title of 
AVvijdd neu Agoriad Paradwijs i'r Ctjmry, at Liege, in 1670, the 
Latinized form, as far as it is such, is Macliut and the Welsh one 
atii.xed to it .Uackudd; the Saint's day according to that is the fif- 
teenth of November. Alachudd has over and over again been con- 
founded with, or changed into Mecliell or Mechyll, and possibly 
Alacliudd should be read for JJarcJnidd in the Arch. Cam., 1872, p. 
315, where we read: " Marchudd : whence men of Anglesey and 
others. G. a man's face gardant, bearded proper, wreathed about 
the head a [and L]," to which G. T. C. adds, "He was the first of 
those fifteen famihcs called the fifteen tribes of North Wales." 
Wliere Rowlands got the name Echwyd, for Ecchu-ijd can only be 
a clerical error, is not clear: the Myvtjri^n, it is true, has the vari- 
ants Echu-ys, Cochu-yl, Arthwys, Mochwys, but it had not been pub- 
lished when Rowlands wrote ; one thing is certain, he could not 
have invented it nor could it have been suggested by the Ecceti of 
the inscription, with which, taken as meaning Ecceti, it agrees 
letter for letter, as might easily be shown from what we already 
know to liave been the course of phonetic change in Welsh. As to 
the spelling of the preceding word, if we are to read Maccvi, the vi. 
has the same meaning as wi in fressuir in the Capella Glosses, Arch. 
Cam., 1873, p. 6, and would be merely an attempt to render the 
Welsh t'l. For my part, however, I should have preferred reading 
Maccivd, i. e. Macciud, with which compare the old Welsh names 
Margetiud and Griphiud, now Mcrcdgdd and Gruffudd. Thus the 


vrbole inscription would be " Hie iacit Waccivd Ecceii,'' = TIere lies 
Machudd (the son) of Eclnnjd." According to Mr. Brash's suppo- 
sition the Welsh must have divided iMaccvi Becceti into Maccvid 
Ecr.eti, and taken the former word to be the proper name of the 
person in question, both of which steps are highly improbable ; nor 
need we espect Serigi Wyddel and his cpmpanions to have left us 
more inscriptions than the Danes, who also ravaged this country 
on various occasions. So, on the whole I fail entirely to see that 
the epitaph at Penrhos Llugwy is Irish ; indeed that we should be 
thus driven to vindicate the tombs of our ancestors seems to me to 
be altogether a little preposterous, to say the least of it. 

I remain, &c., J. Ruvs. 


SiE,- — Mr. Barnwell, in a late number of the Arch. Camh., conjec- 
tures that the custom of oflering to the clergyman and clerk at 
funerals arose from the great poverty of the majority of the Welsh 
clergy in former days ; so that the oflerings were not mere compli- 
mentary expressions of respect, but intended as a material assist- 
ance. When, as late as the end of the last century, this poverty 
attracted some public attention, what the poverty of the preceding 
two centuries must have been it is difficult to imagine. As a speci- 
men, however, of what it was in 1788, we give the following extract 
from the Annual Register of that year : 

"Among the several returns which were made to the House of 
Commons in compliance with Mr. Gilbert's Act, was one from a poor 
Welsh curate, who, after delineating the distresses of his poor neigh- 
bours, adds, — ' But their distresses cannot be greater than mine are. 
I have a wife who is far advanced in her pregnancy. I have around 
me nine poor children, for whom I never yet could procure shoe or 
stocking. It is with difficulty I can provide them with food. My 
income is £35 per annum, and for this I do the duty of four 
parishes.' " 

I am, etc., Indignans. 


Sir,— In a late number of your Journal (vol. iii, p. 250) Mr. Brash 
states that there are some indications in the writings of the Welsh 
bards that the cudtus of the boar prevailed at one time in this country. 
Possessing but a very slight acquaintance with these ancient writ- 
ings, I shall deem it a favour if Mr. Brash will give us the passages, 
or some of the passages, in which allusion is made to this kind of 
worship among the Welsh. 

I am. Sir, yours obediently, W. H. P. 



SiK, — The late Mr. Carlisle in his TopogrcqiJiical Dictionary says 
that the inhabitants of the above parish are indignant at being sup- 
posed that they live in a black or dark valley ^ and that the name of 
Cwni Du is a kind of nickname and perversion of the proper name 
Cwm De, which j\Ir. Carlisle says means a fair or sonth valley. 
"Without entering into the etymological question at all I should feel 
much obhged for any information as to the alleged fact of the 
popular indignation against the name of Cwm Du as here stated. I 
should think the whole statement extremely dubious, and that the 
inhabitants, at least at the present time, do not quarrel with the 

CarKsle compiled his TopograpMcal JJidionarij in the early part 
of the century, and local circumstances may have altered much 
since that time, but still the statement, if made in earnest, as it seems 
to be, has a very mythical appearance. 

It is not a matter of importance ; but if any of the moi-e aged 
inhabitants of the district can confirm, in the least degree, the truth 
of the story, I should be glad. If so, some member who has an 
opportunity of inquiring will, I hope, communicate the result of his 
investigation to yourself as editor. 

I am, Sir, yours respectfully, Exquikek. 


Sir, — The other day I was struck with a statement of Bruce of 
Abyssinian fame tliat an Arab chief on the south-western coast of 
Ai'abia having taken under his protection an Englishman, and hav- 
ing to leave him for a short time, stuck his spear into the ground, 
and traced a circle round it, in which his protege was to stand until 
his return, if he wished for protection from violence, or even death, 
for as long as he remained within the circle he was safe. 

Kow, aUhough a circle is the figure most easily and naturally 
drawn, yet it is not impossible that there may be some connecting 
links between this Arab custom and similar ones practised in some 
of the islands of the southern seas, as well as those ntimerous stone 
ones found in most portions of Europe. Some of these liave been 
considered as places of religious worship, which indeed in some 
instances may have been the case, although no satisfactory argu- 
ments in support of such a theory have as far as I am aware been 
brought forward. It is true such circles may in one sense besaid 
to consecrate the encircled space, so far as to make intrusion within 
its limits unlawful and impious ; but to jump from this sttpposi- 
tiou to the conclusion that they were places of religious services or 
assemblies can hardly be allowed. Isolated stones surrounding a 
grave, they would have been no use as a pnitcctioii, but fur (heir 


supposed character. If these stones were always isolated aud tlie 
intervening spaces not filled np by some material or other it is clear 
the^- would be no protection against cattle or other animals. Hence 
perhaps a slight dithculty, but hardly of such a character as to weigh 
against the opinion of those who I believe are among the best 
authorities of the present day. 

A. B. A. 


Sir, — Some years ago there was to be seen near this place a massive 
maenhir erect on a tumulus, described about 1800 as coarsdy paved. 
What this expression means seems ambiguous, unless the so-called 
tumulus was a cave of rough stones. The stone itself was seven feet 
broad and only five long, its breadth being under two feet. It was 
known as Carreg y Llech, both words meaning a stone, but the latter 
more particularly perhaps expressive of a funeral stone. Is this monu- 
ment in existence ? 

]\Iany Breton antiquaries confine the meaning of the word to 
semi-wrought stones, or at least such as have sides as smootli as if 
the}' had been tooled. In this case the employment of Carrotj and 
Llech together is so far worthy of notice as if partially indicating 
that LJech must almost have been identical to grave, or some such 
word, when thus following carreg. 

I remain. Sir, yours truly, A Mk.mukk. 


Sir, — In the beginning of April I visited Broadward Hall, on the 
kind invitation of Mr. A. ^Y. Crichton, and accompauied him to the 
field in which the bronze implements were found. I am, therefore, 
able to add a few additional particulars to the interesting accounts 
which have been already published by Mr. Owen Rocke and Mr. 

On the very edge of the former morass, and on a somewhat 
higher level, out of flood's way, is the site of a circular tumulus 
levelled to within a foot of the surrounding field, and partially cut 
awaj' on the north by the fence and ditch of the adjoining meadow. 
It must have been levelled at a remote period, for a vei'y large ash- 
tree, recently fallen, grew on the present level. The soil removed 
from the tumulus was probably thrown into the morass to improve 
its condition ; and with the soil the urn, of which a fragment, from 
rim to base, has been preserved, was there deposited. The urn 
appears to have been turned on a wheel, and the ornamental band 
(see p. 83) seems to have been painted on the surface with a black 
pigment before it was bui-nt. 

In a nearly straight line to the north-east are the other two 
tumuli referred to by Mr. Rocke ; the middle one in a great measure 


levelled, and tlie one by the river-side apparently undisturbed, sup- 
porting a tine o-rove of trees. Mr. Criclitou told me that one of the 
drainers sloped away a small part of the mound ou the side next 
the river, and remarked that the earth had been puddled : a pre- 
cautionary measure, perhaps, of its constructor to guard against the 
wash of the stream in flood time. 

I had carefully examined the remains which were submitted for 
the examination of the Society, of which Mr. Barnwell has ably and 
carefully described the most distinctive forms ; and so I determined 
to look through the box full of fragments which remained at Broad- 
ward, in order to see whether I could detect any fresh form among 
them ; but I could only find two fragments which materially differed 
from those described : one a dagger-handle somewhat similar to that 
described by Mr. Barnwell, save that it has no opening in the 
centre ; and the other a quadrangular handle almost identical in 
shape with the supposed scabbard-end of a bronze sword. (Wilde's 
Cat. Buhlin Museum, p. 46, fig. 33-5.) This fragment is about two 
inches and a half long, about half an inch wide at the end (which is 
not closed with metal), and increasing to one inch where it is broken 
away. It could not have served as a scabbard, for, like the ferules 
or darts and No. 11, it is moulded on a core or kernel of burnt clay. 
The use of such a core appears to have been a common practice 
with the Danish founders, in order to prevent a waste of metal.' It 
maybe that the thin and taper portions of wood which extend to 
the point of some of the spear-heads, have been used for the same 
purpose, and have become carbonised b}' the molten metal when it 
was poured in. 

In addition to the ordinary processes of casting in moulds of 
stone, or metal, or in an impression in sand, a third process was 
employed by the Danish founders for more complicated forms, and 
for producing omamental designs on the surface. A core of clay 
was moulded of the required form, dried, and baked. Around it a 
fac-simile of the object intended to be produced was made in wax, 
on which, when ornament was desired, a skilful workman with tools 
of bone etched his designs to be reproduced in the casting. The 
wax facsimile was surrounded with a covering of clay well tempered 
with cowdung or other fine combustible substance, in order to make 
the mould porous. Supports in hardened clay connected the core 
with the outer covering. The mould was then fired in order to 
harden it, and to cause the wax to run out through an opening into 
which the molten metal was afterwards poured. M. Morel, from 
whom 1 borrow these details, in his able paper^ shows that such 
designs could not have been otherwise executed on bronze, because 
there was no steel graving needle to be had, and one of flint would 
have been tooclumsv. He remarks also the absence of any appear- 
ance of the design having been scratched or cut on the surface. In 

' See remarks of M. Herbst, Memoires de la Societe Rotjale (Us Antiqiiaires 
(hi Nord for ISHO, p. 279. 

= " Sur Ics JIcuux emjiloyos clans I'Agc du Brouzc," ibid, for 1866. 


this maniiei', then, the design on the spear-head No. 7 must have 
been produced. 

I may here, remark that tlie implements were deposited in a clayey 
alluvium which adheres to the fingers when they arc e.Kamined, and 
not in peat. il. Jlorel states that bronze implements found in peat 
are often as fresh as when they come from the mould, while those 
which are found in earthy matter (terrcau) are more or less oxidised 
and encrusted with hydrated carbonate of copper ; and be accounts 
for the rough, swelled out, and sometime.s eaten away surface so 
apparent on some of the Broad ward implements, by the explanation 
that when liquid bronze metal is subjected to the action of too much 
fire, the casting loses its homogeneousness, and becomes porous, 
which favours oxidisation in the interior of the mass. 

One more remark before I conclude. Mr. Rocke states that the 
bronze objects are all, more or, imperfect, bent, or broken, and 
appear to' have been so at the time when they were buried. This 
fact will occur to any one who carefidly examines them. Coupled 
with their occurrence in large masses, it remarkably coincides with 
the circumstances of the numerous finds in the peat mosses of 
Schleswig and South Jutland recorded by M. Engelhardt.' The 
mutilation ^vas in both cases intentional; and the deposit, whatever 
may have been the motive, was not the result of accident. 

It may interest the members of our Society to learn that Mr. 
Crichton has kindly consented to exhibit the articles described by 
Mr. Barnwell at the Knighton Meeting, and that at the proper season 
he proposes to superintend fresh explorations on the same ground, 
when we may reasonably hope for the discovery of fresh forms. 

I remain. Sir, j'ours faithfully, R. W. B. 


Sir, — In the Memoirs of Bean and BisJioji Goodman, by the late 
Archdeacon Xewcome, mention is made of a " Composition" between 
Reginald de Grey, Lord of Ruthin, and Anian Bishop of Bangor, 
wherein it was stipulated that " the Bishop should not oi-dain any 
of Lord Grey's vassals without his permission, as that act would 
emancipate them ; and that he should have the liberty of enjoying, 
without molestation, the goods of deceased nuns, the administration 
of the temporal goods of the ladies of Gwytheriac Nunnery having 
been, as it appeared, a bone of contention between the temporal and 
spiritual lords." - 

Now where was Gwytheriac Nunnery ? Tanner, the great author- 
ity on such matters, evidently takes it to be the same with Gwyth- 
erin. Thus he has " Witheriac or Guitherine. A nunnerj^ here is 
mentioned by many that write of S. Wenefrede."^ But this can 
hardly be correct, for neither Lord Grey nor the Bishop of Bangor 

' Denmark in the Earlj Iron Age. Williams and Xorgate. 
^ Alemoirs, p. 40. ' Aotitia, p. 70S. 


could luive had anything to do with Gwj'tlicrin or its nunnery, 
■which lay iu the lordship of Rhufoniog and the diocese of St. Asaph. 
We must, therefore, look elsewhere for its identification, and I think 
we have not far to go. Close to Ruthin, in a beautiful but seques- 
tered spot, lies the little village of Efenechtyd, the very name of 
which implies that it was once a nunnery (Y Penechdyd). There is, 
moreover, a tradition to the same effect ; and it is said that the old- 
fashioned knocker on the church door was intended to illustrate the 
parable of the ten virgins, — an illustration which would have pecu- 
liar appropriateness for a nunnery church or chapel. This is further 
corroborated by the fact that when Robert of Shrewsbury was col- 
lecting materials for his Life of St. Winifred, about a.d. 1140, he 
applied for information, among others, to the men of Rhos atjcl 
liiUliin (" cousultis Rossis et Ruthensis"), so that he must have had 
some good and definite reason for coming hither. This, of course, 
he would have in the sister foundation of " Gwytheriac"; and we 
learn at the same time whence came the lad}' whose tomb in Ruthin 
Church the quaint Churchyard describes in his WortJiines of Wales, — 

An ankres, too, that neere that wall did dwell, 
■With trim wrought worke in wall is buried well. 

Putting all these things together, I think we need have little hesi- 
tation in concluding that, although there seem to be no traces of 
the old name of Gwytheriac, the Naiinenj of Gwytheriac may be iden- 
tified with Efenechtyd. 

I remain, Sir, yours truly, D. R. Thomas. 


Sir, — The arms of Roderick the Great were, gides, a chevron inter 
three roses argent. The arms of JNIeredydd ab Owain, Prince of 
Powys, were, or, a lion's gamb erased gules, armed azure, wdiich had 
previously been borne by Merfyn, Prince of Powys, the third sou of 
Roderick the Great. Merfyn was slain in a.d. 900, and left issue, 
three sons, — 1, Llewelyn; 2, TrifiFyn ; and 3, larddur, wdio was 
drowned about a.d. 950 ; and a daughter named Avandreg, who 
married Idwal Foel, King of Gwynedd. "■ Llewelyn ab Merfyn, who 
was excluded from the crown of Powys by the usurpation of his 
uncle Cadell, and his cousin Howel Dda, successively kings of South 
Wales, was father of a daughter and heiress, Augharad, who mar- 
ried Owain ab Howel Dda, King of South Wales, by whom she had 
issue, two sons,— Meredydd ab Owain, Prince of Powys, who bore 
his mother's arms ; and Llywarch ab Owain, who was taken prisoner 
in A.D. 986, with two thousand troops, by Harold the Dane, and 
deprived of his eyes. 

I remain, "Sir, yours faithfully, J. Y. W. Lloyd, K.S.G. 

20G Ai;Cir.-rX)LOGICAL notes AXD QrEUlE.^. 

Slrcljrrolcigirnl flotcG anti GufvifS. 

Nofe 13. — Cath Balug. Some of the readci-s of the Arclueologia 
Gamhrensis, besides myself, may liave been led on a wild cat chase 
by the following words of Pughe's under P(?/('.- " Cath bali, — the 
glossy fur cat; an epithet for some ferocious animal, probably a 
tiger." Under I'aJxig he makes a similar statement, with the addi- 
tion that it is mentioned in "the historical triads" as "one of the 
molestations of ilona, which were reared in it." Turning to the 
triads, I iind in Gee's reprint of the Mijvyrian (p. 398) a reference 
not only to cath pahig, but also to meihonpcduc. The wording, how- 
ever, sounds anything but historical. Page 410 it is called caih 
bahvg. On turning to the lolo MSS. (p. 81) the cath judug turns 
out to be no cat at all. The words there are to the following effect : 
"Ag yng Ngwaith Cerrig y Gwyddyl y bu lladd arnynt, a Chas- 
wallon Lawhir a laddes a'i gledd ei hun Syrigi Wyddel ab ilwrchan, 
ap Eurnach hen ap Eilo ap Rbechgyr ap Cathbalug, ab Cathal," etc. 
Of course, as everybody will perceive, Gathhalug is an Irish proper 
name beginning with the syllable cath, the equivalent of our cad, as 
in Cadivallov, Gadfan, etc. Since writing the above my attention has 
been called to a mention of Cath paluc in a poem printed in Skene's 
Four Ancient Boohs of Wales (ii, p. 63), to which I would refer the 
reader. J. Euvs. 

Kofe 14. — TwRCH Trwyth. The words iwrch tru-yth seem to re- 
present the tore and triath. Now tu-rch and tore seem to have 
the same meaning ; but as to triath, it has, according to Cormac's 
Glossary, the following meanings : triath, gen. rreith = 'rex'; triath, 
gen. trethan ='mai-e'; and triath, gen. trethirne = ' aper.' What 
then do the words twrch tnoyth taken together mean, as they occur 
in the Mabinogi of '• Culhwch and Olwen," and is there any Irish 
version of that tale ? The mutations do not permit us to regard 
trwyth in this instance as anything but a word borrowed from Irish; 
both trivytii and Cathbalug show that the Irish once sounded their 
th like our Welsh th or very nearly so : now it has the sound of h. 
<■ J. R. 

Note 15. — Deffrobaxi. We are told in the Triads that our an- 
cestors came here from Deffrobavi and " GwladyrHaf." Deffrobani 
is evidently Taprobane, or the island of Cej-lon. An answer to the 
question- — what was known in the middle ages or later about Tap- 
robane might possibly enable critics to discover why that island was 
fixed upon by the inventors of the Triads, and what materials they 
had at their service. The following is all my information on the 
subject :• — 1. Ceylon was not unknown to the Romans. 2. Marco 
Polo visited it about the end of the thirteenth century. 3. Keating 
in his nistory of Ireland, p. 246, records a tradition that the ances- 
tors of the Irish set out from Egypt, sailed between Asia and Taj''- 


rahnua, and ultimately got round Asia and into Erin. 4. Dr. Bos- 
worth has in liis compendious A. -Sax. Dictionary the following- : — 
" Deprobane, The island Toprolcine:" where he has mot with the 
word I have failed to elicit ; perhaps some person who is lucky 
enough to be able to consult the larger edition of the doctor's work 
could enlighten us on the point. J. R. 

Note 16.— Ene.\s. Is the Brutes tale of Welsh or English origin ? 
Evidently Brutus is an etymological creation as far as Britain is 
concerned. Now Brutu-s is also written Brijttijs, but as AVelsh y 
when differing from i had in iliddle Welsh the sound of m (its sound 
in/y, dij being probably unknown even in Salesburj^'s time), Brutus 
and Bryttys would be prononnced exactly the same ; so from Brutus 
according to G. ab Arthur's Brut this island was called Bnjtaen and 
the people Brijtcunjeyt, while the Tysilio Brut, eliminating the spel- 
ling discrepancy, gives us Brijttiis and BryttaniaU. It is to be no- 
ticed that it is not Brijtlioniaid that is thus explained, but Brtjtaniaul 
and Brijtaev, comparatively modem words borrowed probably from 
English. The A.-Saxon for Braaoi is Bri/toi (or Brijtten) and 
for Briton Brijf; in old English these became respectively Bruten 
and Brut; so no arrangement could be more charming than that Brut- 
iis should colonize Bruten or Bryt-v.s Brijten; of course Brutus, 
seconded by Roman influence, v.oald be more than a match for 
Bri/tus. The Welsh claim comes in more successfully in the person 
oi Eneas, who was to be the chief ancestor of Brutus and the ^neas 
of Virgil, as Giraldus (or some one of his models) discovered that 
Fjiieas is merely the Latin way of writing the Welsh name Eniaun, 
which we now spell Einion. Probably the tale consists of many 
pieces joined together at different times; by the way, what is the 
date of the oldest version of it ? J. R. 

Note\7. — Co^■STA^■TINOPLE. A more unconscious method of ety- 
mologizing has been followed in the treatment of some foreign 
names of places, thus CoiistantinopolishQcome^ successively in Welsh 
Constinohlis and Gorstiiiahjl, which one meets with in " Tstoria 
Chyarlys," and looks like a Welsh name dci'ived in part from cors; 
" a swamp." Similarly 'Upoa6\vua, Jerusalem, became in the hands 
of Welsh scribes Caerussalem, whence our hymnologists have had 
their Cacrsalem, which has induced some of our Gor-Gymry to be- 
lieve that they will find the "heavenly Jerusalem" to "be a Welsh 
institution. J. R. 

N'ote 18. — Bledews. With respect to Bladrvy^ I was rash in your 
last numbei-, for I find Bledrus also is well attested ; thus one of 
Howel Dda's advisers is called Bledrus vab Bleidyd, and we read in 
the Mijvijrian, p. 549, of a Bledrus tywysawc Kernyw." J. B. 

Note 19. — TwR Grox. This name is valuable as showing that tu-r 
was once feminine in Welsh; it is the Latin turris or the French 
tour, both of which are feminine. Welsh analogy is against mono- 


syllabic nouns with w remaining feminine, hence the woril /"•/• is 
now invariably masculine. J. H. 

Note 20. — Pbesscir (gl. I allude to the last number of 
the journal, p. 6 (17). No doubt jvessnir is identical with our mo- 
dern pnjsur, and I hold the digraph 7u to be an attempt to render 
the sound of the Welsh w. The word seems to the med. Lat. pref- 
sura ; this however is a noun, while pri/zsur is an adjective; but 
compare our adjective yscder from the Latin scelus, scelens. Ac- 
cording to Ducange 2-»'cssii/-a meant, among other things, " moles - 
tia," "censura," " turba coniprimens." I tind it in the following 
hymn attributed to Bonaventura: — 

Crux in omnibus pressuris, 

Et in gravibus et duris, 

Est totum reraedium. 

Crux in poenis et tonnentis 

Est dulcedo pia: mentis, 

Et verum refusjium. J. Rhts. 

Noie2'[. — Llyn Caws. A contributor to By-Gones famishes the 
following short piece of folk-lore respecting the origin of the name 
Llijn Cans : " There is a little lake situated above the celebrated fall 
of Pistyll Rhaiadr, called Lhjn. Caws. The following origin of its 
name was given to the writer of this by an old inhabitant some j-ears 
deceased, that ' Queen Helena, when passing through Wales, after 
encamping in Hirnant Coris, at a place called ' The Place of the 
Beds' (the trench is still strongl^^ marked), proceeded on her v.-a}- 
towards England. On arriving at the top of the hill above the lake 
she took out a cheese to distribute it amongst her followers ; but it 
tumbled out of her lap, and rolled down the hill into the lake, and 
that is why it got the name.' " 

Qiienj IS. — Nantgyxdanyll. In the third Appendix to Professor 
Rees' Welsh Saints, which contains "a list of churches and chapels 
in Wales," we find (p. 332) Nantgyndanxjll as the name of one of 
the churches in Carnarvonshire. There is, I believe, no church or 
parish bearing that name anywhere in that county at the present 
day. Can any one inform me what place is intended ? Nantgyn- 
danyll, a name which I have not met with elsewhere, is stated to be 
under the invocation of St. Deiniol, the saint to whom, among other 
churches, the Cathedral at Bangor is dedicated. Deiniol. 

fHiscellanfouQ fioticcs- 

Brecon Pkioky. — Efforts are now being made to complete the 
restoration of St. John's Priory Church at Brecon, and contributions 
for that purpose are urgently wanted. In the opinion of Sir Gilbert 
Scott "there is no doubt that it is one of the finest specimens of 
churches of its scale, and in the highest degree worthy of all possible 


P^j"f. ^"ng expended on its restoration." The cost is estimated at 
io.WU; but of this sum about £3,000 have already been raised in 
the locality. To meet the deficit it has been found n-ecessary to 
appeal to the public at large; "but this general appeal," the pro- 
moters state, "has not been put forth until it was clearly ascer- 
tamed— heartily and generously as the call has 'been responded to 
m the town and neighbourhood— that the large sum required could 
not be procured from local resources. Hence the necessity the Com- 
mittee feel themselves under of appealing for aid to generous Church- 
men not immediately connected with Brecon." Contributions for 
this highly desirable object may be sent to the Rev. Herbert Wil- 
liams, Vicar of Brecon. 

PRESEEVATio>f OF AxciENT MONUMENTS.— According to the accounts 
winch we have seen, no less than two of the ancient nionnmonts of 
Wales, including ilonmouthshire, are to be protected by the provi- 
sions of Sir John Lubbock's Bill ; these favoured two being " The 
Dolmen, Plas Newydd, Anglesey," and "Arthur's Quoit, Gower, Gla- 
morganshire." Evidently (the more is the pity) the worthy Baronet 
has never heard of the AVelsh triad, or we have no doubt "he would 
have made an effort to give us that mystic number instead of this 
prosaic two. 

Holt, near Wrexham.- St. Chad's Church, Holt, Flintshire, is 
one of the finest and largest old parish churches in North Wales, 
being much of the same date and stjde of architecture with the 
neighbouring churches of Wrexham and Gresford ; but of late years 
it had become so very dilapidated, that recourse to restoration was 
found absolutely necessary. The work has been commenced under 
the direction of Mr. John Douglas, architect, of Chester. A consi- 
derable sum has been raised for the purpose ; but still something 
like £1,000 has to be collected before it can be completed, and pei° 
sons disposed to aid in the good work are asked to contribute to the 
restoration fund. We hope the work of restoration is in every way 
worthy of this magnificent church. 


Annals and Antiquitie.? of the Counties and County Tamilies of 
Wales. By Thomas Nicholas, M.A., Ph.D., F.G.S. Two 
vols. 8vo. London: Longmans and Co., 1872. 

In these two elegant volumes Dr. Nicholas presents us with a large 
amount of information, historical, archseological, and genealogical, 
relating to the " thirteen counties" of Wales, in a highly attractive 
form. Each county is treated separately, and in alphabetical order. 
The author remarks in the preface that the " work may be consi- 
dered in the light of a new Visitation of Wales, conducted, not 

•iTH SEK., VOL. IV. 1-i 


under the auspices or authority of the College of Arms, but in obe- 
dience to a frequently expressed desire that a more complete and 
faithful account than existed should be provided, of the great families 
of the Principality, combining, as far as possible, ancient with 
modern times." The visitation thus voluntarily undertaken has, we 
are glad to state, been carried out to a ftiirly successful issue, and 
the result embodied in these volumes will be of no small value to 
persons who may have occasion to travel in the same path. Tiie 
work may be described as consisting of two main divisions, one 
ancient, and the other more or less modern. Both these subjects 
have, to some degree, been treated of before ; but their combination 
to form one whole is a feature peculiar to the work under notice, 
and so far it may be said to have no precedent. 

Each county is, as far as possible, treated as a unity. In the tir^t 
place we have its physical features ; its ancient and mediaeval his- 
tory ; its antiquities, generally divided into prehistoric and histori- 
cal ; and its old and extinct families. The lists of high sheriffs and 
members of Parliament form a sort of connecting link between the 
past and the present, and serve to introduce the more modern por- 
tion which treats of the families of each county as now existing, 
their lineage, dignities, alliances, and public services. 

Most of the details have been worked out with praiseworthy in- 
dustrj', and the latest and best authorities appear to have, in every 
case, been consulted. Few things seem to have been taken at second 
hand. " The whole countrj'," we are told, "has been actually visited. 
Descriptions and accounts have been given from personal inspec- 
tion ; facts, dates, names, have been obtained from the documents 
or direct testimony of the families themselves." This constitutes 
the principal value of the book. Since the time of the " industrious 
Pennant" few writers who have undertaken to write books about 
Wales have taken the trouble of seeing it with their own eyes. 

A very considerable portion of the work is necessarily devoted to 
genealogy. The Welsh people, as is well known, are and have 
always been partial to pedigrees ; and of the documents of the past 
that have come down to us, no small number belong to this subject. 
The following extracts give us Dr. Nicholas' estimate of their value, 
accuracy, and importance : I 

The abundance of genealogical records found among the Welsh has ex- 
posed them to the charge ot uncritical credulity and extravagant assump- 
tion. The practice of recording and multiplying copies of pedigrees should, 
on the contrary, protect them from such a charge. The fact is that gene- 
alogy amongst the ancient Welsh was a study intertwined with the whole 
of their social life, and an element in their law of property ; and from this 
circumstance the natural history of the Welshman's predilection for the 
practice is clearly and rationally traceable. By law a man held rank and 
claimed property " by kin and descent." He must show his lineage through 
nine generatious to be a free Cymro and holder of land. "A per.son past 
the ninth descent formed a new Pen Cenedl, or head of a family. Every 
family was represented by its elder, and these elders from every family were 
delegated to the national council. Genealogy was, in this sense, a consti- 

i;i-: VIEWS. 1211 

tuent in the social and political life of the Cymry before the time of Ilowel 
the Good, and its position was confirmed by his revised code." 

The mere mention of such long established uational customs is sufficient 
to explain and justify the prominence given to genealog7 amongst the 
families of Wales. The order and authority of the custom also favours belief 
in the general accuracy of its results. 

The editor remembers the time when he had doi^bts himself respecting 
the value of our pedigrees, and is not even now insensible to the need of 
caution and scrutiny in their reception ; but experience has led to a large 
qualification of his scepticism. The careful inspection of voluminous ancient 
documents originating from different quarters, but containing matters in 
common, and the collation of lineages which were but copies or recensions 
made at wide intervals from originals or other copies, have convinced him 
that in early times great care must have been exercised in the production 
and transmission of such records ; and that, although not free from occa- 
sioual errors, they possess a general accuracy quite sufficient to convey sub- 
stantial truth. He certainly sees no reason for questioning the reliability 
of Welsh pedigrees in the main, which would not apply at least with 
equal cogency, to the lineage, e. g., of Scotchmen who trace to the llamil- 
tons, Gordons, and Douglases, or of the English who manage to trace to the 
Roll of Battle Abbey. 

Some have an affectation of depreciating all pedigrees and all pride of 
ancestry and antiquity. Such weakness is pardonable in those whose ances- 
try brings them scanty credit, or whose degeneracy is a reproach to their 
more distinguished predecessors ; but it is a weakness seldom betraying 
itself beyond these limits. To human nature it belongs to respect antiquity 
and value ancestry. An old family, like a seer, tree, or mansion, wins 
veneration by its mere age as well as by other and possibly higher quali- 

Wales is a country of old annals, old customs, and old families, as well as 
old rocks and mountains; and the Welshman may ask his countrymen, with 
as much reason as Cicero had in asking his own, " Quern non moveat claris- 
simis monumentis testata consignataque antiquitas i" 

There are nearly two hundred well executed ilhistration.s on wood, 
from photographs, embracing cromlechs, castles, churches, gentle- 
men's seats, coats of arms, and similar objects. They constitute 
an important and characteristic feature in the work. 

jNIuch of the value of a work of this kind consists in its complete- 
ness. In this respect the present production is not quite so satis- 
factory as could be wished. Some scorestof families which, accord- 
ing to the plan, ought to be recorded, are altogetlier omitted ; and 
several others which, so far as we can see, have no claim whatever 
to the distinction of belonging to the "county families," are here 
included. The omissions, we are told, are in some instances una- 
voidable, no information Laving been received respecting these 
families. This is much to be regretted. The author more than 
once refers the reader to the second edition for particulars not given 
in this first impression. When a reissue takes place, we hope that 
tlicse omissions and redundancies, with some other inadvertencies 
which we have noticed, will receive due attention ; but it must be 
acknowledged that it is somewhat difficult to draw tlie exact line of 
demarcation in this as well as in most other matters. 

Some Account of the Ancient MoNrMENTS in the Pkiory Church, 
Abekgavennv. By Octavius Morgan, Esq., M.P., F.R.S., RS.A., 
President of the Moumouthsbire and Caerleon Antiquarian 
Association. Newport : H. Mullock. 

"We some-what tardily call tlie attention of our readers to this 
handsomely got up little vohime, which was issued to the members 
of the Monmouthshire and Caerleon Association in December last. 
It is the most valuable publication on the antiquities of Monmouth- 
shire issued by the Society since the appearance of Mr. Lee's well 
known Jsca Silurum. The monuments described in the work "form, 
a remarkably good and most instructive series of monumental effigies 
from the twelfth to the seventeenth centuries, showing the various 
forms and characters of such structures, and displaying in an admir- 
able manner the various changes which successively took place in 
the arms and armour of the knightly warriors ; exhibiting a valu- 
able and consecutive series of illustrations, not only of armour, but 
also of costume, as well of ladies as of knights, during a period of 
four centuries." The learned author prefaces his account of the 
monuments with short accounts of the Priory Church, the barony 
of Abergavenny, and some remarks on the ancient armour of the 
thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, with the view of 
making the subject more intelligible to his readers. The work has 
been admirably illustrated by a beautiful series of photographs, thir- 
teen in number. 

We would gladly see the Monmouthshire and Caerleon Associa- 
tion, which has since its foundation in lS-i7 rendered such excellent 
ser\'ice to the cause of arohteology in Monmouthshire, turn its atten- 
tion to a more thorough investigation of the antiquities of that 
favoured county, by promoting the publication of parochial accounts, 
as pubUshed by the Powys-land Club in the Montgomenjsldre Collec- 

Thomas' History of the Diocese of St. Asaph. 

We are glad to learn that this laborious and valuable work is pro- 
gressing very satisfactorily, and tha*t it is intended to bring out the 
two remaining Parts in one, a considerable portion of it being already 
in the press. The whole work is hkely to extend to about eight 
hundred pages ; and as the price is to be raised as soon as the whole 
is once issued, we would strongly recommend those who wish to 
become possessors of the work — and they ought to be many — to 
send in their names without delay. 

Part I of the sixth volume of Collections Historical and Arclioeolo- 
gical relating to Montgomeryshire has lately been issued by the Powys- 
land Club. The principal contents are : History of the Parish of 
Garth Beibio ; Armorial Shield in Buttington Church; High Sheriffs 


of Montgomerysbive ; Portraits connected with Montgomeryshire ; 
Parochial Account of Llanidloes (continued) ; Herbertiaua ; Monu- 
mental Effigies in Montgomery Church ; Circular Flint Knife found 
at Trefeglwys ; Mould for casting Tokens found at Mathraval ; and 
Welsh Poetry illustrative of the History of Llangurig. The Part 
is well illustrated, especially the portion relating to Llanidloes 


Russian Archjeologt. — The venerable city of Kief has been chosen 
as the seat of the next triennLal meeting of the Russian Archasolo- 
gical Congress, which is to take place in the summer of 1874. 
Count Ouvarof, President of the Moscow Archasological Society, has 
issued circulars calling the attention of antiquarians to the exhibi- 
tion which will then and there be held. All kinds of objects in any 
way illustrative of Slavonic archasology will be gladly received for 
exhibition, and it is hoped that a most valuable and instructive col- 
lection will be brought together. 

The precious MS. known as the " Gospels of Mac Ournan" has, 
by the consent of the Archbishop of Canterbury, been lent for the 
purpose of having some of its pages photozincographed, to illustrate 
the series of the national JNISS. of L-eland in course of pubhcation 
under the direction of the Master of the Rolls. 

Mr. a. W. Franks has intimated to the Society of Antiquaries his 
intention of working up the details connected with a portion of his 
Bronze Period, dealing -svith each of the countries specified sepa- 
rately. Special attention was called to the bronze or rather copper 
implements sent for exhibition by Captain Bloomfield, and found in 
Central India. With two trifling exceptions they are the first imple- 
ments of the kind which have as yet turned up in that country. 
Upwards of four hundred of them were found together. 

Discovery of a Tomb. — A few weeks ago Mr. Howel Pugh, of 
Tyddyn Bach Farm, in the parish of Llanfachreth, near Dolgelley, 
Merionethshire, discovered a vault containing human remains in a 
field which he was preparing to plough. The field rises abruptly in 
the centre, like several other fields in the locahty ; and on this emi- 
nence stood, and had stood, it may almost be said, from time imme- 
morial, a huge stone which interfered with ploughing operations. 
Mr. Pugh, therefore, determined to move it, though the task was 
one of considerable difliculty. It was at first proposed to resort to 
blasting, but eventually the stone was dragged away by a team of 
horses. A deep hole was then found on the spot which had been 
covered by the stone, and at the bottom of the hole very dark earth 


mixed with stones. With the aid of a crowbar Mr. Pugh discovered 
that there was probably a cavity lower down, aud a little excavation 
revealed a stone vault containing human remains, a brass dagger, 
and a gold ring. It is suggested that the tomb is that of a soldier 
who fell in one of the battles which were fought in this locality, and 
that several similar tombs might be discovered. The stone, it is 
said, bore no inscription. Tlie farm is the property of John Vaughan, 
Esq., of Nannau. 

The following paper " On some Human Bones found at Butting- 
ton, Montgomeryshire," supposed to be relics of the Danish Invasion, 
was recently read by Mr. W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., at a meeting of 
the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society : — 

'• Among some papers which have lately demanded my attention, 
there is one relating to the discovery of human bones in Buttinglon 
Churchyard, a hamlet near Welshpool, Montgomeryshire, which is 
worthy of being placed on I'ecord, and being brought into relation 
with history. In the year 1838 the late Rev. R. Dawkins, the in- 
cumbent of the parish, made a most remarkable discovery of human 
remains while digging the foundations for a new schoolroom at the 
south-west corner of the churchyard, and in making a path leading 
from it to the church door. He discovered three pits, one containing 
two hundred skulls, and two others containing exactly one hundred 
each ; the sides of the pits being lined with the long bones of the 
arms and the legs. Two other pits contained the smaller bones, 
such as the vertebiffi and those of the extremities. All the teeth 
were wonderfnlly perfect, aud tl;e condition of the skulls showed 
that the men to whom they belonged had perished in the full vigour 
of manhood. Some of the skulls had been fractured, and the men 
to whom they belonged had evidently come to a violent death. A 
jaw bone of a horse and some teeth were found in one of the pits, 
and among- the circumstances noted at the time was the fact that 
the root of an ash tree, growing in the churchyard, had found its 
way through the nutrient foramen of a thigh-bone, into the cavity 
which contained the man-ow, and had grown until it penetrated the 
further end of the bone, and finally burst the shaft : the bone and 
root were compacted together into one solid mass. These remains 
were unfortunately collected together and reinterred on the north 
side of the churchyard, without being examined by any one inter- 
ested in craniology, the few fragments, with some few exceptions, 
which escaped reinterment being merely the teeth, which were sold 
at sixpence and a shilling apiece by the workmen, as a remedy 
against toothache ; for the possession of a dead man's tooth was sup- 
posed, by the people in the neighbourhood at that time, to prevent 
that malady. 

" The interest in this discovery died away, and, so far as I know, 
there was no attempt made to bring it into relation with history, 
although it offers a striking proof of the accuracy of the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle. In the j-ear 894 we read that the Danes, probably under 


the conimancl of H.-Psten, left Bcanifleet, or Benfleet, in Essex, and, 
after plundering Mercia or central England, collected their forces at 
Shoebury in Essex, and gathered together an army both from the 
East Anglians and the Northumbrians. ' They then went np along 
tlie Thames till they reached the Severn ; theniip along the Severn. 
Then Ethered the ealdorman, and ^thelnoth the ealdorman, and 
the King's thanes -who were then at home in the fortified places, 
gathered forces from every town east of the Parret, and as well west 
as east of Selwood, and also north of the Thames and west of the 
Severn, and also some part of the North-Welsh people. When they 
had all drawn together then they came np with the army at But- 
tington on the bank of the Severn, and there beset them about, on 
either side, in a fastness. When they had now sat there many 
weeks on both sides of the river, and the King was in the west in 
Devon, against the fleet, then were the enemy distressed for want of 
food, and having eaten a great part of their horses, the others being 
starved with hunger, then went they out against the men who were 
encamped on the east bank of the river and fought against them, 
and the Christians had the victory. And Ordheh, a king's thane, was 
there slain; and of the Danish men there was very great slaughter 
made, and that part which got away thence was saved by flight. 
When they had come into Essex to their fortress and the ships, then 
the survivors again gathered a great army from among the East- 
Angles and the North-Humbrians before winter, and committed 
their wives and their wealth and their ships to the East-Angles, and 
went at one stretch, day and night, until they arrived at a western 
city in Wirral, which is called Legaceastrr (Chester).' 

" It is evident from this passage that a most desperate battle was 
fought atButtington, between the Danes and the combined English 
and Welsh forces. And when we consider the position of the church- 
yard, which is slightly above the level of the fields on the east side, 
and which stands out boldly above the stretch of alluvium on the 
north side, there can be but little doubt that the battle was fought 
on the very spot where the bones were discovered. In the Chronicle 
we read that the Danes were compelled to eat their horses. The 
jaw of a horse was discovered in the excavations, together with many 
horse's teeth. It is therefore almost Certain that these human re- 
mains belong to the men who fell in this battle. We cannot tell 
who arranged the bones in the way in which they were found ; nor 
do we know whether they belonged to Danes, English, or Welsh, 
but it is hardly probable that the victors would knowingly give 
Christian burial to their heathen adversaries. The commanding 
position offered by the camp probably caused it to be chosen by the 
monks of the neighbouring Abbey of Strata Marcella for the site of 
the present church, and it is very probable that they discovered the 
relics of the battle, and arranged them in the pits in the churchyard, 
after the same fashion as is seen in many crypts and catacombs. 

"There is another point of interest in this passage of the Chro- 
nicle. Buttington is said to be on the east bank of the Severn. 


Since that time the river course has passed to the -svestwarcl, to a 
distance of about a quarter of a mile. Its ancient course, however, 
is still marked by a small brook running close under the churchyard, 
and which finds its way into the Severn by ' the main ditch.' In 
connexion with this I may remark that Col. Lane Fos and myself, 
when examining OfiFa's Dyke in the year 18G9, lost all trace of it in 
passing from Forden northwards, when we arrived at this stream. 
The Severn, flowing at that time close to Buttington Church, would 
form a natural barrier between the JNIercians and the Welsh, and 
render the erection of a dyke unnecessary. There is no material 
fact added to this accotmt in the Chronicle of Ethelwerd, or in that 
of Florence of Worcester, or Henry of Huntingdon. 

" It is quite possible to trace at the present time the boundaries 
of the Danish camp. It was defended on the north-west by the 
river Severn ; on the east by a rampart running parallel, or nearly 
so, with the road to Forden ; on the north-east by the churchyard 
wall; and on the south by the depression which runs down from the 
present line of the Forden road behind the Vicarage garden down 
to what was then the old course of the Severn. It may also have 
included the site of the otit-buildines, opposite to the Green Dragon 

Discovert of Pile-Dwellings. — An interesting discovery has re- 
cently been made by Dr. Jeutzsch of remains of pile-dwellings in 
the bed of the Elsfer, near Leipzig. These traces of pre-historio 
man, which are so common in the lakes of Switzerland, and in some 
other parts of Southern Europe, are very rare in central Germany ; 
and, as far as we remember, no indications of the practice of building 
upon piles have hitherto been found so far north as Leipzig. In the 
immediate district no traces of it.=; pre-historic inhabitants have pre- 
viously been met with. These remains, which were discovered 
during some operations in the bed of the river at Plagwitz, consist 
of a number of oaken piles sharpened at the bottom, which have been 
driven into a bed of clay in rows, and a number of oak trunks lying 
horizontally in the same level as the upper end of the piles. The 
whole was covered by a considerable thickness of loam. The lower 
jaw of an ox, fragments of the antlers of deer, long bones of some 
mammal not yet determined, and shells of freshwater mussels have 
been found, besides pieces of charcoal and rough pottery ; and in the 
loam about five feet below the surface there were two axes with 
ground edges. 

The keeper of the manuscripts in the British Museum intends to 
issue a catalogue of the oldest manuscripts in the national collection, 
with autotype facsimiles of the choicest early illuminations and 

^rcluiivolo^iH (LambreiifiifL 


JULY, 1873. 


{CQnti.nxi.ed from ;p. 45.) 

1'he year 1 620 found Sir Ptoberfc about forty-seven years 
of age, and most busily employed. It is clear from 
various entries in the State papers that all matters con- 
nected with the construction of shijas and the general 
administration of dockyard stores received his close at- 
tention, while at the same time he had to attend, and 
did certainly attend, closely to the details of the glass- 
making business, and to the defence of his patented 
rights. The latter cares must have been by very much 
the most trying to his temper, for the rising spirit of 
the century was vehemently opposed to monopolies, of 
Avhich his was one of the least defensible. His men 
and material had to be imported, and the former Avere 
perpetually leaving him, tempted by high offers from 
his opponents and rivals both in England and Scotland. 
He had brought over from Venice John MariadeU'Acqua, 
who left him to be master of the glass works in Scot- 
land, where however he stayed but a short time and re- 
turned to England. Sir Robert accused ]\Ir. Ward, the 
goldsmith of Cheapside, and others of having seduced 
him. February, 1620, he sent Howgill and Greene to 
the Marshalsea for importing foreign glass. They 
alleged that his glass was bad, and he had supplied 
them with his worst for the king's new buildings at 

4th set.., vol. IV. 15 


Newmarket. Colbourne, the hniir-^^'lass inaker to tlie 
commissioners for glass, also com|)laiiK'd that lie ^vas 
forced to buy Sir Eobert's London glass, Avhich ^vas bad 
and high priced. He -svishes leave to purchase at Sir 
Eobert's other works, and asks that glass imported 
contrary to the proclamation, and claimed by Sir Ro- 
bert, may be held in charge till it bo seen whether he 
can supply glass sufficient. The glaziers also com- 
plain that the glass is bad, brittle, and dear ; and they 
ask encouragement for the Scottish works. Sir Robert 
meets all this by asserting that the scarcity of glass is 
from no fault of his ; that he has spent much in improving 
its quality ; and that its high price is caused bv the 
high price of coal. Then follow conflicting reports as 
to quality. Four glaziers assert some to be bad, but 
the most part serviceable. The Glaziers' Company 
find most unserviceable. Inigo Jones, as surveyor 
of works, finds the glass mixed, good and bad, and 
very thin in the middle. These attacks were sharpened 
by a proclamation, a month before, enforcing the pro- 
visions of the patent. Mention is made of a grant for a 
looking-glass manufactory, to which Sir Eobeii objects. 

After all this it is a relief to find the old sailor once 
more preparing to appear upon his proper element. 
ISth January, 1620, it is reported that he is to be ad- 
miral of a fleet to be dispatched against the Algerine 
pirates. Lord Nottingham, whose powers were failing, 
had sold his oftice to the Duke of Buckingham, and to 
the new High Admiral Sir Robert tended his advice to 
employ the time of peace in building ships of war. In 
July it was understood that there was really to be an 
Algerine expedition, and that Sir Robert was to com- 
mand it. This expedition, though pressed forwards by 
the London merchants, who suffered much from the 
Barbary Corsairs, was not popular in the country ; from 
a notion that it was prompted by Gondomar to make 
England discharge duties which otherwise Avould firll to 
the lot of Spain. 

The fleet was composed of six king's ships, ten mer- 



liantmen. and two pinnaces, 

in all 

eigliteen sail, com- 

Tianded as follLnv.^ 



Crass Gui.^ 



. 250 

. 40 . 

' Sir R.IMansell. Admiral 



. 250 

. 40 . 

§ir R. Hawkins, Vice 

Rainbow . 


. 250 

. 40 . 

Sir Thos. Button, Rear 

Coustaut Reformation 


. 250 

. 40 . 

Capt. Mainwaring 

Antelope . 


. 160 

. 34 . 

Sir U. Palmer 



. 220 

. 36 . 

Capt. Tho£. Lee 

Golden Phcenix 


. 120 

. 24 . 

Capt. Sam. Argall 

Samuel . 


. 120 

. 22 . 

Chr. Harris 

JIarvsold . 


. 100 

. 21 . 

Sir John Frere 



. 120 

. 26 . 

John Pennington 

BarV.ary . 


. SO 

. IS . 

Sir John riamden 

Hercules . 


. 120 

. 24 . 

Eusaby Cave 

Keptuue . 


. 120 


Robt. Hautrhtoa 

I 260 

. 110 

'. 23 '. 

John ChidlV 

Restore . 


. 50 

. 12 . 

Geo. Raymond 

Marmaduke . 


. 50 

. 12 . 

Thos. Herbert. 

It appears from a subsequent letter, lOth July, 1621, 
from Sir Eobert to Buckingham, that Button, a most 
inveterate grumbler, took great offence at Sir Piobert, 
because he was not made Vice-Admiral. Sir Eobert 
explains that he had engaged Hawkins, a very grave, 
religious, and experienced gentleman, before he knew 
that Button would resign his Irish appointment. He 
expresses himself with great kindness towards Button, 
and requests that on his return he may be restored to 
his former command. It appears, therefore, that the 
selection of officers Avas left to the commander. 

Sir Robert's commission of 20tl^ February styles him 
Vice-Admiral of England, Admiral of the present fleet, 
and Captain-General with power to press seamen and 
exercise martial law. Hawkins was to succeed in the 
event of the Admiral's death. Sir Robert had a sign 
manual for £'3,000 towards the charges of the service, 
and Button had a free gift of £1,452 for special service." 

While these preparations were going forward the 
navy commissioners had reported on his accounts as 
treasurer for the past five years of office. They pointed 
out various abuses, which however do not seem to have 

220 SIR i;oBi:ra' maxsiclt.. 

been of a cliavacter calling for rejji'elioiiwion. In Ano-ust 
lie accounted to the king for tlu; £1,000 dne foi- the 
glass patent, and for his balances as Vice- Admiral, and 
for the whole fourteen years of his treasurership, and 
he clauTied £10,000 arrears for travelling expenses. 
His first orders were addressed to Captain Pennington 
to survey his provisions, stores, and ordnance, and to 
muster his crew. 

The fleet weighed anclior in the Thames in August. 
2nd September a south-west wind kept the ships off 
the river's mouth. 4th September they reached the 
Downs, but the wind was still contrary, so that on the 
5th the Admirals supped with Sir Dudley Digges at 
Chilham, and Sir Robert rode post to Court, ostensibly 
to take leave, but probably to procure some further 
stores which the parsimony of ministers had witliheld. 
It was surmised that there was something concealed, 
and that so rich an equipage coidd not be intended 
merely to attack a nest of pirates. 

The fleet finally sailed from Plymouth Sound ] 2th 
October. They touched at Cadiz, where Captain Ilo- 
per, Lady Mansell's brother, died. His body was sent 
home, and landed at Dover 12th December, but there 
seems to have been another captain of the same name 
on board. While Sir Robert was absent Gondomar, 
the Spanish Ambassador, seems to have attempted to 
imdermine his credit at home, but the king, in answer 
to a charge of underhand dealing with the Algerines, 
showed unwonted spirit, "t Think you," said he to the 
Spaniard, " that I can believe this ? I, who have 
chosen himself for that I know him to be A'aliant, 
honest, and nobly descended as any in my kingdom. 
Never will I beheve him to have been guilty of so base 
an action." On the whole James seems to have been 
true to " Robin Mansell," as he called him.^ It was 
probably with reference to this charge, whatever it might 

1 No donbt Gondomar m.iy have promoted, and did promote, tlie 
expedition ; but he ninj- also have preferred to see it in other hands 
than those of Sir Robert. 


be, of tlie Spanish Government, that in the following- 
year, 13th June, 1621, Sir Walter Aston writes from 
Madrid to the Marquis of Buckingham, Lord Admiral, 
to say that " he has been careful to stop certain cause- 
less scandals upon the proceedings of Sir R. Mansell 
Avith the fleet. He has had no letter from Sir Robert 
since he left the coast, but has news that he was at 
Majorca on the last day of May, old style, and that he 
had not yet been before Argirs. He intends to acquaint 
Sir Robert with the complaints against him, and when 
he understands from Sir Robert the truth or not of 
this error he Avill place this statement before the Spanish 
Government, when no doubt they will find they have 
been too ready to credit the aspersion." [Camden So- 
ciety, Fortescue Pcqyers, p. 152.] 

Gondomar w^as attacked in the streets of London, 
and one of the rioters was publicly whipped from Aid- 
gate to Temple Bar for his share in the business. It 
was said that Gondomar, with James's connivance, had 
transported ordnance and munitions of war from Eng- 
land to Spain. 

The fleet reached Gibraltar roads 31st October, and 
there they heard from the Spaniards of the ravages 
committed by the Algerines. Two pirate ships had 
engaged seven Spanish galleys, and slain 400 men. They 
had in one fleet thirty ships and ten galleys, and had 
even threatened Gibraltar. 

2nd November Su- Robert sailed from Malaga roads, 

and reported progress through the English ambassador 

with the Court of Spain. He sailed for Alicant in three 

squadrons ; the admiral six leagues from the shore, the 

I vice-admiral six leagues outside, and the rear admiral 

I inside him, near the shore. The weather becoming 

calm the admiral hoisted St. George's flag as a sum- 

'I mons to the captains and masters to a general council, 

i and it was decided to place two ships of light draught 

i next the shore to sweep the inlets, and the password 

I for recognition was "Greenwich Tower." 10th No- 

1 vember they were ofi' MattrlU Point, and on the 19th 

'l-l-l am i;oi;eut maxsei.l. 

dropj^ed anchor in Alicant roads. Here thirty-six sick 
men were sent ashore from the admiral's ship ah;»ne. Tlieir 
numbers were made good from the " Goodwill," "which 
vessel was left behind. Here they laid in wine and 
water; and on tlie 25th sailed for Algiers, oft' which 
place they arrived on the 27th November. 

They cast anchor in twenty-seven fathoms watei', out 
of the range of the Castle, and saluted, but the civility 
was not returned. Nevertheless flags of truce were 
exchanged and civil sjJeeches passed, and hostages were 
offered for the officer who might be sent on shore with 
the king's letters to the Pasha. Meantime the pirates 
brought in three prizes, of which two were 'English. 
Captain John Eoper Avas selected to deliver the letters, 
and after two attempts two hostages were sent and he 
landed. On the 3rd December six Spanish ships of 
war arrived in pursuit of pirates, and exchanged can- 
non shots with the town. 

As the Algerines did not behave in good faith and 
showed a disposition to detain Captain Iloper, Sir Ro- 
bert had recourse to a ruse. He dressed up a seaman 
as consul and sent him off. He was received with great 
respect, and forty English captives were given up, and 
it was 23retended they were all they had. This seems 
to have been all the real result of the expedition. 

On the Sth the fleet weighed and went to seek pro- 
visions at IMajorca, proposing to return in the spring. 
On the 24th they fell in with eight or nine sail of Turks 
and gave chase, without success. 26th they were in Ali- 
cant roads, expecting provisions from England, which 
had not arrived, and next day the rear-admiral left to 
seek two pirates. On the 4th of January two more 
ships left the fleet on a similar errand, but equally with- 
out success. On the 6th the vice-admiral sailed for 
Malaga to victual, and on the 12th the rear-admiral 
made another imsuccessful quest, and they received 
letters from England. On the 27th the fleet sailed and 
fell in with a Flemish fleet also in search of pirates. 
31st they \\ere again oft" Alicant. 


Febvuav)- found tlie reai--aclmiral again after pirates. 
On the Gth tliej sailed for Malaga, and on the 16th 
■were joined by the vice-admiral, who had victualled his 

2Sth February, 1G21, Edward Piers, a king's mes- 
senger, claimed expenses for fifty-eight days attendance 
on Sir R. Mansell. The Government was uncertain as 
to how long the fleet would be absent, and had to con- 
sider the question of fresh supplies, and the rene\^'al of 
Sir Robert's commission, should he be absent six months 
longer. In March the Coui-t gossip was " that the fleet 
had done nothing but negociate with the pirates of Al- 
giers for the liberation of some slaves. They had many 
discourtesies in Spain, but these things are dangerous 
to speak of" 

It appears that Sir Robert was encumbered with 
advice, for '■ the council of war having decided on man- 
ning and victualling the Satra, a polacca out of the 
fleet," he ordered Pennington to spare three men Avitli 
victuals, arms, etc. 29th May the admiral informed 
Pennington that the road of Algiers is then place of 
rendezvous, and the admirals are to hang out their 
lio-hts so as to keep together. No vessel is to be chased 
unless the fleet can be regained that night." 

25th January Captain Roper was dispatched home 
with letters, and 27th the fleet fell in with seven sail 
of Flemings under the Admnal of Zealand, who informed 
Sir Robert he had twenty-two ships of war cruismg 
about the straits. 16th February,_being off" Gibraltar, 
provisions arrived from England with Captain Pett of 
the Mercury of 240 tons, 65 men, and 20 brass guns, 
and Captain Giles of the Spy of 160 tons, 55 men, and 
18 guns, besides two or three merchantmen. At Ali- 
cant the admiral bought three brigantines and hired a 
polacca to carry materials for fire-ships, and 21st May, 
1621, they were again off" Algiers, 

They anchored on a north and south line, the Admiral 
in the middle ; on the north side the Reformation, 
Phoenix, and Antelone ; on the south the Golden Phoe- 


nix and Convertive, and the merchantmen a httle 
astern. Two Turkish prizes of a hundred and of sixty- 
tons were prepared as fire-ships, as were the three 
brigantines and a "Gunlod." There were also many 
armed boats to cover the retreat of those who fired the 
ships. On the 24th the wind served, and the fleet 
stood in to witliin musiiet shot of the mole, when it 
fell, and they could not sail in. The moon shone, but 
as they learned from a Christian slave who swam off 
that the ships within were unguarded, the fire-ships 
were exploded, and a brisk attack made. They lost 
about six men, but the success was inconsiderable, and 
the fleet sailed on the 25th, of which four sail of pirates 
took advantage to enter the harbour. 

The 2Sth the Bonaventura and Hercules drove a pirate 
on shore with 130 Turks and 12 Christians. All were 
drowned save twelve Turks. The 30th they were 
again ofi^ Algiers, and learned from two Genoese slav(^s 
that the Turks had thrown a boom across the entrance, 
and made other preparations of a most formidable 
character. The attempt was, therefore, abandoned, 
and the fleet proceeded homewards. 

On the arrival of the fleet a journal of the expedi- 
tion, kept by J. B., from its sailing 12th October, 
1620, to its return 3rd Augvrst, 1621, Avas laid before 
the council. It gave the daily particulars of what was 
done by each ship. This was printed, with annota- 
tions, by John Coke. The fleet did not reach the 
Downs till 22nd September. This expedition was 
much discussed and severely commented upon. As 
late as 16th March, 1626, a paper of comments on Sir 
Eobert's conduct w^as addressed to the council. The 
merchants of London seem to have been satisfied. 
" The English fleet," it was said, " performed gallantly, 
and advancing within the i-each of cannon and small 
shot, which from the land showered hke hail upon 
them, fired the pirates' ships within their own harbour." 
No doubt too favourable an account. It was thought 
by others that the most of the oflicers selected were 


without experience, and that the equipment was insuf- 
ficient for the purpose. 

On his return Sir Robert was at once called upon to 
protect the narrow seas, for which the London mer- 
chants subscribed freely, though, 2nd October, they 
declined to honour a bill for £399, d^a^^'ll upon them 
by the Admiral, for which they were reprimanded by 
the coiincil. Among the expenses of this fleet was a 
payment to Sir Walter Cope, Bart., of £'120 for 300 
swords at 8s. each. 

During Sir Robert's absence the glass business im- 
proved, and 4th April, 1621, the Glaziers' Company 
report that his glass is good, cheap, and plentiful, and 
13th April they petition against a bill brought forward 
by some of his rivals in the manufacture. 18th June 
the council directed that as the consideration of Sh 
Ptobert's patent was postponed till his return, no glass 
Avas to be allowed to be imported to its infringement. 
Nevertheless the rivals w^ere active. Parliament, it 
seems, had twice pronounced against the patent as a 
monopoly, and the glassmakers, headed by Isaac Bun- 
yard, offer the king a bribe of £500 to allow a free 
manufacture, and undertake to sell glass 2s. a pound 
below Sir Robert. Bunyard, however, carried his 
opposition too fai^ and was imprisoned. Lady Mansell 
is willing that he should be let out, if he will promise 
not to infringe the patent. This he declines to do. 

The Algerine accounts seem, as usual with navy 
matters, to have long remained unsettled. 27th April, 
1622, " Sir Robert and his crew are ill paid, and Sir 
Richard Hawkins, the Vice-Admiral, is dead of vexa- 
tion." In this year Sir Ptobert was returned for Gla- 
morgan as "Sir Robert Mansell, Knight, Vice-Admiral." 
He also seems still to have acted as treasurer of the 
navy, and received £5,555 16s. to provide shipping for 
the Queen of Bohemia. Captain Squibb, one of the 
officers in the Algerine fleet, had, 22nd November, 1622, 
a commission given him for having assisted the admiral 
in discovering and taking possession of Mount Mansell, 
probably an Algerine work so called. 


13tli February, 1623, the ghost of tlie old patentees 
reapjtears in the form of Lady Mary Vere. Her brother, 
Thomas Tracy, was one of the nine patentees for making 
glass with sea coal, on payment of £1,000 per annum 
to the king and £260 to the patentees for the glass- 
houses, etc. When Sir E. Mansell decided to engross 
the whole trade, he promised to pay all expenses, and 
allow each patentee £200 per annum, and now she com- 
plains that he is seeking a new patent which will re- 
lease him from these engagements. 

20th March Sir Robert is on the narrow seas, for re- 
ference is made to a state barge which he has on the 
coast. Lady Mansell, a most zealous wife, is as usual 
active in his behalf 7th July Sir William Clavel, who 
has been seducing Sir Iiobert's workmen for the Scot- 
tish works, justifies his conduct by alleging that Lady 
Mansell tampers with his people. 

In reply she says "it is only with such as formerly 
served her husband." Li July, 1623, certain artificers 
in glass-making petition the council that Lady Mansell 
be called upon either to allow their old wages or to dis- 
charge them, as they are stai'ved by her reductions. The 
council called on Lady Mansell for a I'eply. The result 
was the committal of Sir AA^illiam to the Marshalsea, 
whence he petitions, 22nd August, 1623, to be let out 
on the ground of ill health, and that his offence was not 

In April, 1624, Sir Robert's patent is before the 
House of Commons on Bunyard's petition, and is de- 
fended by showing that the patent introduced sea coal 
to the great saving of wood, and that under it furnaces 
were set up by Sir Eobeit in London, Purbeck, Milford 
Haven, and on the Trent, all which failed, and finally, 
Avith success, at Newcastle-on-Tyne. That Bunyard 
adulterated the clay, enticed away the workmen, and 
raised the price of Scotch coal ; that the patent, though 
complained against in Parliament, was allowed to stand 
over until Sir Pobeit's retm-n from sea service ; that he 
sued for and obtained a new patent, Avhich now he re- 


quests Parliament to ratify, on the ground that he 
saves wood, employs much shipping in the transport of 
materials and glass, and supports 4,000 natives in the 
manufacture ofa better and cheaper article than was ever 
before made. To this it was replied that the invention 
Avas practised by others before the patentees, that the 
poor glassmakers are thereby much injured, and that 
the price of glass is raised. Both statements were 

6th May, 1624, Sir Robert brings forward a project 
for increasing the navy by adding double decks with 
loopholes for cannon to 200 merchant ships, at a cost 
of £30,000, a plan which secretary Conway presses 
upon the council. 12th May Sir Robert is about to go 
atloat, and 13th ^ilay claims precedence as a "general 
at sea." 2nd July "he has £555 15s. for rewards to 
those who fired the pirate ships, for expenses of travel- 
hng to the coast of Spain, and for other extraordinary 

King James died in March, 1625. At his funeral 
Sir Robert bore the banner of Darnley impaling Scot- 

17th August, 1625, at a debate in the Commons, 
then sitting at Oxford, upon supply, it appeared that 
the Duke of Buckingham had justified a certain expe- 
dition by saying that he had proceeded by the advice 
of the council of war. ThLs brought up Sir Robert 
Mansell, who denied this, and undertook "to prove that 
the expenditui-e in question was not well counselled, 
nor hkely to prosper." A spirited discussion followed, 
when complaint Avas made of piracies on the western 
coast, the blame of which was laid on Buckingham, 
then Lord Admiral. The house adjourned upon "the 
bold avouchment of Sir Robert INIansell, and the next 
day was appointed for him to make good what he had 
said." Sir Robert was contradicted by Heath, and 
examined before the council. His attack on the duke 
was much talked of John Drake of Ash takes the 
duke's part, as it would appear did Drake's cousin. 

228 &;ll'- ROBERT JfANSKLL. 

James Bagg, the Vice-Admiral of Cornwall. Buck- 
ino-ham seems to have replied in person at a conference 
between the two Houses, IGth March, 1626. Of course 
so independent a line of conduct was not likely to lead 
to active employment. 26th March, 1 626, Sir Kobert's 
kinsman. Sir T. Button, writing to Captain Pennington, 
then in commission, wishes him to write sometimes to 
Sir R. Mansell, who holds himself neglected by all men 
in present employment. Fortunately for Sir Robert 
his glass patent was too deeply identified with the 
cause of prerogative to be thrown over by the Crown, 
and it does not appear again to have been attacked in 
Parliament. In December, 1626, when the subject 
was brought before the council by the King_ on the 
petition of one Bringer, they came to a conclusion that 
"the patent shall stand," They " think it will be of 
dangerous consequence, and far trenching upon the 
prerogative, that patents granted on just grounds and 
of long continuance should be referred to the strict trial 
of the common law, wherefore they order that all pro- 
ceedings at law be stayed." And in accordance with 
these views, 18th February, 1628, the ship " Four 
Sisters" is protected by the coimcil, " that she may 
fetch coal for Sir R. Mansell's glass houses." 

28th November, 1628, Sir Robert shows his friend- 
ship for Sir Thomas Button by some good advice, and 
in this year on a debate on supply he said, " It had 
been much better for us to have taken care for these 
provisions three years ago. His majesty's desire is not 
to have us overburthened, yet seven of these proposi- 
tions are not to be neglected, namely, the safe guarding 
of the coasts, the defence of the Elbe, the defence of 
Rochelle, the increasing of the navy, the repairing of 
the forts, the discharge of the arrears of merchant 
ships, and the defence of the King of Denmark. _ The 
other seven may be deferred till our next meeting at 
Michaelmas." [Hansard.] 

In 1629, as Vice- Admiral of England, he had a very 
complete muster of the watermen of the port of Don- 


don, 2,453 in number, and soon after a muster of the 
seafaring men and mariners of the port and Uberties, 
and finally a survey of the ships in the same port, 
showing- their burthen, age, ordnance, owners and 

In 1631, 25th June, he inspected the ships of war at 
Chatham and Rochester. 

The glass manvifacture was still continued, and 6th 
August, 1630, Thomas, Earl of Arundel, who has lately 
hacf a patent signed by the king, and understands that 
it is thought to entrench upon that granted to Sir Ro- 
bert Manlell, consents to the insertion of the Avords 
" glass and glassworks only excepted." Also Sth Au- 
gust Sir Robert procures the insertion of certain words 
in a bill grantuig " a priviledge for the use of turf and 
peat for making iron." 

1 5th and 16th June, 1631 , the king wasat Rochester 
and Chatham inspecting ships, and with Sir R. Mansell 
went aboard every ship, and into the holds of most of 
them. The inspection seems to have been of a most 
complete and searching character. 

22nd July, 1631, Sir Robert writes to secretary 
Dorchester on behalf of an old sailor. Captain Penn, 
who has got into debt. He asks an extension of the 
Captain's protection "for eight months, by which time 
he does not doubt to compass his debts." 21st April, 
1632, he is summoned to attend the Board of Admi- 
ralty' to give advice as to the complements and man- 
ning of the king's ships. And 8th May,_ a proposition 
by Captain Pennington on this subject is referred to 
him. Before answering the questions of the Admiralty 
Board, Sir Robert and the other officers consulted find 
it necessary to obtain the measurement of the ships. 
An allowance is ordered for this purpose, and 30th May 
this was going forward. 5th July further meetings and 
discussions on the subject of measurement are in pro- 
gress. It is said that Sir Robert has some other and 
sinister object in view in the desired measurements. _ 
19th July, 1632, Sir Robert writes from Greenwich 


to Captain Joliu Pennington on a variety of subjects, 
jDartly on behalf of his nephew Sir Thomas Button, 
then in trouble with the Adminrlty, and partly on 
naval matters, transport of ordnance, etc. 5th January, 
1633, a certificate is signed in favour of Sir E. Mansell, 
Lieutenant of the Admiralty, for " hberate" for his fee 
of 10s. jjer clay. 22nd February, 1633, his return con- 
cerning the manning the ships is not yet sent in. 

22nd May, 1633, the assigns of Sir Robert Mansell 
appear as to possession of a ballast quay or staithe at 
the glass-house, Newcastle. The quays were in bad 
order, and the ballast from them threatened to impede 
the navigation. It would seem that Su- Robert had 
assigned the manufactory away. 4th Jan., 1633-34, he 
had a certificate, as Lieutenant of the Admiralty, for 
£182 10s., being at the rate of 10s. per day. On the 
7th Feb. he was at Deptford, taking an active part in 
the launch of the Unicorn man-of-war. 5th March he 
was consulted by Secretary Windebank as to a wages 
complaint by the carpenters at Woolwich. 

2Sth Jan. 1634-5, appears a statement of the costs, 
difficulties, and losses sustained by Sir Robert Mansell 
in the business of glass. He was out of purse above 
£30,000 before the manufacture could be perfected, 
the occasion of which he explains in detail. During 
his absence in Algiers his patent was declared void by 
the House of Commons. The consideration of his 
charges moved the late king to grant him a patent for 
fifteen years, but before he could obtain any fruit 
from it, his workmen and servants were drawn into 
Scotland, and most of the glass here sold imported from 
thence, so that he had to purchase the Scotch patent at 
£250 per annum. After his men returned from Scot- 
land, they made such bad glass that he brought a whole 
company from Mantua. Then Yicon, his clerk, ran 
away, and much encouraged a ruinous importation of 
drinking glasses from France, which was stopped by 
order of council, 25th June, 1632. 

Since then he has been at great charges making 


looking-glass and spectacle glass plates, and yet has 
not raised the price of glass one penny. For -window- 
glass the price is now certain, and more moderate than 
formerly, albeit the assize is more by 40 per cent, than 
it used to be. When he got the new patent he hoped 
to repair his fortune; but his men are again drawn 
into Scotland ; and Crispe, his tenant, endeavours to 
gain a branch of the patent, and offers for the whole. 
All which he submits to the king's considei'ation. It is 
a sad story, and enough almost to make one sympathize 
with the owner of a monopoly. 

There had always been a fear of Scottish competi- 
tion. The patent eventually bought up by Sir Robert 
was originally granted for thirty-one years from 1610, 
to Lord George Hay, who sold it for a considerable sum 
of money to Thomas Robinson, merchant tailor of 
London, of whom Sir Robert bought it. 

In this year he cei'tifled to the convenience of the 
North and South Foreland lights. 

7th April, 1635, SirR. Mansell and others agree to the 
plot and dimensions of the great ship proposed by Cap- 
tain Rett. She is to be 127 feet on the keel, greatest 
breadth 46 feet 2 inches, three tiers of ports, tonnage 
by depth 1,466 tons, by draught in water 1,661 tons, 
by mean breadth 1,836 tons. So that there were then 
three ways in use of estimating tonnage. 

30th May, Robert Earl of Lindsey has a naval com- 
mand, and being created Admiral and General for the 
occasion, claims the equipage of a standard, as though 
he were Lord Admiral of England. He justifies his 
claim by the precedents of "men of eminent quality," 
and cites Lord Arundel and Sir Robert Mansell. To 
these he afterwards, 2Sth June, adds the name of tlie 
Earl of Rutland. 

Sir Robert's petition to the king seems to have met 
at last with a response, for 14th Oct. is settled a procla- 
mation concerning the import of foreign glass. It 
recites a proclamation of 23rd May, 1615, prohibiting 
the use of wood in glass mfiking, and the importation 

l:;3:2 sn; uobert maxsell. 

of glass. It recites also that Sir Eobert Mansell, Lieu- 
tenant of tlie Admiralty, had perfected the manufac- 
ture of glass with sea or pit coal to the saving of wood, 
etc., and forbids, inider penalties, any infractions of the 
patent. Sir Robert was allowed to import glass from 
Moravia, etc. 

25th April, lGo.5, Sir Robert is one of the council for 
New England, sitting at Whitehiill, and in May, 1637, 
his name is found ia a commission for a council of war, 
originally constituted in 1629. Tlie duty as defined 
in June following embraced a very wide scope, and 
combined the duties of the modern War Office and 
Horse Guards, besides being extended to the naval 

5th Nov., 1637, appeai-s the final account connected 
with the Algerine expedition, being a certificate that 
Sir Robert INIansell, Lord General of the fleet to Algiers, 
had for his entertainment at the Red Lion for 318 days, 
from 20th August, 1620, to 3rd September,1621, 53s. id. 
per diem, or £'848. 

ISthDecember occurs a petitionfromMoore and others, 
hour-glass makers, declaring that for many years they 
have bought merchant's hour-glass vials, ready for use, 
at 7s. the gross, and 7s. 6d. dehvered ; but that Sir 
R. Mansell having the monopoly, the glass is raised to 
9s. the gross, and the ware is so bad that they often 
lose one dozen in four. The petition is sent to Sir 
Robert, who is to attend the Board. 

2nd January, 1637-38, appears a certificate from the 
Admiralty that Sir R. Mansell had daily travelled about 
the affairs of their office from 1st January, 1636-7, to 
31st Dec. following, which at 10s. per day is £182 1 Os. 

12th January, to the glass-dealers' charges Sir Robert 
responds that the dearness was the result of the rise in 
price of all the materials ; that the scarcity was due to 
the mortality among the Newcastle workmen and the 
want of shipping, and, as for the defective quality, all 
glass broken .in the working up should be exchanged. 
The Lords expressed themselves so far satisfied, but as 


of their knowledge they found the glass was not so f:xir, 
so clear, nor so strong as it Avas wont to be, they called 
Sii- Robert's attention to these points. Also some 
alterations were dii-ected in the mode of dealing with 
window glass. The hour-glass makers were further told 
that their complaints were frivolous, and that if they 
repeated them they would be committed to prison. 

5th Feb., 1637-8, Sir E. Mansell had a lease, on the 
surrender of a former lease, of certain lands and glass- 
houses on the Tyne, for twenty-one years, at 20s. per 
annum from the corporation of Newcastle. 2nd April 
is another certificate for travelling expenses for one 
quarter, £42. 

In 1642 when Northumberland and his deputy High 
Admiral were thought to lean towards the Parliament 
and had to resign their commissions, it was proposed to 
nominate Su- E. Mansell, then residing at Greenwich, 
as a great naval commander and popular with the ser- 
vice. Charles, however, while admitting his loyalty 
and experience, objected to his great age. He lived, 
nevertheless, several years longer. I7th Sept., 1652, he 
petitioned the Common Council for a new lease of cer- 
tain lands, six years of his existing lease havLiig ex- 
pired. This was refused, and was probably his last 
pubhc appearance. According to Brand [Ilistori/ of 
Newcastle, i, 43-5] he was dead 12th August, 1653, aged 
upwards of eighty. 

There is some doubt about his wives. The State 
Papers show that in 1616 he married a Mrs. Eoper, a 
maid of honour to the Queen. He was then about 
forty-three. The ordinary pedigrees say he manied 
thrice, first a widow of Judge Wyndham. This must 
be Francis Wyndham, a judge of the Common Pleas, 
who died July, 1592, having married Jane, daughter of 
Sir Nicholas Bacon. She is saidby Foss to have married, 
on his death, Sh Piobert Mansfield, but this name is 
once or twice used in the State Papers for Mansell. 
His second wife is said to have been Ann, daughter of 
Sir John Ralph, and his third Elizabeth, a daughtei- of 

4tii see., vol. it. ■ 1^ 


Sir Nicholas Bacon. Here is certainly some confusion. 
The lady who was his wife in 1620, during his absence 
with the fleet, and who then and afterwards so gallantly 
fought his trade battles was Elizabeth Lady ManselL 
He left no issue. His portrait in oils is preserved at 
Penrice in Gower. It has not been engraved. 

G. T. C. 

P.S. — In 1G02 Sir Robert printed what is now a rare 
tract, entitled "A true report of the service done upon 
cei'tain gallies passing throi;gh the narrow seas ; writ- 
ten to the Lord High Admirall of England, by Sir Ro- 
bert Mansel, Knight, Admiral of Her Majesty's forces 
in that place." On the frontispiece is a large woodcut 
of a ship of the line, in full sail, at each iriast head on 
a small scpare flag a plain cross, and on the poop flag- 
staff a large ensign of the arms of the Lord High Ad- 
miral, the Earl of Nottingham, being Howard, Brother- 
ton, Warren, and Mowbray, with a mullet over all. 

Su- Robert puts forth this statement, because false 
accounts have been published of the joroceedings, ig- 
noring Her Majesty's ship and himself 

It seems that on the 23rd of Sept. 1600-1, Sir Robert 
was in command of the "Hope," with the "Advantage," 
Capt. Jones (probably of Fonmon), and two Dutch con- 
sorts, men of war, besides two fly-boats. The other 
ships of his squadron had been dispatched on special 
service, especially the "Advice," Capt. Bredgate, which 
was in the Downs. 

Sir Robert's duty was to intercept certain gallies, 
expected to be coming from the west, for the ports of 
Dunkirk, Niewpoii., or Sluys. With this view he stood 
S.E. across the channel towards France, sorrtewhat E. 
of the Goodwins, and much nearer to the French coast. 
The "Advantage" was to his starboard or weather side 
and the other ships beyond her. While thus sailing 
they sighted six gallies to the N.W., shifted their 
course to cut them off', and gained upon them. The 
two fly-boats were nearest to the gallies and no match 


for them, but the heavy metal of the "Hope" made the 
galHcs afraid to attack. They went about, used their 
oars, and ran down the EngHsh coast, having the best 
of it in speed. Their object clearly was to escape out 
of sight, and then cross the channel for Dunkirk. 

Sir Robert dispatched the "Advice" to Calais roads 
to warn the Dutchmen lying there to look out, and as 
he continued the chase he fired great guns to call the 
attention of the "Answer" to what was going forward. 
As the gallies neared the Downs and came within sight 
of the "Answer," Sir Robert made for the south end 
of the Goodwins and there lay to, explaining to his 
men in a speech from the poop his reason for doing so. 
This was that if the gallies continued off the English coast 
they would probably, without his aid, be taken or run 
ashore ; but that if they ran out to sea his presence 
would be necessary to cut them off. Accordingly the 
galhes seem to have fallen into the trap, to have left 
their pursuers behind, and to have been sighted on 
their course across by Sir Robert, who disabled one, 
but was prevented from taking her by the necessity for 
attacking the rest. The result was, that of the six two 
Avere run down or stemmed and sunk, two were wrecked 
off Niewport, and two seem to have reached Dmikirk, 
though so damaged as to be past ordinary repairs. 

As the sort of general engagement that ended the 
affair took place after dai-k, there was much tmcertainty 
as to how much each ship contributed to the victory, 
and the Dutchmen, who probably had the best of it, 
claimed it; but Sir Robert maintained that really the 
victory was due to him, since he waylaid the gallies, 
which would otherwise have made their port, certainly 
crippled one, and as certainly delayed the rest until the 
Dutchmen came up with them. 

He seems to have shown a sound perception of the 
duties of a commander-in-chief, and to have postponed 
any desire for personal distinction to the general duty 
of "bringing about the destruction of the enemy. 



{Reprinted, ly permission, from the Transactions of the Manchester 
Literary and Philosophical Soeietij.) 

The most important event in the history of Lancashire, 
the conquest hy the Enghsh, has been either lightly 
touched upon by the county historians, such as Baines 
and Whittaker, or so inter^voven with the Arthurian 
legends as to be almost unintelligible. The date, so far 
as I kno^Y, has been altogether ignored. 

What, however, the modern writers have passed by 
or misundei'stood, may be gathered from certain events 
recorded in the History of Nennius, Basda's Life of St. 
Cnthhert, and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. It is possible 
to fix the date and the circumstances of the conquest 
of southern Lancashire with considerable accuracy, and 
to make out the latest possible time at which any part 
of the county was under Welsh and not English rule; 
or, in other words, was within the boimdary of Wales 
and not of England. To examine these points properly 
we must see what relation existed between the English 
on the one hand, and the Brit- Welsh on the other*. 

In the year 449, the- three ships which contained 
Hengist and his warriors landed at Ebbsfleet in Thanet, 
and the first English colony was formded among the 
descendants of the E,oman pro\'incials, who were known 
to the strangers as Brit- Welsh. From that time a 
steady immigration of Angle, Jute, and Frisian, set in 
towards our eastern coast as far north as the Firth of 
Forth, until in the first half of the sixth century the 
whole of the eastern part of our island was occupied by 
various tribes whose names, for the most part, stiU sur- 
vive in the names of our counties. The principal rivers 
also offered them a free passage into the heart of the 
countiy, and the kingdom of Mercia gradually expanded 
from the banks of the Trent until it reached as far as 


tlie line of the Severn. The river ITumber afforded a 
Lase of operations for the Anglian freebooters who 
fonnded the kingdom of Deira, or modern Yorkshire; 
wliile the Ptock of Bamborough Avas the centre from 
which Ida, who landed with fifty ships in the year 547, 
conqnered Beinicia, or the region extending from the 
river Tees to Edinburgh. The tide of English colonisa- 
tion rolled steadily westward until, at the close of the 
sixth century, the Pennine chain, or the stretch of hills, 
lieath, and forest, exteirding southwards from Cumber- 
land and Westnioreland, through Yorkshire and Der- 
byshire, as far as the line of the Trent, formed a barrier 
between the English and Brit- Welsh peoples. The 
Brit-Welsli still held their ground as far to the east as 
the district round Leeds, which constituted the kuig- 
dom of Elmet, Avhile the kingdom of Strathclyde ex- 
tended from Chester as far north as the valley of the 
Clyde. ^ The point which immediately concerns us is 
the time when that portion of the latter kingdom which 
comprises southern Lancashire fell under the sway of 
the English. 

The two kingdoms of Deira and Bernicia had united 
to form the powerful state of Northumbria at the begin- 
ning of the seventh century, under the greatest of her 
warriors, /Ethel frith. In the year 607 J^lthelfrith ad- 
vanced along the line of the Trent through Staftbrd- 
shire, avoiding by that route the difficult country of 
Derbyshire and east Laiicashire, and struck at Chester, 
which was the principal seat of the Brit- Welsh power 
in this district.' There he fought the famous battle by 
which the power of Strathclyde was broken, and that 
is celebrated in song for the death of the monks of 
Bangor who fought against him Avith their prayers. 
By this decisive blow the English first set foot on the 

^ Sec Freeman, Konnan Conquest, vol. i, p. 35, — mnp of Britain 
in 5'J7. lu this map Eltuot is placed in Deira, altliougli it did not 
pass away from the Brit-Welsh till GIG, according to Nennius and 
the Annales Cambria'. 

~ BiDda, Eccl. HL^t., lib. ii,c. 2 ; Anglo-Saxon Chronidc, a.d. C05-G07. 


coast of the Irisli Channel, and Strathclyde and Ehnet 
on the one hand were cut asunder from Wales on the 
other. Chester was so thoroughly destroyed that it 
remained desolate for two centuries, until it was restored 
by ^thelred and iEthelflaxl (the Lady of the Mercians), 
and the plains of Lancashire lay open to the invader. 
In all probability south Lancashire was occupied by the 
English at this tune, and the natm-e of the occupation 
may be gathered from the treatment of the city of 
Chestei". A fire (to use the nretaphor of Gildas) went 
through the land, and the Brit-Welsh inhabitants were 
either put to the sword or compelled to become the 
bondsmen of the conquerors. It is impossible to believe 
that the Brit- Welsh of Strathclyde, after such a defeat 
as that at Chester, could have maintained any position 
in the jslains of Lancashire. The hilly districts, how- 
ever, of the middle and northern poiiions of the county 
would ofler positions from which a defence might be 
successfully maintained. We may, therefore, mfer that 
the boundary of the English dominion in Lancashire, 
after the fall of Chester, was marked by the line of hills 
extendmg from Bury and sweeping round to join those 
in the neighbourhood of Oldham and the axis of the 
Pennine chain. 

This western advance of the Northumbrians was com- 
pleted by the conquest of Elmet, in 61G,^ by Eadwine, 
the successor of JEthelfrith; and m all probability then, 
or about that time, not merely the valley of the Aire, 
but also Ptibblesdale and the hills of Derbyshire, and 
the district extending between Elmet and Chester, be- 
came subject to Northumbria. 

The remaining fragment of Strathclyde in the north, 
still unconquered, embracing Cumberland and West- 
moreland, was finally subdued by Ecfiith about the 
years 670-685, ^and with its fall the whole of this county 
Avas absorbed into tlie Northumbiian kingdom. A 

1 Nennius, c. 66, circa 616, 633 a.d. ; Ainiales Gamhria:, a.d. 616. 
- Basda, Vita St. Cuthlert, c. 37. For this notice I have to thank 
the Kev. J. K. Greeu. 


passage in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, under the year 
923, proves that the south of Lancashu-e Avas called 
Northumbria: "In this year, after harvest. King Ead- 
Avard Avent Avlth his forces to Thelwal, and commanded 
the ' burh' to be built and occupied and manned ; and 
commanded another force, also of Mercians, the Avhile 
he sate there, to take possession of Manchester (Marne- 
ceaster) in North-Hurabria, and repair and man it." 
This passage is of particular hiterest, because it presents 
us AA'ith the first notice of Manchester that is to be 
found in any English record. At tiiat time it Awas 
clearly not so important as the town of Thelwal, near 

From these notices it may fairly be concluded that 
south Lancashire Avas occupied by the Northumbrians 
immediately after the battle of Chester, and that 
the Northumbrian dominion embraced mid-Lancashire 
shortly after the fall of Elmet ; and finally, that the 
Welsh occupying the more northern poitions were sub- 
dued about the years 670-685 A.D. And it must be 
remarked that the cause of the Celtic population of 
Strathclyde remaining to this day in the portions latest 
conquered, in Cumberland and the south-west of Scot- 
land, Avhile it has disappeared from south Lancashire, 
is due to the change in the religion of the conquerors 
in the interval betAveen the tAvo conquests. When the 
battle of Chester laid south Lancashire at the feet of 
yEthelfrith, the English Avere worshippers of Thor and 
Odin. When Carlisle Avas taken by Ecfrith, they Avere 
Christians warring against men of their own faith. In 
the one case the Avar was one of extermination, in the 
other merely of conquest. 

W. Boyd Daavkixs. 


tiistoi;y or the loedsiiii' or jiaelor GY:\ri;A]'G 


{Contlnu,',! no'ii p. 73.) 




About a mile from Oswestry, in the parish of Selattyn, 
lies a fine military post, on an insulated eminence of an 
oblong form, which has been fortified with much skill. 
The top is an oblong area, containing 1 5 acres, 3 roods, 
and IS perches of fertile ground, surrounded by two 
ramparts and fosses of great height and depth. This 
is called Old Oswestry, Hen Ddinas, and anciently Caer 
Ogyrfan, from Gogyrfan Gav.r, a hero coexistent with 
King Arthur (or, perhaps more properly, larddur),^ 
Avho was crowned King of Britain at Cirencester in 
Gloucestershire, by St. Dubricius, Archbishop of Llan- 
daff", in a.d. 519, Avhen he was only sixteen years of 
age.^ He died from the eftect of a wound received in 
battle against his rebellious nephew^, Modred, in A.D. 
542, ancl was buried in a small chapel at Ynys Afallon 
(the Isle of Avalon), m Somersetshire, whither St. Du- 
bricius (St. Brice) had retired to end his days. 

Arthur married three times, and each of his cjueens 
consort was named Gwenhwyfar or Gwenever. His 
third wife is said to have been a daughter of Gogyrfan, 
as we learn from the following Imes composed on her : 

Gwenhwyfar ferch Gogyrfan Gawr, 
Drwg yn fechan, gwaeth yn fawr. 

Having been compelled to cpiote these lines in order to 
prove who the beautiful Queen Gwenever really was, I 
think that I may be permitted to make the amende 

1 Pennant" s Toia; vol. i, p. 318. - Liber La>idavens(:i:, p. C1"2L 


Jionorahle by quoting from other sources tlie following- 
account of the last days of that celebrated and lovely 
Queen, -who in her time was the fairest of the many fair 
flowers that Powys-land has ever so constantly produced 
to adorn and gladden her hills and valleys. 

After the death of Arthur, the Queen retired to the 
Convent of Ambresbury,^ where she took the veil, toge- 
ther with five of her ftivourite attendants. "Here she 
wore white clothes and black, and great penance she 
took as ever did sinful lady in this land ; and never 
creature could make her merry, but lived in fasting, 
prayers, and almsdeeds, that all manner of people mar- 
velled how virtuously she Avas changed. "- 

In the meantime Sir Launcelot du Lac, who was in 
Gaul, hearing of Modred's rebellion, determined to 
come to Britain to help the King.' He accordingly 
landed at Dover with a large army, and the first inform- 
ation he received on landing was sufiicient to convince 
him that he had come too late for most of his pur- 
poses. He determined at once to seek the Queen ; but 
having heard that his friend. Sir Gawain, the King's 
nephew, had been slain in the battle at Dover, and was 
buried in the ancient church in the castle there, he 
desired to be shown his tomb. Then we are told, " Sir 
Launcelot kneeled down and prayed heartily for his 
soul ; and that night he made a dole, and all they that 
would come had as much flesh, fish, Avine, and ale ; 
and every man and woman had twelve-pence, come 
Avho would. Thus with his OAvn hand he distributed 
his money, dressed in a mourning habit ; and on the 

i The name was originally Ambrosebuiy, then Ambrcsbury, and 
now Amesbury. It is about seven and a half miles from Salisbury. 

- Jforie cV Arthur. 

3 When Arthur was in Brittany, Queen Gwenever was appointed 
Eegent, and was dethroned by INfodred or Medrawd, at the instiga- 
tion of Gwenhwyfach, who had fallen out with the Queen about two 
nuts, which produced a bos in the ear, wliich was the cause of the 
quarrel which proved so fatal to the Britons. (Williams' Eminent 
Welshmen.) A lady, we learn from history, has generally been the 
cause whence most of the greatest events that have occun-ed have 
had their ori^jin. 


next morning all the priests and clerks that might be 
gotten in the country Avere there, and sang a mass of 
requiem. And then Sir Launcelot offered first, and he 
oflered a hundred pounds ; and then the seven kings 
who were with him ofiered forty pounds apiece ; and 
also there were a thousand knights, and each of them 
offered a pound ; and the oftermg continued from morn 
till night. "^ 

After this, leaving his army encamped at Dover, he 
set out alone, on horseback, to seek the Queen. He 
knew not for certain where she was : however, he rode 
in a westerly direction for seven or eight days, and acci- 
dent led him to the very spot w^hich contained the 
mistress of his heart. Almost extenuated with fatigue 
and hunger, he entered the Convent of Ambresbury in 
search of food, and was instantly recognised by Gwen- 
ever as she saw him walking in the cloister ; and when 
she saw^ him she fainted and " sw^ooned thrice." When 
recovered by the care of the abbess and nuns, wdio 
hastened to her assistance, and were followed by the 
knio-ht, she pointed him out as the person whose fatal 
affection for her had evidently produced all the miseries 
by which the kingdom was so greatly afflicted. She 
then addressed herself to Sir Launcelot, and adjured 
him instantly to quit her presence, lest he should pre- 
vent the arrival of that state f mind which she hoped 
by the grace of God to acquire, and which might enable 
her, by a faithful discharge of the severe duties now 
imposed on her, to make her peace with heaven, and to 
expiate the enormous transgi'essions of her former life. 
"Therefore, Sir Launcelot," said she, "know well that 
I suffer dire distress that I may obtain the salvation of 
my soul ; and yet I trust, through God's grace, that 
after my death I may have a sight of the blessed face 
of Christ, and on the dread day of doom to be placed 
on His right side; for as sinful as ever I have been, 
have been many who now are saints in heaven. There- 

1 Morio (V Arthur. The ancient custom of oficring at funerals is 
still kept ill North Wales. 


fore, Sir Launcelot, I most solemnly implore and beseech 
you, for all the love that ever was between us, that you 
see me again in this world no more ; and I now com- 
mand you on God's behalf, that you forsake my com- 
pany and return to your own kingdom, and keep well 
yom- realm from foreign war and domestic tyranny. 
For so well have I loved you that my heart will not 
serve to bear me to see you ; for through you and me 
has the flower of kings and chivalry been destroyed. 
Transfer to a wife those vows, from which I willingly 
release you, and live with her in joy and bliss ; and I 
beseech you heartily to pray for me that I may make 
amends for my past misspent life, and if the poor 
prayers of a sincere penitent are of any avail, you may 
be sure of mine for your present and eternal welfare."^ 
The queen, continues the legend, lived for seven 
years after this occurrence, and then as she felt the 
approach of death, she desired that she might be buried 
by the side of the king her husband, in the Isle of 
Avalon, which is about thirty miles from Ambresbury. 
Therefore Sir Launcelot and seven other of King Ar- 
thur's knights, who for the last seven years had re- 
nounced the world, and had been li\dng with St. 
Dubricius at the hermitage, Avere sent by the archbishop 
to convey the queen's body to the Isle of Avalon. Ac- 
cordingly her body was carried on a horse-bier with 
great pomp, with a hundred torches ever burning about 
the corpse. Sir Launcelot, Avho for the last year had 
been a priest, went on foot with the seven knights about 
the horse-bier, singing and reading many an holy orison 
and incensing the corpse with frankincense. It was on 
the evening of the second day of their journey when 
they arrived at the hermitage, and the body of the 
queen was taken into the chapel, and tlie vespers for 
the dead and a solemn dirge Avere chanted Avitlr great 

1 From an ancient roraanco called La Gha)-c!le,composcd bj' Cbrcs- 
tien de Troyes in the twelfth century. It is analysed in the BtbVio- 
tliejue des Romans (April, 1777), from a MS. belonging to the Count 
de Cayliis. (Ilarl. MS. 2255.) 


On tlie next morning the Arclibishop sang a solemn 
mass of requiem, and Sir Launcelot was the first that 
ottered, and then all liis seven fellows. Then the body 
of the deceased queen was wrapped in cered cloth of 
"Raines," from the top to the toe in thu-ty fold, and 
after that she was put in a wrapper of lead, and then 
in a coffin of marble, and laid by the side of the king 
her husband, in the chapel of the hermitage, which re- 
ceiving successive additions of holy men, gradually 
grew up into the flourishing and celebrated Monastery 
of Glastonbury.' 

In A.D. 1179 King Henry II, wishing to satisfy him- 
self of the truth of this legend, went to Glastonbury 
and had the grave opened. On the king's coffin Avas 
this inscription : — 

Hie jaoet in Insula Avalonia 

Inclytus Rex Ai-tburns 

Rex quondam, Rexque futurus. 

The bones of a man of large size were found in the 
king's coffin, and the silken hair of the C[ueen still pre- 
served the beautiful golden hue for which it was so 
celebrated. The skulls of the king and queen were 
afterwards taken as relics by Edward Longshanks and 

A great dyke or foss, called Clawdd Wat, or AVat's 
Dyke, is continued from each side of Caer Ogyrfan. 
This work is little known ; notwithstanding it is equal 
in depth, though not in extent, to that of Offii, Wat's 
Dyke can only be discovered on the southern part of 
Maesbury Mill, in Oswestry parish, where it is lost in 
morassy ground ; from thence it takes a northern dhec- 
tion to Caer Ogyrfan, and by Pentre 'r Clawdd to Gob- 
owen, the site of a small fort, called Bryn y Castell, 
in the parish of Trewen or Whittington, then crosses 
Prys Henlle Common, in the parish of St. Martin ; 
goes over the Ceiriog between Bryn Cunallt and Pont 
y Blew forge, and the Dyfrdwy or Dee river below 

' Wyukyii dc Worde,119S. Moitc d'AUhu,: Caxton, 1-1S5. 


Nant y Belan ; from whence it passes througli the pai'k 
of Wynnstay, formerly "\\''atstay, by another Pentre'r 
Clawdcl to Erddig or Eurddig, Avhere there was another 
strong fort on its course ; from Erddig it goes above 
Wrexham, near MeUn Puleston, by Dolydd, Maes 
Gwyn, Pihos Ddu, Croes Oneiras, the mansion of 
Gwersyllt Isaf, the ancient seat of the Sutton familj-, 
crosses the Alun, and through the township of Llai, to 
Pvhydin in the county of FHnt, above Avhich is Caer 
Estyn, a British post ; from hence it runs by Queen's 
Hope Church, along the side of Moldsdale, wliich it 
quits towards the lower part, and turns towards 
IMynydd Sychdin, Mynachlog Rhedin, in the parish 
of Llaneurgain or Northop (North Hope) in Tegeingl, 
by Llaneurgain Mills, Bryn Moel, Coed y Llys, Nant y 
Fflint, Cefn y Coed, through the Strand fields, near 
Treffynnon or Holywell, to its termination below the 
Abbey of Dinas Basing or Basingwerk. Clawdd Wat 
is often confounded with Clawdd Offa, which attends 
the former at unequal distances, from five hundred 
yards to three miles, till the latter, whose course has 
been already described, is totally lost.^ 

The poet Churchyard makes the foUowdng allusion to 
these Dykes : — 

There is a fomous 411111^, 
Cal'de OfTa's Dyke, that reacheth far in length ; 
All kind of ware the Danes might hither bring : 
It was free ground, and cal'de the Britaine's strength. 
Wat's Dyke, likewise about the same was set. 
Between which two, both Danes and Britaines met, 
And trafficko still, but passing bounds by flight, 
The one did take the other prisoner streight.^ 

In the parish of Selattyn was formerly a singular en- 
trenchment called Castell Brogyntyn. It was of a 
circular form (which shows that it was a British camp), 
suri-oundcd by a vast earthen dyke and a deep foss. _ It 
had two entrances pretty close to each other, projecting 

1 Pennant's Tour, vol. i, p. 349. ^ . . „ ■ , -, 

2 Churchyard's Worthines of Wales, p.__104. Onginally printed 
in 1587: reprinted by Thomas Evans, 177G. 


a little from the sides and diverging, the end of each 
guarded by a semi-lunar curtain. These are now de- 
stroyed. This place formerly belonged to Osvain, a 
natural son of Prince Madog ab Meredydd, and from 
hence he received his surname of Brogyntyn. 

The township of Maesbury, in the parish of Oswestry, 
■was anciently called Tre'r Feseri, Llys Fesen, and Llys 
Fesydd, from tnesen, an acorn ; mesbren, an oak. The 
neighbourhood abounds with fine oaks ; on which account, 
from the large quantity of acorns, the Romans called 
this place "Gland-urbera," from which circumstance the 
Normans called it Glanville.^ Over the Forth Newydd, 
one of the four gates in the walls that surroiuided Os- 
westry, was carved the figure of a horse at full speed, 
with an oaken bough in his mouth. This may allude 
to the conquest of Tre'r Fesen by the Saxons, whose 
arms were a white horse at full speed. 

On the 5th of August in A.D. 642, Oswald, King of 
Northumberland, son of Ethelfrith, who had massacred 
the monks of Bangor is y Coed, attacked Penda, King 
of Mercia, but was defeated and slain by him at a place 
called Dyftryn Maes Hir, but now Croes Oswald, Oswald's 
Tree, or Oswestry, from the mangled body of Osw^ald, 
who was a Christian convert, being exposed on three 
wooden crosses by order of the pagan kuig Penda. 
Numberless miracles are said to have been worked on 
the spot where the corpse of Oswald had lain.° 

Three crosses, raised at Penda's dire command, 
Bore Oswald's royal head and mangled hands; 
To stand a sad example to the rest, 
And prove him wretched who is ever blest. 
Vain policj' ! for what the victor got, 
Proved to the vanquished king the happier lot ; 
For now the martyred saint in glory views 
How Oswy with success the war renews, 
And Penda scarcely can support his throne, 
Whilst Oswald wears a never-fading crown. 

Pennant and other writers call the spot where the 
battle was fought Maes Hir, the long field, and then say 
1 Harl. MS. 1981. '■ Bedte Eisi. Ecdes., lib. iii, c. 9 to 13. 


tliat tlie Saxons added their own vernacular word field, 
a field, to it; as Ufaserficld and corruptly Masafeld-^ but 
Henry of Huntingdon calls the place where the battle 
was fought Mesafeld, which seems much more like 
oncsoi (pi. mes), an acorn, than onacs Mr, a long field; 
and tlie township of Tre'rFescn is close to the battle- 

Campus Mesafeld sanctorum canduit ossa.^ 
(Blcaolied were the bones of saints on the field of Mesafeld.) 

A church was built on the jilace of the martyrdom of 
St. Oswald, which was placed under his invocation. Earl 
Roger de Montgomerie, on whom William the Conqueror 
had conferred the palatinate of Shropshire in a.d. 1071, 
granted by char-ter " the Church of St. Oswald with 
the tenths or tithes of the same vill or town to the 
Abbey of Shrewsbury. 

A monastery was founded wliich bore the name of 
Blanc-Minster, Candida Ecclesia, Album Monasterium, 
and White-Minster. Reynerus, who was Bishop of St. 
Asaph from 1188 to 1224, and who had a house near 
here, expelled the twelve secular priests from this 
church, and gave the tithes of hay and corn belonging 
to it to the monks of Shrewsbury Abbey.' Leland says 
in his Itinerary that the cloisters, with the tombs of 
the monks, remained in the memory of man. 

The rectorial tithes and church of St. Oswald now 
belong to the Earl of Powys. 

The walls of Oswestry were begun in A.D. 1277, G 
Edward I., who granted a murage or toll on the inhabi- 
tants of the county, which lasted for six years ; in 
which time it may be supposed they were completed. 
They were abo\;t a mile in compass and had a deep foss 
on the outside, capable of being filled with water from 
the neighbouring rivulets.^ 

The manor of Estyn, now called Aston, hes in the 

1 Henry of Huntingdon, lib. iii, p. 331. 

2 Beda3 Hiti. Eccles., lib. iii, c. 9 to 13. 
S Henry of Huntingdon, lib. iii, p. 331. 
■* Pennant's Tour, vol. i, p. 33S. 


paiisli of Oswestry. Tlie cliief families in tliis manor 
Avere the Lloyds, who still reside at Aston, and tlio 
Evanses of Aston, who are now extinct. 

The Lloyds of Aston, who are also Lords of Whit- 
tington, descend from Bleddyn ab Cynfyn through the 
line of Einlon Efell, Lord of Cynllaith.^ 

The Evanses descend from Evan ah Jolm ah rachard 
ab Madog ab John ab Edward ab J\ladog of Estyn. 
This Madog, who was the first of their family who 
came to Estyn, was a son of lorwerth Foel of Llan- 
santflfraid in Mechain, Lord of Plas y Dinas, who bore 
argent, a fess gules fretty or, inter three fleurs cle 
lys sable. He was the son of leuaf Sais ab Cyfnerth 
ab Iddon Galed ab Trahaiarn Fychan ab Trahaiaru ab 
lorwerth Hilfawr of lialehdyn in Ueuddwr, son of 
Mael INIaelienydd, who was livmg in a.d. 998,^ and 
bore or, a cross moline pierced inter four lozenges 
azure. Mael Maelienydd was the son of Cadfael ab 
Clydawg ab CadesU ab Rhodri Mawr.' 

Evan ab John of Estyn married Janet, daughter of 
Philip ab John of Welshhampton, in the parish of 
Hanmer, by whom he had issue Thomas Evans of Aston 
and Oswestry, Attorney-General for the Court of the 
jMarches, who married Eleanor, daughter of Edward 
Lloyd of Llwyn y Maen, and had, besides two daugh- 
ters, Margaret, wife of William Maurice of Oswestry, 
seventh son of Maurice ab ]\Ieredydd of Lloran Uchaf ; 
and Lucy, wife of Eeinallt ab Edward, a son and heir, 
Pilchard Evans of Aston, who married, first, Dorothy, 
daughter and heiress of Edv/ard Eyton of Watstay, in 
the parish of Rhiwabon, Esq., by whom he was father 
of Thomas Evans of Watstay, of whose descendants an 
account will be given in a future chapter. Richard 
Evans married, secondly, Catherine, daughter and heiress 
of Richard Lloyd, of Sweeney, Esq., by whom he was 
father of Edward Evans of Treflech. 

1 Por the descent of this family, see Glasgoed in the coramot of 

2 Harl. JIS. 1973. ^ Mrmt. Coll., vol. \x, p. 112. 



Einlon Efell, Lord of Oynllaith, who bore party per 
fess sable and argent, a lion rampant counterclianged, 
armed and langued gules, resided at Llwyn y Maen, 
ill the parish of Oswestry. He and his twin brother, 
Cynwrig Efell, Lord of Eglwysegl in Maelor Gymraeg, 
were the illegitimate sons of Madog ab Meredydd, 
Prince of Powys, by Eva, daughter of Madog ab Urien 
of Maen Gwynedd, ab Eginir ab Lies ab Idnerth 
Benfras, Lord of Maesbrook/ If this is correct, Id- 
nerth must have been contemporary with Owain ab 
Howel Dda, who was King of Powys and South Wales, 
from A.D. 948 to A.D. 985. He could not, there- 
fore, have been the son of Uchtryd ab Edwyn, who 
was Lord of Cyfeiliog in a.d. 1113. Einion Efell died 
in A.D. 1196. His wife is said to have been Arddun, 
daughter of j\Iadog Fychan ab IMadog ab Einion Hael 
ab Urien of Maen Gwynedd, ab Eginir ab Lies ab 
Idnerth Benfras,^ by Avhom he had a son, Phun ab 
Einion of Llwyn y Maen, Lord of Cynllaith, who, by 
Elizabeth his wife, daughter of John Lord L'Estrange 
of Knockyn, was father of Cuhelyn of Llwyn y Maen 
and Lloran Uchaf, in the parish of Llansilin. This last 
place he rebuilt in the year 1233. He married Eva, 
daughter and heiress of Goronwy ab Cadwgan y Saeth- 

1 Lewys Dwnn, vol. ii, p. 27. 

2 Idem, vol. i, p. 307 ; Harl. MS. 2299. 


ydd, Lord of Henfachau in Mocluiant (see Cantref PJiai- 
adr), by whom he was father of leuaf ab Cidielyn of 
Llwyn y Maen and Lloran, and Constable of Knockyn 
Castle. leuaf married Eva, daughter of Adda ab Awr 
of Trevor in Nanheudwy, by whom he had issue, two 
sons — 1, Madog Goch of Lloran Uchaf, and 2, leuaf 
Fychan, and a daughter Margaret, who was married to 
Meredydd Lloyd ab leuan ab Llewelyn Fychan, sixth 
baron of INIain in Meifod. 

leuaf Fychan, the second son, who was constable of 
Knockyn Castle, had Llwyn y Maen and Llanforda for 
his share of the estates. He married Hawys, daughter 
and heiress of Einion,' an illegitimate son of William, 
Lord of Mawddwy, fourth son of Gruffydd ab Gwen- 
wynwyn, Prince of Upper Powys,^ by whom he had 
issue two daughters, coheirs, of whom Eva the young- 
est married first, Llewelyn Foelgrwn, seventh Baron 
of Main, who bore argent, a lion passant sable, in a 
border indented gules ; and secondly, she married Ed- 
nyfed ab Ithel ab Goronwy, descended from Eunydd, 
Lord of Dyfiryn Clwyd, Trefalun, and Gresford. 

Agnes, the eldest daughter of leuaf Fychan, had 
Llwyn y JMaen and Llanforda, and married Meurig 
Lloyd, who was descended from Hedd Molwynog, Lord 
of Uwch Aled, chief of one of the noble tribes of Gwyn- 
edd, who bore sable, a stag standing at gaze argent, 
attired and unguled or. 

Meurig Lloyd, who appears to have lived about the 
latter part of the reign of Edward III, being indignant 
at certain injuries done to his country by the introduc- 
tion of new laws and customs, seized several of the 
king's officers appointed to see them executed, slew 
some, and hanged others. To escape the king's ven- 
geance he fled to the sanctuary at Halston, and from 

1 Einion married Gwerful, daughter and heiress of Owain, third 
son of Sir Roger de Powys, Knight, of Rhodes and lord of Whit- 
tington. Einion's daughter Hawys, after the death of her husband, 
leuaf Fychan, married secondly Sir John Hanraer of Hanmer, Kut. 

= Harl. MS. 2-200 ; Add. MS. OSG-i. 


thence escaped to the Continent and entered the Impe- 
rial array, in which after having served with the great- 
est distinction, the Emperor in reward for his great 
services granted him a new coat of arms, viz. argent, 
an eagle displayed with two necks sable. On his return 
to his native country he gained the hand of the fair 
heiress of Llwyn y Maen, by whom he was ancestor of 
the Lloyds of Llwyn y Maen and Llanforda. Richard 
Lloyd of Llwyn y Maen, who died hi a.d. 1509, left 
Llanforda to his eldest son John, and Llwyn y Maen to 
his second son Edward. John's descendant, Edward 
Lloyd of Llanforda, who died in 1662, married Frances, 
daughter of Sir Edward Trevor of Bryn Cunallt, High 
Sherift'for Co. Denbigh in 1622, by whom he had issue 
three children, eldest of whom, Edward Lloyd of Llan- 
forda,' who had no legitimate issue, was father of Ed- 
ward Llwyd (or Lhwyd) the antiquary, and in 16/5 
sold Llanforda, at sixteen years purchase, to the Eight 
Honourable Su- William Williams, Bart., ancestor of 
the present Sir Watkin Wilhams Wynn of Wynnstay 
and Llanforda, Bart., M.P. for Denbighshire. 

5. The parish of Llanfihangel ym Mlodwel, contains 
the townships of Llan ym Mlodwel, Abertanat, Blodwel, 
Bryn, and Llynclys. 

Two branches of the royal house of Bleddyn ab 
Cynfyn, were settled for many generations in this parish, 
one at Blodwel, and the other at Abertanat ; their pedi- 
grees are as follows : — 

Hfngwi-t MS., No. 198, .\.i.. IC 



JIkredydd ab Bledpt: 
Priuce of PowySjOb. a. 
1 1 S3. Or, a lion ramp 

Gniffydd, lord of Cjfeiliog, ob. a.d 
1128. 0/',a lion's gamb eraied dex- 
terwise in bend r/ules.- 

=Hynedd, daughter of Eunydd ab Gwcrnwy, 
j lord of Dyffryn Clwyd, Tr'efalun, and Gres- 
I ford. Azure, a lion salient or. 

= lst wife, .. 

I I 

OwainCyfeiliog, Meurig 
Prince of Upper 
Powys, ob. A.D. 
1197. Or, a 
lion's gamb 
erased dexter- 
wise (jides.- 

=2nd wife, Joanna or 
I Eweredda.d of lago 
I abGruffyddabCyn- 
I an, Prince of Gwyn- 

.d.ofGruftydd Rhiryd Foel,=Jane,d. & heiress 

of C;irno,sonof jure 

Howel ab of Blodwel. 

leuaf, lord of Argent, 

Arwystli. 3 raven's 

heads erased 

ppr., their 

beaks gules. 

of leuan of Dlod- 
wel, second son of 
Howel of Main, 
an illegitimate 
son of Meredydd 

ab Bleddyn, 
Prince of Powys. 

:Elcn, d. of LlcweWn ab Owain ab 

iMeredydd ab GruftVdd ab Yr 

Arglwydd Rbvs, Prince of 

Souih Wales. 

Llwyd I 
of Blod- I 

3 I 

Gwladys, heiress, ux. leuif ab Alo ab Rhiwallon 
Fychan of Trefnant in Caer F.inion. Or, three 
lions' heads erased gv.h-i in a border indented 

]\lado^of = 

John Bach of Blodwel= 

John Blodwel of Blodwel = 

Richard BlodweI=Margaret.d.of Gruffydd ab Ilywel ab jNIeredydd ab Tudor 

of Blodwel. I of Main in Meifod. Argent, a lion passt. sable in a 

I border indented gides. 

John Blodwel=2nd wife, Miirr, d. and coheiress of ==... d. of GrufFydd 

of Blodwel. I David Ll.oTia"b Thomas of Bodlith. I Goch ab Meurig 

I Party per fess sahle and argent, a of DyfiVyu 

I lion rampt. counterchanged. | Clwyd. 

Richard B!odivel=Prudence, d. of Sir Roger Kynaston of John Blodwel 
of Blodwel. Uordlev. Knt.-and Margaret, his wife, of Oswestry, 

d. of John Owain Vaughan of Lhvydiarth. merchant. 

1 Harl. MS. 2299. 

= Harl. MS. 1973, f. 4. 



(Harl. MSS. 2299; Leinjs Divnn, vol. ii, p. 127.) 

jMcredyrlil ab Howel, an illegitimate=Angharacl, d. of GrufFydd ab IIowcl 
son of Meredjdd ab Bleddjn, lord | ab Cynau ; but otliers state that she 
of Edeyrnion, I was a daughter of Idwal of Pcnmou, 

a son of Gruffydd ab Cynan. 

Rhys ab j\Ieredydd = 

Jlercdydd ab Rhys= 

Meredydd Fychan= 
of Abertanat. 

Lucy. d. of Hwfa ab lorwerth of Ilafod y Wern in the 
parish of Wrexham. Sable, three lions passt. argent. 


Mali, d. of Goronwy ab lor- 
werth ab Howel ab Jlor- 
eiddig ab Sanddef Hardd, 
lord of Mostyn. Vert, seme 
of broomslips, a lion ramp- 
ant or. 

Lucy, coheir, ux. Madog Goch 
ab leuan abCuhelyn of Lloran 
Uchaf. Des.from Einiou El'ell. 

I I I 

Eduyfed Cyn- Eva, ux. Madog ab 

wrig. Samwel ab Cad- 

afael yrynad,lord 

of Cydewain. Sahle, on a chev. ar- 

ffent, inter three rugged staves, 

fired, or, a fleur-de-lys gules inter 

two rooks ppr. 

Catherine, coheir, ux. lorwerth Fychan 

ab lorwerth Foel of Mynydd Mawr. 

Des. from Idnerth Benfras. 



rLJ/SS. 4181, 2299,/. 42.) 

Gruffydd of Maelor SaesDeg,=Gwerfyl, i. and coh^ 

econd son of lorwerth Foel, 
lord of Chirk, Nanheudwy, 
and jNIaelor Saesneg. Des. 
from Tudor Trevor. 

of Madog ab Mer- 

edydd ab Llewelyn Fychan ab Llewelyn ab 
Owain Fychan ab Owain, lord of Mechain 
Isgoed, second son of Madog ab Jleredydd, 
Prince of Powys. Argent, a lion rampt. salle 
in a border indented gttles. 


2| I I H 

Llewelyn Ddu==... d. of MadogFychanab Goronwy Morgan Goch IMadog 

of Abertanat I Madog ab Rhiryd ab Ddu of ofWillington Lloyd 

andlilodwel. I Owain ab Bleddyn ab Tretlod- in Maelor of jMaeU 

I Tudor ab Rhys Sais. wel. Saesneg. or Saes- 

Meredydd==Angharad, d. and heiress Angharad, ux, 

ofBlod- i of Gruffydd ab lorwerth SirDavidllan- onwy ab Tudor ab 

•wel and ab David ab Goronwy, mer, Knt., who David ab Rhiryd 

Aber- | of HorsUi in Maelor wasmadeChief ab Sir lonas of 

tanat. | Gyraraeg. Vert, seme oi Justice of Eng- Penley in iNIaelor 

J broom-slips, a lion land in 1363. Saesneg. 

I rampt. or. 

I 1 

Madog of=Margaret, d. and heiress of lencyn Decaf Agnes, ux. lencyn 

Ijlodwel 1 ab Madog Ddu ab Gruffydd ab lorwerth ab Madog ab 

and Aber- | Fycban ab lorwerth ab leuaf ab Niniaf Philip Kynaston 

tanat. I ab Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon. Ermine, a of Stocks near 

I lion rampt. sable. Ellesmere. 

l,Rhys ab David=Gwerfyl Hael (the Generous), heiress of=2, Gruffydd, 
'abllowelof Blodwel and Abertanat. "Next to Gwer- thirdsonof 

I\Iaesmor in Din- fyl of Gwynfa and Gwerfyl the Good, leuan 

mael lord of Rug. Stands Gwerfyl of Blodwel in prudence Fycban of 
Ar(jent,&yvin and blood." She settled herestates upon Moeliwrch. 
rampt. sable, de- her eldest son by her second husband. Pes. from 
bruised by a ba- This son, whose name was David Lloyd, Einion 

ton sinister was ancestorof the Tanats of Abertanat, Efell, lord 

(jules. now represented by J. R. Ormsby Gore, of Cyn- 

Esq.,M. P. for Shropshire, and theTanats llaith. 

of Blodwel Fechan, now represented by the Earl of Bradford. 

2 I 
Catherine, coheir, ux. Morgan ab lorwerth ab Gruffydd Ddu ab Gruffydd 
Goch,of Alrhey in Maelor Saesneg. £rmine, a,\ion etataut gardt. fjules. 



The Lordship of Oswestry comjDrises also that part 
of the parish of Ellesmere which contains the townships 
of Upper and Lower Dudleston. These townships 
formed part of the ten-itories of Rhys Sais, Lord of 
Chirk, etc., who gave them at his death to his third 
son, Iddon of Cilhendref, Lord of Dudleston. Iddon 
bore argent, a chev. inter three boar's heads couped 
gules, tusked or, and langued azure; and married Alice 
daughter of Sir John Done of Utkinton in Cheshire, 
Knight, by whom he was father of Trahaiai'n of Cil- 
hendref, Lord of Dudleston, who married Elen, daugh- 
ter of Sir Geoflrey Cornwall, Knight, Baron of Burford, 
by whom he had several sons; Heilin of Pentref Heilin 
was the ancestor of the Heilins of that place, and of 
David Holbech of Dudleston, who was made denizen 
by petition in Parliament, and was deputy steward of 
the Lordships of Maelor Gymraeg and lal, 8 Henry 
IV (1409).' He bore gules, a chev. engrailed inter 
three boar's heads couped argent ; and dying without 
issue his inheritance went to his uncles Einion Goch of 
Pant y Bursli" and Madog Goch. He was the son of 

1 Golden Grove ilS. ; Harl. MS. 4181. 

- Einion Goch of Pant y Bursli was tho fatbci' of Howcl, the 
father of John of Pant y Bursli, whose dauf^hter and heiress, Gwen- 
hwyfar, married John Wynn Kynaston, third son of Jenk3-n ab 
Grufl'ydd Kynaston of Stockes, by wbom she had a son named Elis, 
ancestor of the Kynastons of Pant y Bursli. 


leuan Goch of Dudleston ab David Goch ab loi-werth 
ab Cvuwrig ab Heilin of Pentref Heilin. The third 
son of Trahaiarn Lord of Dudleston, was Cadifor, who 
had Cilhendref for his share of the estates, and was 
ancestor of theEdwardses of Cilhendref, now represented 
by the Moralls of Plas lolyn and Cilhendref, and of Sir 
Plenrj Hope Edwards of Shrewsbury, Bart. Hwfa, the 
fifth son of Trahaiarn, was ancestor of the Vaughans of 
Burlton Hall, near Shrewsbury. .. ' 

The ancient mansion of Cilhendref, which was situate 
in a retired and beautiful valley, was pulled down about 
ninety years ago. In the centre of the house was a 
chamber perfectly dark, into which you descended by 
steps, and the passages to which were hidden by tapes- 
try, e\-ident]y appealing to have been intended to 
have been a place of concealment in cases of sudden 
danger. Some workmen employed in taking down 
part of the house, before the final demolition of the 
whole, discovered, beneath a flight of stone steps, an 
earthem jar, containing many pieces of leather money.^ 


Sir Pioger de Powys, Knight of Rhodes, and Lord of 
Whittirigton (see p. 250), who bore vert, a boar 07-, 
settled this estate, and Estwick, upon his fourth son 
Goronwy, who was father of Llewelyn, the father of 
Llewelyn Fychan, who had two sons, Llewel_yTi Foel of 
Est\Nack, ancestor of the Estwicks of Estwick, and Gruff- 
ydd, who had Pentref Madog.^ Gruffydd married Elen, 
daughter of Ednyfed Lloyd ab lorwerth Fychan ab lor- 
werth ab Awr (ancestor of the Lloyds of Plas ]\Iadog in 
IMaelor) by whom he was father of Llewelyn, fhther of 
Gruffydd, who had a daughter and heiress, Eva, who 
married David Bride Hen ab levan ab David ab Llew- 
elyn ab levan ab David ab Llewelyn, eighth son of 

1 Oswestry Advertiser, Nov. 6, 1872. 
^ Lewys Dwnn, vol. i, p. o2i. 


Cynwiig ab Rliiwallon, Lord of Maelor Gymraeo-, by 
A\ liom she had a son, Phihp Bride of Pentref Ma'doo-, 
who married Ahce, daughter of John ab Eichard ab 
Madog ab Llewelyn of Halchdyn in Maelor Saesneg, a 
younger son of Ednyfed Gam of Pengwern in N;in- 
heudwy, by whom he had three daughters, coheirs, of 
whom ]\Largaret, the heiress of Pentref Madog, married 
James Eyton of Dudleston, son of John Eyton of Dud- 
leston, youngest son of William Eyton of Eyton, Esq. 

The mother of the above James Eyton was Elizabeth, 
daughter and heiress of Owain ab Gruffydd ab Owain 
ab Howel ab Madog of Dudleston, descended from 
Madog, Lord of Hendwr, who bore argent, on a chevron 
(lules, three fleurs de lys or. The said James Eyton 
by his wife Margaret, was father of William Eyton of 
Pentref Madog, who was living in a.d. 1592, and mar- 
ried Dorothy, daughter of James Eyton of Eyton, Esq., 
by whom he had issue James Eyton of Pentref Madoo-, 
who Avas living in A.D. 162.3, and married Mary, daugh- 
ter of Sir Richard Bulkeley of Baron Hill, by whom he 
had a son. Sir Robert Eyton of Pentref Madog, Knight, 
who Avas taken prisoner with Sir Gerard Eyton, Knight, 
and Mr. Edisbury, at Eyton, by the Parliament troops 
under Colonel Mytton in A.D. 1643. He married Jocosa, 
daughter and heiress of Francis Lloyd of Hardwick, 
Esq., and had issue two sons, Robert and Gruffydd, 
and a daughter named Penelope.^ 

1 Cac Cyriog MS. 
{To be continued.) 


The subjoined list is intended to include our earlier 
loan-words only : the later ones, which are compara- 
tively few and uninteresting, will be more conveniently 
reserved for a separate list. It has been my aim to 
make both as complete as possible; but, no doubt, many 
words will be found to have been overlooked. On tlie 
other hand, several, the Latin origin of which is doubt- 
ful, have been inserted with the view of calling atten- 
tion to them, and of light being thrown on their history 
by discussion. 

My authorities for medieeval Latin are the following 
works : " Glossarium Manuale ad Scriptores medite et 
infim^ Latinitatis, ex magnis Glossariis Caroli du 
Fresne, Domini du Cange, et Carpentarii in Compen- 
dium redactum, multisque Verbis et dicendi Formulis 
auctum. Halee, mdcclxxii." Also Diefenbach's Sup- 
plement to the same, pubhshed at Frankfort on the 
Maine in the year 1857. 

As to orthography, I have made use of j and oi for 
asyllabic i and iv respectively, that is, to ordinary ears, 
the sounds of ^ and vj in the English words yes and well; 
it being needless to add that Welsh knows neither the 
English (nor the French) j nor the labial spirant w pre- 
valent in certain parts of Germany. Further, I have ven- 
tured to -wTite, for example, hdno, tdnau, for what some 
would write honno, tannau, and others would leave the 
intelligent reader to distinguish from hono, tanau, pro- 
perly so written. 

'AAPfl'N (lliriK), 'Aaron': W. Aaron {Lihcr LandavcnsU, 
27), Armm (ib., 71, 163 ),Ar awn (Mo 3ISS., 108 ; jVi/v. Arch.,-!!!) ; 
Aron (Edm. Prys, Ps. Ixxvii, 20 ; xcix, G). 

ABGDAEIUM, abcturium, abecedarium, abequetonnii, abga- 
toria, abgetorium (Irish aihgUir), abvederium, are all Med. 
Latin forms of a word formed from and meaning ' the A B C or wokds bokkowed, etc. 259 

alphabet': W. agcnyddor, now cg.mjddor, feiii., 'the alphabet, a 
principle'; di-erjirijddor, 'unprincipled'; gcniiddor fem. (but luas. 
in Sale.sbury's G'mi/ddor Cymraeg), 'alphabet', probably a short- 
ened form of cgmt/ddor. Of the Latin forni.s, abcq^ietorum seems 
to be the one whence come the Welsh -words, derived as follows : 
' abequetorum', AV. ' *abeqA\etor', '*abeg.\vetor', '*abgAi.etor', '^ao-- 
gAvidor', ' agAvyddor', ' egAvyddor', ' gA^yddor'. a. On gm for qu see 
' iniquitas'. b. Bd for t is owing to the Mid. Welsh fashion of 
writing t for dd : see ' cubitus', c. As to the omission of the 
unaccented e, see ' benedico'. d. On the change of gender see 
' brachium'.. 

"ABEA 6nn), 'Abel': W. Abel (Lib. Land.,\?,1, 229). Later 
it occurs as Afel (Barddas, i, 54); but in no form has it flourished 
as a Welsh name. 

'ABPAA'M, 'Abraham': W. Awraliam (i. e. Afraham, in the 
Black Book, Skene, ii, 12), Efream, Yfmham {Brut y Tymjsogion, 
p. 50). Curiously enough the initial vowel was mistaken for 
the definite article, and we read accordingly, in the story of 
'Amlyn ac Amic' {Red Book, col. 1106) the words 'Medylyaw 
heuyt adylyafi yr vrcam benn ffyd'. jNIodern Welsh, howeVer, 
knows no other form than the English Abraliam, accented on the 
first syllable, a. Whether /in the Welsh forms was intended to 
represent j3, that is v nearly, or is the usual mutation of b, on 
which see ' adoruo', is not clear, b. The retention of final m is 
singular, and due probably to the accent, c. E — a for a — « is 
otherwise not unknown in the lang-uage, as, for example, in /<•;'««, 
'a sack', from Yjr\g. fat^vat, and Old Welsh emi.cin, 'names', for 
*emien=^*an?Hana. ComjJare c — i for ^ — {, which see under 
' cicuta'. 

ABSTRUSUS (-a, -um), 'concealed', in tlie sense we have it 
in Cicero's Ac, ii, 10, where one reads of a ' disputatio paidia 
abstrusior': W. astrus, ' perplexed', ' entangled', a. The termina- 
tion of Latin words is generally dropped in Welsh: final s and 
VI disappear in all instances, b. The Welsh system of accentu- 
ation is dissyllabic; so that when, by the dropping of a termina- 
tion, an oxytone would be produced, the accent retires towards 
the beginning of the word, if it allows of it, as in the present 
instance, c. The elision of a mute before s in a toneless syllable, 
without compensation, will be found further exemplified under 
the words ' excommunis', ' excusatio', ' excuso', ' expono', ' ex- 
tendo', 'extraneus', 'lixivium', ' psalterium', 'sextarius', and is 
of a piece with the shortening of a long vowel situated in a tone- 
less syllable preceding the tone, which see under ' divinus'. 

ACER (acris, acre), 'sharp, violent': Old W. nrocrion (gl. 'atro- 
cia') : this woidd in the singular be arocr. from a simple form, 


OCT, representing the Latin adjective. In old Welsh a regularly 
becomes o, which seems to indicate that it had a soniewliat 
gnttural and deep sound, approaching that of the English a in 
' ball'. 

'AAA'M (dX), 'Adam': W. Adam {Annales Carnhr., 52, 105 ; 
Brut y Tyw., 206), Adof {An. Cambrix, 52; Brut y Tyw., 230), 
Adda/ {Myv. Arch., 343-4), Adda, which is tlie usual form in 
Mod. Welsh, a. On dd for d see ' adorno' and 'A/Spadft. h. Other 
instances of the disappearance of/ will be found under 'Asaph', 
' barba', ' bubalus', ' diabolus', ' falja', ' habena', 'Jacobus', 'lima', 
' jjlelis', ' pluma', ' testimonium', ' turba'. 

ADMISSUS (equus), whence we have in M. Lat. admi.ssarius 
(«(7?«(.s)='a stallion': W. onys, 'stallions.' The derivation is 
' admissus', ' *ammissus', ' *anus', ' *emis', ' emys'. a. In 0. W. i 
modulates a into c in a preceding syllable, b. 0. W. i generally 
becomes y in Mod. W. c. Emys has the appearance of being a 
plural form, and is so treated, the singular amvjs having been 
made for it probably soon after the word was introduced into the 
language. Formerly, however, the word seems to have been used 
as a singular, as when we read of tri emys in ' Ystoria Chyarlys' 
in the Red Booh, col. 617. Compare what is said under 'asinus' 
and ' papilio'. 

ADOIINO, 'I adorn': \s. addurn,' &\\ ornament', a. Welsh 
consonants flanked by vowels have since tlie end, say, of the 
ninth century, been systematically modified by way of assimila- 
tion to the vowels, as follows : p, t, c, became i, d, g, and b, d, g 
became /, dd, gh (subsequently omitted), respectively, h. Had 
the Latin been ' adorno' and not 'adorno', we should have in 
Welsh addwrn and not af/c^jr/-/!, which owes its form to the com- 
mon change of 6 into u. c. The noun addurn was obtained by 
quasi-derivation from the Latin verb, the terminations being 
thrown off, and the base treated as a noun. Other instances will 
be found under ' batido', ' batto', ' castigo', ' circo', ' consecro', 'con- 
solido', ' contendo', ' contrudo', ' deficio', ' dependeo', ' destillo', ' de- 
struo', ' disco', ' excuse', ' loco', ' muto', ' planto', ' plecto', ' plico', 
' polio', ' puugo', ' rapio', ' rebello', ' scribo', ' sterno'j ' struo'. 

^TAS, ' age': W. ocd, mas. Supposing this et>Tnology to be 
correct, the following is the derivation : ' tetas', W. ' *ait', ' oit', 
'old', 'oed'. a. Similar instances tending to show that the Welsh 
heard cc as a diphthong in a few Latin words, occur under 
' Graecus' and ' poena', b. The change of ce into ai is rendered 
probable by the fact that 0. W. makes frequent use of ai, 
whereas the reverse is the case with ac and oe. c. The habit 
of changing ai into oi, so common among the English-speak-' 
ing population of Ireland, seems to have prevailed in Welsh as 


late as tlie eighth or ninth centmy, as may be seen from the 
occurrence of mail, now mod, in the Capella Glosses lately dis- 
covered in Cambridge, d. The change of oi into oe is not very 
old in T\'elsh : instances of it are, coel, oedcl, gloew, which once 
used to be, coil, oid, gloiu. On the paralleh change of ai into «c 
see ' captus'. e. As a rule, Latin feminines remain feminine in 
AVelsh, unless influenced by the analogy of native words to be- 
come masculine. It is, however, hard to discover any rule 
obeyed in this respect by words whose leading vowels are oc or 
vy : thus Welsh makes mascrdines from cdas, ccra, pkhs, iicena 
(also fern.), quad mgcsima, and stclla (Pnghe),and feminines from 
signum and rdc. f. Welsh nouns are borrowed from (a) the 
nommative, (/3) the genitive, or (7) the accusative, — or, perhaps, 
we shoidd say the ablative of the Latin. Other instances of 
borrowing' from the Latin nominative occur under 'autor', 'bene- 
dictio', ' caprio', ' ci^'itas', ' coUatio', ' confectio', ' confessio', ' con- 
ventio', ' corpus', ' disparatio', ' doctor', ' draco', ' excusatio', ' favor', 
' fornax', 's,lutto', 'hospes', ' imperator', 'It/o-oO?, ' Judffius', 'latro', 
' lectio', '' lecdo', ' major', ' maledictio', ' occasio', ' papilio', ' profes- 
sio', ' puteus', ' Saxo', ' simx^lex', ' stamen', ' storax', ' sudor', ' tem- 
pus', 'virtus'. 

AFFECTUS, 'one who is disposed in a certain manner towards 
another': ]Mid. W. affeith (which would now be affaith), meaning 
in the Welsh Laws an abettor or accessory ; that is, a person who 
is disposed to assist another in the commission of a crime. Der., 
' affectus'; W. '*affect', ' *affechth', ' affeith'. a. Consonantal com- 
binations' with mutes in the second or third place have them 
changed into spirants as a rule in Welsh : thus ct becomes chth. 
h. Two surd spirants together are subsequently treated as incom- 
patible, and the former commonly disappears with or without 
vowel compensation, c. The vowel of all others which is used 
in Welsh to compensate for the loss of a consonant is i : thus in 
the present instance chth becomes ith. Other instances will be 
found under 'captivitas', 'capti\'us', 'captus', 'coctus', 'confectio', 
' doctus', ' doctor', 'effectus', ' factum', ' fructus', ' lectica', ' lectio', 
' perfectus', ' punctum', ' tractatus', ' tracto'. 

'AFFTnTOS, 'Egypt': 'V^.Aipht, always used as feminine, Yr 
Aipht=^l 'Ki-iv^Tol From the Latin form JEgypitiis, with the 
accent on the penultimate, it would be impossible to derive 
Aipht; nor is the derivation from 'AiVi^ttto? very easy. Probably 
the unaccented v disappeared, and 77r made ^'i?, which in AVelsh 
re-Tularly residts in ph or ff, as will be seen under ' cippus'. 

ALTARE, ' an altar': W. allor, fem. a. On o for a, see ' acer'. 
I. Whenever I immediately precedes a t ovd, it becomes //, which 
has its parallel in Icelandic It, which to ordinary ears somids 


exactly like Welsh lit : tlnis Welsh hoUt is identical in sound 
with Icelandic holt. c. When the dental stands immediately 
hefore the accented vowel, it disappears. Other instances are 
to be found under ' caldarium', ' cultellus', ' psalteriura'. d. Latin 
neuters become masculine in Welsh, and Latin masculines remain 
masculine unless influenced by the analogy of native words with 
0, mentioned imder ' brachium', which see. Other such instances 
as the present occur under 'fatum', 'horarium', 'lopSdvijv, ' pa- 
gus', ' ordo', ' se.xtarius', ' signaculum', ' stamen', ' stratorium', 
' tabulatum', ' vallum'. 

ALTUS (-a, -um), 'high', or perhaps we shoidd posit alta 
[terra), ' high gi-ound': W. allt, ' a clifl', the side of a hill'. In 
N. W. i fyny yr allt=S. W. i'r rhiui, 'up hill'. The word now 
generally assumes a prothetic g, and becomes gallt, a process not 
very common in the case of words beginning with a. Compare, 
however, gaddo, N. W. for addo, and ycnau-goeg, the ' blind gen- 
au; Breton, anaff, 'serpens qui non habet oculos' (Catholicon). 

AMBEOSIUS (d/i/SpJo-to?), ' immortal',' Ambrose': AV. Emrys, 
Emreis. The derivation of ^wirys is'Ambrosius': W. ' *Ambresi', 
' *Ambrisi', 'Einbris', ' Emrys'. a. Other instances of o modidated 
into c by a succeeding i wiU be found under ' apostolus', 'coquina', 
' fovea', ' hospes', 'Jupiter', ' offero', ' olivura', ' nionachus', ' poho', 
' porcellus', ' spolium', ' torquis'. h. Some of these words also 
exemplify the total assimilation of e to a following i. Other 
instances occiu' under ' angelus', ' arma', ' ascendo', 'castigo', 'epi- 
scopus', ' exteudo', ' iutervenio', ' lectio', ' legio', ' membrum', ' me- 
mor', ' metrum'. c. Mh, nd, ngg, invariably drop their second 
element. Other instances occur imder ' angelus', ' ascendo', ' ca- 
lendas', ' candela,' ' cingula', ' columba', ' contendo', ' dependeo', 
' descendo', ' evangelium', ' fundo', 'louga', 'membrana', 'mem- 
brum', ' plumbum', ' pondus', ' prandium', ' pimgo', ' splendeus', 
' splendidus', ' ungula'. Compare also the instances under ' au- 
cora'. The derivation of Emreis is immediate from ' *Ambresi', 
by diphthongising c into ei. Other instances occur under ' arma', 
'brachium', 'caprio', 'cerasium', 'cer\', 'cingula', 'civitas', 'con- 
ventio', ' draco', ' gemellus', ' latro', ' lixivium', ' monachus', ' pulli- 
cantus', ' rapio', ' Eomani', ' spatium', ' spolium', ' tertiana'. Com- 
pare what is said under ' bestia'. 

ANAGEIPPA, a medieval law-term, written also ' anagripa', 
'anagrip',and 'anagriph', which seems to have been borrowed from 
a German source, and signified a fault or crime, as in the fol- 
lowing quotation from the laws of the Longobards : ' Ut ille, qui 
fornicatus fuerit, eam tollat iixorem, componat pro culpa, id est 
anagriph sol. 15': W.angraip't, cngraifft, or cngraff, ' a reproof,' ' an 
example'; angvcifft-jo, ' to rebuke'. The t seems to be here added, 
as in tlie colloquial forms, taligrafft, ' telegraph', and ffcdst, ' false'. 


ANCOEA, 'an anchor': W. angor. a. Had the Latin heen 
ancJiora, we should have in Welsh acJior. b. Mp, nt, ngc, as a 
ride allow the mute to disappear. Further instances will be 
found under ' cancellus', 'concausa', ' corupar', ' compelio', 'con- 
tendo', ' conveutio', ' elementa', ' firmaraentum', ' fontana', ' impe- 
rator', ' planto', ' prtesens', ' pulli-cantus', ' sacramentum', ' sentio', 
' simplex', ' temperies', ' tempestas', ' templum', ' tempus', ' testa- 
mentum'. See also ' argentum'. 

ANGELUS (dyye\o<;), ' an angel': W. angcl, pi. e7ig)jl, of which 
the derivation is angcli, *dngili, higil, engijl. The plurals, an- 
gyljon, a/igeljon, and cnggljon, also occur, especially the first. 

ANIMAL (gen. 'animalis'), 'an animal': W. anifail, anifcl, 
pi. anifiiljaid, cncfcilaid {Marcliog Crivgdracl, i, 5), and anvcileit 
(i. e., anfcikit, Mabinogion, iii, 299) : Breton, ' aneval'. Deriva- 
tion, 'animalis': W. '*animali', ' *anemali', ' *anemer, ' *anefer, 
' anifel', ' anifeil', ' anifail' (which the collocj^uial reduces hack to) 
' anifel'. a. When a is preceded by i in its neighbom-hood, it seems 
to have been, in some instances, prevented from acquiring a 
guttural sound, and so from becoming 6, as will further appear 
under ' brachium', ' clavus', ' coUatio', ' Grains', ' laicus', ' major', 
' Majus', ' papilio', ' Eomani'. h. The i in anifel cannot be the 
direct representative of Latin i, for it should he now y. It can, 
however, represent an earlier e : see 'CoUatio'. c. Other instances 
of borrowing the genitive will be found under ' autor', ' crux', 
' dolor', ' hibris', ' Jupiter', ' labor', ' lis', fivpuU, ' pars', ' pavo', 
' prfEsens', ' sapo', ' scelus', ' tempus'. 

ANTIQUUS (-a, -um), 'ancient', 'old': W. cntic (Gl. Priscce). 
Tliis would now be enig, but the word is not used. 

APOSTOLUS (dTToo-ToXo?), 'an apostle': W. cdwstrA, 'an 
apostle'; pi. chgstyl and ebcsti/l, of which the derivation is ' apos- 
toli', '*aposteli', ' *apestili', '*epestir, '*ebestir, 'ebestyl'. a. Ano- 
ther instance of i extending its influence beyond the syllable 
immediately preceding it occurs under ' margarita'. b. The old 
forms abostol and eiestyl have been superseded in recent versions 
of the Bible by the semi-naturalised ajmstol and apostoljon re- 
spectively. Similarly Beiui, Sehjf, Jeuan, beaten out of the field 
by such 'novi homines' as Bafydd, Solomon, loan, are also fair 
specimens of the way in which all reminiscences of the old 
British Church have, subsequently to the Eeformation, been 
buried under later strata of ccclesiasticism in Wales. 

APEILIS, 'April': W. Ebrill. This is, however, not the form 
to have been expected, as Ebril would be more regidar, and as 
the U admits of no explanation on Welsh ground. Compare 
Breton Elrrll (Catholicon), Old Eng. Aj^-ilh. 

AECA, ' a cliest,' ' a box': W. arch, ' a chest', ' a coffin'. 


APiGENTUJM, ' silver': W. arjant, now more coninionly «;y(»!, 
' silver', ' money'. Der. ' argeutum', W. ' *argiint', ' *ar'g;iut', 
' *ar'gliant', ' *arighant', ' arjant', ' arjan'. a. The forna with vt is 
somewhat antiquated : so with pylgahit, which see under ' puUi- 
cantus'. Compare also lujaint, archaic for ugabi, ' twenty'. 
h. Other instances of Latin e before two consonants, superseded 
in Welsh by a, are to be seen under ' calendfe', 'cervus' ' mentum', 
' paternus', ' serpens' ' splendens', ' sterno', ' taberna', in all of 
which it is seen that the accent falls on the c in Latin, c. In 
0. W. every complex of consonants proof against assimilation, 
and having in the second place a sonant, evolved an ii-ratioual 
vowel: thus rb, rm, rd, rg ; lb, hn, Ig ; pr, tr, cr ; jil. tl, cl ; br, 
dr, gr ; U, dl, gl, become r'b, r'm, r'g, etc., and underwent the 
usual modifications to whicli vowel-flanked consonants are liable, 
as pointed out under ' acer'. d. The irrational vowel shows a 
tendency, as here, to become {, especially before gutturals. An 
exactly parallel case to the present one is the derivation of iar- 
jan, 'a shield', from the Anglo-Saxon targe, gen. targan. g. The 
student of the Teutonic languages would naturally think that 
here we have simply a modification of (/ into/ This, however, 
I believe to have no footing in Welsh ; and we may lay it down 
as a rule, that 0. W. g, not initial, after becoming gli (on which 
see ' vacuus'), disappears altogether in modern Welsh. 

AEMA, 'arms': W. «?/and araf{Mabinogion and Ystoria Char- 
lyi), fern., pi. cirf, also in mid. W. yrf. The derivation of these 
plurals is : 

., ,^ , ., ,» , ., f '*er'mi', '*er'f', 'eir'f, -wTitten 'eirf '. 
'*arm-i,'*armi, *ermi | ,,=i,.„,i>^ ' *ii.'f >,' yr'f ',_ ^mtten 'yxf '._ 
The Welsh having probably taken aima to be singidar, made it 
plural by means of the common plural termination -I. 

AEMELLA, M. Lat. = 'ornamentum brachiorum': O.W. amid 
(Oxford Glosses), defectively written for arviell. 

AETIOULUS, ' a joint', ' a short clause', and in M. Lat. ' libel- 
lus supplex expostulationis ad judicem', not to mention also 
' articuli coronse' and ' articuli cleri': W. crthygl, fern., ' an article 
of faith, a short essay', a. AVliy the Welsh word is fern, is not 
easy to say. b. Here crthygl became at first *artic'l, the unac- 
cented vowel being made into an irrational one, and so disap- 
pearing from the spelling. Similar instances vnil be found 
under 'baculus', ' career', ' cingula', ' consolido', ' cidter', 'diabo- 
lus', ' discipulus', 'facula', 'favor', 'fistula', 'imperator', 'lit- 
tera', ' macula', ' magister', ' neuter', ' oftero', ' oflula', ' pedester', 
' periculum', ' populus', ' sericus', ' stimidus', ' tabula', ' tragula', 
' viridis'. 

'ASA'$ (SlDN), 'Asaph': W. Assapli {Brut y Tyw., 230), Asa/ 


[loloMSS., 102, 127), Assa [C. Bvit. Saints, 266), wlience we liave 
Llanasa and Pantasa. F {=v) for ph is not according to rule ; 
but Ave must suppose the Welsh to have either heard Asaph pro- 
nounced Assav, or to have found it written Assaf, which they 
proceeded to pronounce in their own way, giving / its ordinary 
value of English v. The adjective occurs in Latin documents 
both as Assavcnsis (frequently) and Assnphensis. 

ASCELLA, M. Lat, ' a wing', as in the Vulgate (Ln: i, 17), 
where we read, ' confringetque ascellas ejus'; in the English ver- 
sion, ' he shall cleave it with the wings thereof: W. asccll, pi. escyll. 

ASCENDO, ' I ascend': 'SX.csci/n,' to ascend', also (' he) ascends'; 
escijnodd ('he) ascended'. Der. 'ascendit': W. ' *ascendit', '*as- 
cindit', ' *escindit', ' *escinit', ' escjhiid', ' escyn'. a. Here we have 
chosen to consider the form of the Welsh verb as determined by 
the third person singular (of the Latin), both on account of the 
importance of the latter, and of the effects of the vowel i of the 
termination -it, which are to be traced both in this instance and 
in those given under 'batido', ' deficio', 'descendo', ' destruo', 
'expono', 'extendo', 'intervenio', 'pasco', 'polio', ' rapio', ' sentio', 
' tiissio'. b. The Celtic languages seem to liave had three chief 
conjugations with the vowel characteristics, a, a, i (=ja) : thus, 
in the Luxemburg Folio the third person singnlar of the present 
indicative active ends in ei ( = «<0, ot {=ati), and it { = iti or 
jati). The last of these (iV), which in Mid. W. is id, as in ' syrtliid 
mefl gesail', ' Elid ci i gell agored', etc., is important as a point 
of coincidence with Latin verbs of the third and fourth conjuga- 
tions ; whence ascendit, for instance, required to undergo no 
immediate change of form in order to do duty as a "Welsh verb. 

ASINA, ' a she-ass': W. «-sc'rt. 

ASINLTS, ' a he-ass': W. f^s///^. Here one might have expected 
esijii, but that would sound to a Welshman as a plural: indeed, 
Davies gives csyn as the j)lural oUisijn (see 'papilio'), in which 
he is shown to be right by the use made of the word in the last 
lines of the tale of Manawydau Vab Llyr {Mah., iii, 161), where 
we read "A Eiannon anydei amweirieu yr cssyn wedy bydynt yn 
kywein gweir am y mynwgyl hitheu." 

ASTELLA, a IM. Lat. formation from astula, ' a splinter', ' a 
small board': W. astell, ' a splinter', ' a board', pi. cstijll. To the 
0. French form astcU, now attdk, ' a splint', and others mentioned 
by Diez, s. v. 'ascla', may be added the M. Lat. stclkc (' bacilli 
quibus alligatur cms post rupturam consolidandimi'), the singu- 
lar of which occurs in the Oxford Glosses (Gram. Celt., 1063) as 
Stella, with the Welsh gloss sdrenn, 'a spUiiter or chip to light 
a fire with'. The Irish form a.stal or astol (Stokes' Old Irish 
Glossaries, p. xxiii) seems to come inunediately from astula. 
4th sek., vol. IV. 1^ 


ASTUTUS (-a, -uui), ' slirewcV, ' sagacious': W. astud, ' atten- 
tive', 'studious'. Popular etymology associates astv.d with the 
English ' study' and ' steady', which has probably contributed to 
its being used in the sense it now has. Compare pmdd under 
' prudens'. 

AUGUSTIXUS, 'Augustine, the monk': W. Airstin, or more 
commonly Aicsiin Fonach. 

AUGUSTUS, 'August': W. Awst. Der. 'Augustus': W. '*Aw- 
gwst', ' *Awghwst', •■*A\v\vst', ' *Awst', 'Awst'. a. On the elision 
of ^^ see 'Argentum'. h. The contraction here indicated is com- 
mon enough in INIod. W. in such cases as chjwcli for chjw-vxh, 
ia\(X ffan.ujdd iox ffaio-caydd, which see under 'fagus'. 

AUEUjM, 'gold': W. aur, 'gold'; curaidd, 'golden'. Der. 
' aurum': W. ' *owr', ' *our', ' enr', ' anr'. a. The change of cu into 
au in final syllables in Mod. Welsh is very general, and goes on 
hand in liand with that of el into ai, which see under ' animal'. 
h. No less common is the change of 0. W. on into cu and au ; 
for example, 0. W. ' dou', ' iou', ' tonnou', ' boutig', are now dau, 
jau, tbnau, Icudy. The Dimetian dialect has in many cases 
reduced ou into oi, and not into au, so that in the present instance 
it uses oir for aur. 

AUTOE, Med. Lat. = ' auctor', 'one who adds to the existing 
stock', 'a writer': W. awdvj-r, pi. aivdmyr ; awdur, pi. awduron. 
Airdirr and auxlur chffer only in being derived from the nomina- 
tive and genitive of the Latin respectively, the former as follows, 
' autor',AV.'*awtor', '*awt'r' ' *awd'r',' awdwr', ' awd-wr', pi. ' awd- 
Avyr'. a. Here the ' takes its complexion from the preceding w, 
and becomes itself %v. This is carried out with great consistency 
in the dialects of South Wales : thus, for the written cafn, dwfn, 
dofn, Heidi; etc., we speak cafan, dwfioi, do/on, Ueidir, whereas 
the fondness of North Wales dialects for broad terminations 
makes such words as lleidr into lleidar, etc. Instances of this 
will be found in this list, under 'bacillus', 'barba', ' career', 'cul- 
ter', ' facnla', ' lamna', ' liber', ' littera', ' latro', ' populus', ' stumu- 
lus', ' stupula', ' vitrum'. h. Avxhm- came to be analysed by popu- 
lar etymology into awd-vn; i. e. av:d-gwr, as though one of its 
elements were gun; ' a man', which makes in the plural gimji; 
whence the plural of awdur comes to be av-doiyr. Tiie same 
treatment has been undergone by ' imperator', which see. 

BAGULUS, ' a stick', ' staff: W. laglcoK hagal, fem., pi. hagl- 
av, ' crutches'. Der. ' bacillus': W. '*bac'r, ' bag'l' (written ' bagl'), 
' bagal'. The change of gender it is not easy to explain : compare, 
hoM'ever, other instances under ' factum', ' gradus', ' saccus'. 

BARBA, ' a beard': W. barf, coll. and Mid. W. laraf (and 
horyj), now bara in the dialect of Gwent. 


BASSUS (-a, -urn), I\I. Lat. = 'cuvtus', ' humilis': ^Y. las, ' shal- 

BATIDO (batidit),M. Lat.. = ' baptizo', ' I baptize': W. hahjdd-jo, 
'to baptize'; Z)«?^fW, 'baptism', a. It is right that the reader 
should know that haiido is only assumed on the strength of such 
words as hatistcrlum and haptizarc, as a probable form from the 
infinitive bapiiderc, which is also given as ha2Mre, meaning at 
first, probably, ' to baptize', ' to marlc with the sign of tlie cross', 
tlieii ' to mark', ' to mark or coin money', as in haptirc mondam 
=Frencb battre monnaie=Vl. batJm arjan, which see under 
' batto'. From meaning ' to mark or coin', the word seems to 
liave got also to mean ' to mark by beating', and absolutely ' to 
beat', unless we should rather consider it to have derived this 
meaniuo- directly from the Greek common in such expressions as 
^dtrreiv Tiva ^dfifia tapliaviicov, ' to give one a bloody coxcomb'. 
b. The i of the Latin conjugation of batidcrc seems to have been 
availed of in "Welsh as a /.Nvliich served to give the word bedij- 
dd-jo a more thoroughly Welsli aspect than if it had beeu dis- 
carded. Similar instances of utilising Latin i as Welsh j occur 
under ' brachium', ' confinium', ' deficio', ' hospes', ' memor', ' pa- 
pilio', ' polio', ' rapio', ' Eomaui', ' sentio', ' spatium', ' testis', ' tus- 
sio' c With bed ydd compare addimi,\vhich see under 'adorno'. 
BATTO (part. pass. ' battatus'), M. Lat., ' I beat': W. bath-u, 
'to coin'; batlwd-yn, 'a coin', ' a medal'; {arjan) bafhol, ' corned 
or stamped (money); balh or viath, mas. and fem., ' stamp', ' kmd 
' sort' a. As to tt becoming th, see ' aftectus' («); similarly ^jj) and 
cc make ph (or/) and ch respectively. Listances occur under 
' bucca', ' cippus', ' cloppus', ' clocca', ' coccuni , ' glutto , ' littera^, 
'occasio', 'occupo', ' pecco", ' peccatum', ' saccus', ' sagitta , ' siccus , 
'soccus' b. Bathodyn is derived from battat-us by sufhxing 
tlie Welsli termination -yn, which is used extensively to make 
sino-idars and dhninutives : -yn is masculine, and has ^a temi- 
nin'e -en ; their derivation being -innas, mas. ; inna, tern. ; 
which became -inn, m., inna, f. ; then -inn ui. -c««. f- ^^"f i^^e 
-yn and -en now. e. On bath, see 'adorno. The letters b and 
m often interchange in Welsh; another instance of it occurs 
under ' beneficium'. However, bath and math begin to be de- 
synonymized in the language: thus we say 'Gwraig oi batb 
hi' (not 'Gwraig o'i math hi') = 'a woman like her, literaUy 
'a woman of her stamp'. On the other hand, we now write 
'Math ar ddyn', and not 'Bath ar ddyn meaning a kmd of 
man', literally ' a stamp on man', which ' 1 oiing Wales , missing 
the connotation of the word and the point of the preposition 
changes into ' matli o ddyn', so as to tally with the English kind 
of man'. j^„ 


r.ATUS, M. Lat. = 'scapluV, 'cymLa'; W. had, 'a boat'. 

]!I''.NKI)ICO, ' I bless': W. hendiff-o. Other instances of vowels 
]iivcei-ling the tone-syllable disappearing will be found nnder 
' benedictio', ' beneficinm', ' caritas', ' elementa', ' intervenio', ' ma- 
ledico', ' maledictio', ' registra', ' trinitas', ' unitas'. Compare ' arti- 

BENEDICTIO (pi. ' benedictiones'), ' a benediction', 'hlessing': 
\\'. Iciul'dlt, pi. hcnditlijun. a. It may be urged that the Welsh, 
having a plural ending -on or -jon, formed lenditTijon from len- 
dith, and did not borrow the Latin hcncdictiones. I am, however, 
inclined to think the fact of their having -011 and -jon only makes 
it more probable that they did borrow hencdictionrs, seeing that 
it harmonised itself with native Welsh plurals so readily. Other 
instances of borrowing Latin plurals will be found under ' ca- 
lendie', ' cicuta', ' excusatio', ' faba', ' hospes', ' illi', 'legio', 'lit- 
tera', ' latro', 'maledictio', 'natalicia', 'occasio', 'pap}Tus', 'pec- 
ten', ' pedester', ' Eomani', ' saxo', ' vesper', h. "Whether benedictio 
be looked at as hcncdlctio or benedictio is indiflerent, as "NA'elsh i 
regularly represents an etymologically long i. If we start from 
ben,edictio, then bendith represents hendi-ith, the latter l being a 
compensation for the lost consonant, on which see ' affectus'. 

BENEFICIUM, ' a favour', 'a kindness': W. henthug or men- 
thyg, ' the loan of anything'. In jMid. Welsh it was bcnffyg, and 
in 0. W. binfic (gl. heneficium) in the Oxford Glosses, showing 
assimilation of c with i, which has not been adopted in ]\Iod. 
Welsh, as is the case with several words in the Lux. Folio. 

BESTIA, ' a beast': W. bwystjil, ' a beast of prey', a compound 
of the s}^lonyms bestia and W. mil. Der. ' bestia', W. ' *besti-', 
'*beist-', '*beist-', '*baist-', '*b6ist-', '*bwist-', 'bwyst-'. a. The 
transition of e into e' or ei may be heard every day in some people's 
pronunciation of such words as the English ' name', ' same', etc. 
Compare ' animal', b. Oi for ai orei has already been noticed under 
' Betas'. The transition of oi into {wi and then) wy is found in 
pivynt, from the English ' jroint', and in such plurals as ' wyn', 
' crwyn', ' crwj-s', for ' *oini', ' *croini', ' *croisi', from the singulars 
'oen', 'croen', 'croes'. Other instances occur under 'candela', 
'catena', 'cera', ' densus', 'ecclesia', 'fenum', 'frena', 'habena', 
' maceria', ' pensum', ' plebs', ' postilena', ' propheta', ' psalterium', 
' quadragesima', ' remus', ' rete', ' sebum', ' serus', ' stella', ' vene- 

BLOCUS, a ]M. Lat. word borrowed from some one of the 
Teutonic languages, meaning ' a block', ' a trunk', and possibly to 
be corrected into bhcats, whence the derivation would be regu- 
lar of W. blwch, ' a box'. The transition of meaning has its 
parallel in the English word ' trunk'. 


BOTTUS, M. La.t.=dolium : W. both, ' ca bottle' (J/«6, ii, 225), 
' the uave of a wheel', ' the boss of a sliield'. 

BEACHIUM, 'the arm': W. braich, tern, (also mas. several 
times in the Bible and in Salesbury's writings, and so to tliis 
day in Carnarvonshire when meaning the spur of a mountain), 
' the himian arm'. Der. ' brachiuni': W. ' *brachi', ' *breclii', 
'*bi-ech', 'breich', 'braich'. Other instances of Latin ch treated 
as though identical with Welsh ck occur under ' chamisia', ' con- 
cha', •'monachus'. It is not, however, clear that 7l in these words 
meant anything beyond aspiration, on which see Curtius' 
iSti'dicn, ii, p. 14.3-153. On a treated as a, see ' animal', c. 
'Brachiuni becomes feminine in "\^''elsh, for reasons which will 
appear from the following remarks : In very early Welsh the 
nominative seems to have ended, in a very great number of 
words, in -as, mas., and «, fem., of which the former disappeared, 
and the latter was reduced tod. This last affected, in an import- 
ant manner, the form of nouns or adjectives having i or 'iv [n) in 
the stem. Of the former, let us take as an instance giohjh, ' wet', 
from *vUgvas, on which see Stokes' Irish Glosses, p. 87. The 
series will be 

j\[as., '*vliqvas', '*vlipa', 'gAvliji', 'g.ulyb'; 

rem., '*vliqva', ' vlipa', 'gAvlep(a)', 'g.wleb'. 
2. Of the latter let us take as an instance another adjective, 
di'-j','. ' deep', identical in origin with old Bulgarian 'diino', 'fun- 
dus', for ' *dubno'. We get then the following sequence : 

jMas., ' *dwbnas', ' *dwbna', ' *d\vbn', ' dwfn'; 

Fem., ' dwbna', ' *dwbna , ' *dobu(a'), ' dofu'. 
Tlie residt is that the language has a strong tendency to regard 
nouns and adjectives whose leading vowels are y ( = ^) and w 
(=«) as masculines, and those with c and o as feminines ; so 
much so, indeed, that a monoglot Welshman of the present day 
would not hesitate in deciding the gender of a monosyllabic 
noun he had never before heard, supposing its leading vowel to 
be 1/ or IV, e or o. Such are the lasting efiects on the genius of 
the language, of inflections which it has many generations ago 
utterly lost. At the same time it is not meant that this analogy 
has got into its train all the Welsh nouns of this description ; 
but the tendency is unmistakable, and explains some instances 
of falsification of gender in Pughe's Dictionary, as when, for 
example, he makes clod feminine. Instances of words which 
(hke ' brachiuni') the influence of the vowel e has eventually 
made feminine, will be found under ' cancellus', ' centrum', ' con- 
struo', ' cultellus', ' draco', ' effectuni', ' evangelium', ' firmamen- 
tum', 'flageUum', ' grex', 'lego', ' manganeUus', 'monumentum', 
' ofiero', ' pagus', ' prfficeptum', ' scamellum', ' scribo', ' serpens', 
' staljcUum', ' templum', ' tripus', ' versus'. 

270 SEruLcniiAL slabs, 

BEASSICA (pl.'brassicfe'), ' a cabbage': W. hrcsi/ch, 'cabljages', 
sing, hresygcn, ' a cabbage'. 

-r^ , , . , TXT- , 1 -111 ■ ) f ' brasicc', ' bresych', 
Der. 'brassicce: W. ' brasic , ' brasic -j . i^^asig./. ij,esyg-en'. 

a. On -en see ' batto'. The facility with which -i/n or -e)i is suf- 
fixed to the stem or plural of a noun, to form a singular, enables 
the language to discard, to a great extent, plural terminations, 
and to have in readiness a choice of forms to be differen- 
tiated according to the whims of speech, as in the case, for 
instance, of dail, 'leaves'; dcil-en,' & leaf; dal-eii, 'a leaf; dalen- 
au, ' the leaves of a book', b. As to c becoming either ch or f/, 
similar bifurcation occurs in such words as tywyllwc, ' darkness', 
yielding brjth tyunjlhrg and tywyllwch. Bresygen is known to me 
only in Mcddygon Myddfai, p. 95. 

BUBALUS, 'a buffalo or bison': W. hual. Der. 'biibalus': 
W. '*bwbar, '*bubar, ' ^bufal', ' bual'. Other instances of tlie 
omission of/ will be found under 'ASu/i. 

BUCCA,''the cheek': W. boch. Parallel witli the modulation 
of i into c by a is that of u into o by tliis same vowel. Other 
instances will be found under 'columba','columna', ' fuga', ' furca', 
' regula', 'stupula', 'tabula', ' turba', 'turma'. 

(To be continued.) 


About the year 1850 the parish church of Newborough 
underwent a thorough repair. During the progress of 
the work I frequently visited the spot, being much in- 
tei-ested in the remains of antiquity then discovered. 
Mention is made in Arcliceolocjia Cambrensis, No. 4, 
Oct. 1846, p. 428, that "under each of the two-hght 
windows in the choii- are arched recesses, that in the 
southern Avail containing what appears to be a coffin 
lid, that in the northern wall being blocked up from 
sioht by a pew." The flat stone under the arch in the 
southern wall seemed really to be nothing more than a 
plain coffin lid, and so I took no further notice of it at 
the time, but confined my operations to the one beneath 
the northern arch, then first brought to light through 
the removal of the high pew by which it had been pre- 


viously concealed from view. The cleaning of this slab, 
wliicli is 5 feet 3 inches long by 1 foot 7 inches at its 
broadest end, Avas a work of considerable difficulty, 
owing to its being much begrimed with dirt and plaster; 
however, tliere appeared at last the beautiful floriated 
pattern of which a copy is given on the accompanying- 
plate. Along a band down the middle of the stone 
there is the following inscription in raised letters : — 

+ Hic : lACET : tDD : eakkee : cv : aie ": p'piciet : 2)... 
"Hie jacet Ed(wardus) Barker cu(jus) a(n)i(m)e pr(o)- 
piciet(ur) De..." 

I submitted a rubbing of the above to Professor 
Westwood, who pronounced the date to be of the four- 
teenth century, and remarked upon the peculiarity of 
the compound letters 3) in Ed. and De(us). I am un- 
able to find historical notice of any one of the name of 
EdiDCird Barker, but there is a " David le Barker" men- 
tioned in connection with Kewborough, in the Record 
of Carnarvon (" ex' Nowm Bvrgvm, fol. 58 (p. 85) — 
Et tenet in eadem villa Pram que fuit Dauid le Barker," 
&c.) who would in all probability be a member of the 
same family. The name being English would lead one 
to suppose that the person buried beneath this slab 
was an officer of the crown, probably mayor and crown- 
steward subsequently to the time when the town was 
erected into a gild rnercatory by Edward I, and the 
name changed from " Khosfeyr ' to Newborough. No 
native could hold the office of mayor — " Ita tamen q'd 
idem Maior semper sit homo Anglicanus & non ahus,' 
&c. Record of Carnarvon, p. 177. Upon a flat stone 
4 feet long by 1 foot 6 inches broad above a modern 
window iifthe south wall of the nave there is an in- 
scription, the whole of which is not visible, as the slab 
is built into the wall at either end. It runs thus : — 

c : HIC : lACET : elle^s^a : qvoxdUm : vxoe :edwart)... 
"...c. hic jacet Ellena quondam uxor Edward." 

There is every probability that the "Ellena" here 

1 D left out by mistake in original. It is in its proper place now. 


mentioned was wife to the preceding. The name ajD- 
pears in the Record of Carnarvon soon after that of 
David le Barker :— " Et Elena fil Ma'd ap Hei'li tenet," 
&c. If the person there recorded is identical with the 
Ellena of the tombstone, we may suppose that Ed. 
Barker was married to a Welshwoman. 

The apparently plain coffin lid, 5 feet 4 inches long 
by ] foot 9 inches at the broadest end, under the avchecl 
recess in the southern wall of the choir, next engaged 
my attention. Many inequalities 'were to be seen on 
its surface, but nothing satisfactory could be made out 
for some time. At length 1 perceived at the upper end 
Avhat appeared like a man's head, the hollow spaces on 
each side of it being filled with mortar and small stones 
firmly wedged in. Below this was a protuberance, 
which eventually turned out to be the bowl or body of 
a chahce held in the hands upon the breast. By degrees 
the whole of the figure was revealed. The head (sup- 
jiorted b}' a pillow) and shoulders rest beneath an ogee- 
headed arch deeply cut into the stone ; the space below 
the hands and elbows is on a level with the parts bear- 
ing the inscription. The robes are carried downAwaixls 
and the feet may have appeared at the lower end, but 
unfortunately a large piece has been broken off from 
this part of the stone. This is the more to be regretted 
as the lost portion of the inscription may have contained 
a date or something that would have thrown light xipon 
the identity of the deceased ecclesiastic. The coffin-lid 
of lorweth Sulien, desciibed by Professor Westwood 
{Arch. Camh., No. vii, July 1847, p. 241, where a 
woodcut of it is given) as a " deejaly incised effigy lying 
beneath a semicircular arch in the north wall of Corwen 
Church," is, with the exception of some details in the 
dress and in not having the inscription carried round 
the top above the head, almost the same in arrangement 
and must be of similar date ; see also the coffin-lid of 
Meredith lorwerth at Cilcain in Flintshire figured on 
p. 444 0? Arch. Camh. No. iv, October 1846. "The in- 
scription, beginning at the right hand upper corner, is 



carried all along the edge, excepting opposite those 
parts Avhere the stone is most deeply incised and the 
lower left hand corner where there is a double line of 
letters. It is as follows : — 

X Hic : lACET : Dxs : mathevs : ap : elyas : capellaxvs : 

BEAT.*; : MAKL-E : novo(?)beri :qviqve : CES 

V : AVE : MARIA : ha : 

" Hic jacet D(omi)n(u)s Matheus ap Elyas Capellanus 

Beatse MarifB novo (?) beri quique ces v. Ave 

]\[aria Ha." This inscription was also submitted to 
Professor Westwood. He was unable to give a reading 
of the surname, which he thought consisted of four let- 
ters, one compound. I sent him fresh I'ubbings of this 
name and these he showed to eminent palfeographers, 
who could throw no hght upon it. Years passed away, 
during which I frequently puzzled over this word to no 
purpose, and it is but recently that the true reading, 
viz., ELYAS — Elyas — suggested itself to me — Matheus ap 
Elyas. I have hitherto failed to identify this worthy 
with any historical character connected with Newbo- 
rough ; the only instance where I meet with the sur- 
name is in an extract from " Ilarl. Chart. 75, B. 40," 
given in Arcli. Carnh., vol. xiv, third series, p. 185 — 
" Et sciendum quod hoc totum pactum est coram domino 
Elya Landavense Episcopo apud Margam," etc. The 
Christian name of Matthew is met with in the liecord 
of Carnarvon, page 222, fol. 183, where a certain 
Matheus, Archdeacon of Anglesey temp. Edward III, pe- 
titions that certain lands be bequeathed to his daughter, 
and the petition is refused, on the plea " q'd Ar'hs' non 
debet h'ere filiam et h'd." The fact of Matheus ap 
Elyas being " Capellanus Beatfe Mai-ice" proves that the 
Roval Chapel, dedicated to St. Mary, and from which 
the place took its name of Bhos-fiiir, was in existence 
in his day. My belief is that the building is still stand- 
ino-, beino- in reality none other than the place within 
whose walls he lies buried, to wit, the eastern end of 
the present church of Newborough. Most observers 


will have been struck by the extraordinary length of 
that edifice. The choir is perfect in itself, being de- 
scribed by the author of Mona Mediccva as presenting 
" an example unequalled in Anglesey for pure and beau- 
tiful design, excellent material, and careful workman- 
ship" [Arch. Ccanh., No. 4, October, 1846, page 426); 
and he adds (ib. page 428) that it is "probably of the 
time of Edward I." It seems tolerably certain that no 
one has hitherto met elsewhere with the remains of the 
Prince's chapel. Rowlands is clearly of this opinion, 
for although he mentions that some supposed "vestiges 
of the walls" of the Pi'ince's j^'^i-^'-'a were visible in his 
day at a place called Llys, " on the south side from the 
church of Newborough," he adds, " I think there can 
scarce be a doubt that this church was formerly used 
as a domestic chapel for these royal buildings close to 
which it stood. And that such a chajiiel did adorn these 
buildings somewhere or other we read in the Extent, 
and in what place, pray, is it more likely that these 
royal buildings should have had their chapel than where 
the church now stands, which when it had^ ceased to be 
domestic, forthwith became parochial, m w-hich light it 
has long since been regaixled." {Antiq. Paroch., trans- 
lated in Arch. Camh., No. 3, 1846, page 308, supple- 
ment.) There is a portion of the wall, about fourteen 
feet in length connecting the choir with the nave, 
which shows masonry of a rougher and much inferior 
quality, and I cannot but think that the two were at 
one time separated by this space (14 feet); the nave 
being the old Llanbedr (St. Peter's), and the choir (which 
may have been re-edified in Edward the First's time) 
being the chapel of St. J\Iary. At some long subse- 
quent time the east gable of the one and west gable of 
the other may have been pulled down and the two 
united. There is a local tradition that the east and 
two side windows of the choir were transported hither 
from Llanddwyn Priory, but there is no foundation 
whatever for such an assumption. 

W. Wynn Williams. 

Bodewrjd : May ord, 1873. 


During tlie King-ton meeting- one of the objects pro- 
}30sed to be visited was the Cromlech in the parish of 
Bredwardine, and Avhich is set down in the Ordnance 
Map. Its situation, however, is such, being on the 
higher groimd, that it was impossible to carry out this 
part of the programme. Since that time a careful 
drawing has been kindly made for the Association by 
the Rev. H. Phillott of Staunton-on-Wye, and here re- 
produced in the engraving- of Mr. Joseph Blight. 

As almost universally is the case, the former envelope 
of this chamber has been long since removed, and that, 
too, so effectually that no decided traces of its existence 
can be made out. And yet, judging from the present 
character of the ground on which it now stands, there 
could not have been much inducement in an agricul- 
tural sense to undertake the labour of removing such a 
mass. That it, however, has been removed by some 
means or other is a fact that admits of no doubt, nor 
whether the manner of removal, or the motive of those 
Avho removed it admit of explanation or not, is the cer- 
tainty of the fact lessened in any way. From the ab- 
sence of the numerous small stones often found in con- 
nexion with such chambers it is not improbable that 
the covering material was, at least pruicipally, of earth 
and turf At a distance of about thirty feet may, in 
the opinion of Mr. Houseman, the vicar of the parish, 
exist remains of the exterior circle, visually of detached 
stones surrounding the base of the tumulus, but Mr. 
Phillott thinks the fact doubtful. Such exterior circles, 
however, were so common that they may be considered 
almost normal, although care must be taken to distin- 
guish them from smaller ones within them. These 
latter are easily distinguished by the stones touching 
one another more or less closely, and their considerable 
smaller diameter. 


The chamber orighially seems to have been supported 
by twelve upright stones, some of ^vhich have long since 
fallen clown. Their average height is small as com- 
pared with the slab they supported, the longest of them 
standing about four feet from the ground, the covering- 
stone (now fractured) being 19 feet 3 inches long, 
with a maximum breadth of nearly 1 1 feet. A stone 
stands at some little distance, probably connected with 
the monument, but in what way is uncertain. 

The position of the chamber is not that of east and west, 
as the majority of such chambers appear to be both in 
this country and France, but it turns more towards the 
north. At this end also appears to have been the ori- 
ginal entrance, which was usually closed by a stone 
capable of being removed from time to time, when fresh 
interments took place, without disturbing the structure. 
Such stone or stones could therefore have nothing to do 
with the support of the covering slab. The two sides 
and end alone supported the weight, the open end being- 
only closed after the interment had taken place. In 
some instances, instead of one or more slabs being used 
for this purpose, a wall of dry masonry was budt. which 
woidd hardly have been the case if it was intended to 
bear any great weight. 

Considering- the sadly mutilated state to which most 
of such chambers have been long since reduced, the 
Bredvvardine one may be considered as among the more 
perfect ones remaining. The chamber does not appear 
to have ever been longer than it is at present, so that 
its original dimensions' are easily ascertained. 

As usual it is associated with King Arthur, it being 
called by the -peasants Arthur s Stone ; they, however, 
probably apply the term only to the large covering slab 
and not the whole structure. No careful collection of 
such instances of Arthur's name has yet been made, 
but probably all the more important masses of stone 
throughout AVales will be found so associated. 

E. L. Bakxwell. 



{Read at the Brecon Meeting, 1872.) 

Llanddew, like many other Welsli proper names wliicli 
have occupied the attention of the philologist, has at 
best a doubtful derivation and an unsettled orthogra- 
phy. The most common Avay in which the word is at 
present spelt is lAanthew. This is simply an Anglicised 
form, and claims no further notice. In the manorial 
records and in Pope Nicholas' Taxation the word is 
written Landon,hu^ "pon '^^'l^at ground does not appear. 
The other two forms, Llandduw and Llanddew, call for 
some attention, as they are deduced from independent 
sources, each of them laying claim to the correct deriva- 
tion. The former, Llandduw (the church of God) agrees 
with the derivation given by Giraldus, who says, "Llan- 
deu ecclesia Dei sonat". The latter, Llanddew, as an 
abbreviation of Llanddew i (the church of St. David's), 
is the orthography and derivation adopted by Mr.Theo- 
philus Jones, the historian of Brecknockshire. Those 
who follow the derivation given by Giraldus extend the 
■ word Dmv to mean the Holy Trinity; and in confirma- 
tion of their opinion quote Ecton, who states that the 
church was dedicated to the Holy Trinity; and they 
add that the wake, or feast, is still held on Trinity 
Sunday. But against this argument it may be urged 
that there is no instance in the Principality of a church 
dedicated to the Triune God under the form Llan-dduw. 
Llan y Drindod we have ; and if this church had been 
Trinity Church, it Avould, doubtless, like a church in 
Radnorshii-e, have been called Llandrindod; while with 
regard to the feast being held on Trinity Sunday, nume- 
rous instances may be cited where the feast is not held 
on the patron saint's day. 

On the other hand, 'it must be observed, as going 

278 NOTES ON THE rAllI.Sil 

against the other derivation, that it is singular that the 
final i sliould have been dropped in Llanddew(i) whilst 
it is retained in Llanddewi Brefi, Llanddewi Aloergwes- 
sin, and other instances. Still it is quite possible that 
the final i in these instances may have been preserved 
by the appended words. Without, however, presuming 
to decide Avliich of these derivations is the correct one, 
I am disposed to think that the balance of probabdities 
is in favour of Llanddew for Llanddewi (the church of 
St. David). And this view is strengthened, if not fully 
confirmed, by an entry made in a register at Abergwili 
so far back as the fourteenth century, in which Guy de 
Mona, who was elevated to the see of St. David in 1397, 
and who then resided at his palace at Llanddew, is 
described as the Lord Bishop of LlanddcAv, otherwise 

The villao-e of Llanddew is situated about a mile and 
three cj^uarters to the north-east of the town of Breck- 
nock, and contains the bulk of the population of the 
parish, which, according to the last census, was 320, 
but in 1801 was only 174, from which it appears that 
the pop\dation has doubled itself in the last seventy 
years. The chief places of interest to the archfeologist 
are the ancient parish church, and the site and remains 
of the Palace of the Bishops of St. David's. There are, 
however, within the parish some other places of suffi- 
cient interest to deserve a passing notice. 

On the Hay road, about two miles from Brecon, is a 
tenement called " Troed yr Harn", a cori'uption of " Tref 
Trehaern"(the home or residence of Trehaern), the place 
having been a part of the possessions, and one of the 
mansions, of Trehaern Fychan, one of the descendants 
of Gwrgan ab Bleddyn, a man of great power in Breck- 
nockshire. A legend in connexion with this place states 
that Trehaern Fychan having come to Llangors to meet 
William deBreos, with the intention of holding a friendly 
conference, was treacherously seized by his orders, then 
ftistened to a horse's tail, and in this manner di-agged 
through the streets of Brecon to the gallows, where he 
was beheaded, and afterwards suspended by his feet. 


1 1 

1 1 




Adjoining the farm is anotlier tenement called " Alex- 
anderstone", to which is attached an ancient manor 
belonging to Lord Tredegar, called "Alexanderstone" 
and "^Mara Mota", comprehending parcels of this and 
two or three other parishes. 

Close to the farmhouse is a mound measuring, east 
and west, 75 feet ; south and north, 57 feet ; height, 
15 ft. As to its original purpose, whether intended as 
a place of interment for the individual whose name the 
property bears, or for any other particular use (a plan 
and section, with dimensions, are appended), I woidd, 
rather than hazard a conjecture, leave the solution of 
the problem to the fancy or ingenuity of the antiquaiy.^ 
Proceeding hence for about a quarter of a mile along 
the road that leads from Troed yr Harn to the village,^ 
we come to a small tenement commonly cahed ''Standel," 
but which, it is conjectured, should properly be wiitten 
Standard, from a tradition that it was the spot where 
the standard of Henry VII was fixed when part of his 
troops, under the command of Sir Pdiys ab Thomas, 
marched through this county in theh route from ^^lil- 
ford Haven to join their leaders at Shrewsbury. Pro- 
ceeding another quarter of a mile to the noiih-west we 
come to another tenement Avhich, on account of its 
orthography, deserves a passing remark. It is Peytin 
Du. This farm, with the other.two adjoining it, Peytin 
Gwyn and Peytin Glas (in the parish of Llandefaelog 
fach), were purchased by Llewel}-n, the father of Sir 
David Gam, from William Peyton, after whom the tene- 
ments were called; hence Peytin, a corruption of Peyton, 
the appended words du, gwyn, glas being probably in- 
tended to describe respectively the colour of the soil. 
Peytin Gwyn derives some historical importance from 
having been the early residence, if not the birth place 

of Su^ David Gam, who took so active a part in the 

1 If we may form an opinion from the cn^'raving of this mound, 
we might suggest that it has all the appearance of having been, at 
one time, surmounted by some building, more probably of some 
stronghold. — Ed. Arch. Camh. 


political contests of his time as the zealous partizan of 
the house of Lancaster, and was the bitter opponent of 
the celebrated chieftain of North Wales, Owain Glyn- 
dwr, Avho was equally zealous and active in favour of 
the House of York. Sir David was the son of Llewelyn 
ab Howel Vaughan, and as is well known was called 
Gam from his squinting, a name he has handed down 
to his descendants the Gams and Games of the present 

Returning to the village the chief object of interest 
is the parisli church, wliich is one of the earliest in the 
county, and which may perhaps claim a seniority over 
the parish church of St. John, Brecon. It is a build- 
ino- of the tliirteenth century, as Avill be seen from the 
accompanying engraving from a drawing by the late 
Mr. Longueville Jones. Like many other churches it 
has undergone at different periods a great number of 
alterations, but with the exception of the nave, which 
is of late and barbarous work, the original church re- 
mains nearly intact as to outline and character. The 
building is cruciform, with lancet windows, which appear 
originally to have been surmounted with handsome free- 
stone mouldings. The intersection of the transepts 
with the body of the church is surmounted by a clumsy 
low tower erected in 1623, and probably the successor 
of one much superior in every way. Of the foru" bells 
it once contained there are now only two left, the others 
having, it appears, been sold and the proceeds appro- 
priated to some of the aforesaid alterations, which so 
disfigure the ancient pile. The south transept, like 
that of the priory, is called Capel y Cochiaid (the chapel 
of the red-haired men, or Normans). This chapel has 
been blocked off from the rest of the building, and was 
some years ago used as a schoolroom. Its gable is dis- 
fio-ured by a small square window, and surmounted by 
an unsightly brick chimney, altogether presenting a most 
melancholy appearance. The other transept is remark- 
able for an exceedingly slender lancet in the east wall, 
set in a tall altar recess. The long chancel is a perfect 



specimen of the style of the period. " It is," says Mr. 
Freeman, " with its three lancets on each side, its east- 
ern triplet, its trefoil-headed priest's door, unsurpassed 
for the combination of perfect plainness with perfect 
excellence." Under the tower is a massive font of the 

twelfth century, remarkable for its rudeness, as will be 
seen from the representation here given from a drawing 
by the same hand Thcie aie also in the usual place 
the lemains of a piscina The stuup belonging to this 

church was, I hl^t li lii int.niiiMl discovered some 
m a cottac'-e m the \ illage b_y the same accom- 

years ago 

4th SLll., VOL. IV 


plished ai)tic|uai'y, the Rev. H. Longueville Jones.' It 
is now in the possession of the treasurer of the Associ- 
ation, who has promised to replace it as soon as the 
cliurch shall be restored. In the walls of the chancel 
are two corbels, which were probably used for support- 
ing images, and in the corners near the tower are blocks 
of masonry which appear to have been put there to 
support some alterations made in the church, and not, 
I think, as has been supposed, to block up hagioscopes 
of the existence of which there is, at present at least, 
not the slightest trace. There are no ancient monu- 
ments in this church, but the walls of the chancel are 
disfigured by numerous tasteless modern tablets, on 
which are inscribed epitaphs and poetical effusions which 
mark an era that happily is passing away. In the 
chancel floor is a stone slab in a good state of preserva- 
tion, bearing the following inscription : " Here lyeth the 
• body of James Powell of Troed yr Harn, gent., son of 
Thomas Powell by Catherine his wife, one of the daugh- 
ters of Aurilius {sic) Williams, in the county of Mon- 
mouth, Doctor of Physick, who died the 27th day 
of March in the 28th year of his age, and in the year 
of our Lord God 1698." In the east wall of the tower, 
near the stone commemorating its rebuilding, are the 
arms of William Havard and William Griflith, the 
then churchwardens. The arms of Havard are a bull's 
head ; that of Griflith a lion rampant. Near the church, 
separated only by the village road, is the site upon 
which once stood the palace of the distinguished Giral- 
dus Cambrensis, and which still contains the remains of 
one of the pnlaces of the bishops of St. David's, pro- 
bably built by Bishop Gower in the fourteenth century. 
The site is oblong in shape, and covers about an acre 
and a quarter of ground. It is bounded on the west 
and north by the old walls, now in a dilapidated state, 
on the east by a hedge, and on the south by a part of 
the old wall, and the remains of a handsome gothic 
arch, which the accompanying engraving represents. 

! See Jyrh. C'oinh., 3rd Series, vol. xiv, n. 1G7. 


— ^-] — 



— J. J 


Tlie western wall contains a semicircular bastion, find 
an exceedingly fine well, which yields an abundant and 
constant supply of the purest water. The well is arched 
over and so divided as to leave one half for the supply 
of the outside village and the other half for private uso 
within the walls. This well, and the arch above men- 
tioned, are of the fourteenth century, and bear traces of 
the work of that zealous promoter of church architecture, 
the good Bishop Gower. When, however, the original 
building, the one probably inhabited by Giraldus, was 
erected, or came into the hands of the bishops of St. 
David's, there are, I believe, no records to show. 

In a statute made by Bishop Gower in A.D. 1342 to 
discharge and exonerate the bishops of St. David's from 
keeping up more episcopal castles and houses than Avere 
necessary ; six other places of residence, and this of 
Llanddew, were ordered to be supported and maintained. 
Leland, in speaking of this place, gives the following- 
account of it : — " Llanedu, a mile from Brecknock, a 
lordship of the Bishop of St. David's, where was some 
time a very faiyre place of the Bishop of St. David's, 
but now nothing but an onsemeli mine. The Arch- 
deacon of Brecknock hath a house even there, and that 
is also fallen dowen for the most part." After this 
description, given so far back by the accurate Leland, 
it is scarcely necessary to add that of the episcopal 
jDalace, except a few traces of the foundation discovered 
whilst levelling the ground about the vicarage recently 
built upon the site, very little now remains. 

On the north side of the site, however, considerable 
portions of the walls of what has erroneously been called 
the chapel are still standing. The fact of this building- 
being one of two stories appears to be incompatible Avith 
such a statement, and favours rather the opinion of its 
having- been the great hall of the palace. Tiie north 
wall, 47 feet long, containing portions of three lancets, 
and the two ends, 22 feet wide, with a lancet in each, 
are in part remaining ; but of the south wall shown in 
Buck's engraving nothing is left but the foundation. 



Interesting as this place is, for so many reasons, it 
nevertheless derives its great historical interest from its 
connection with the renowned and I may say extraordi- 
nary Archdeacon of Brecon, Giraldus Cambreusis. It is 
associated Avith some of the most stirring and interest- 
ing episodes in his eventful history, and is fi-equently 
mentioned by him in his writings in terms of much 
commendation. In one place he thus complacently 
alludes to it : " In these temperate regions I have ob- 
tained (accorduig to the usual expression) a place of 
dignity, but no great omen of future pomp or riches; 
and possessing a small residence near the Castle of 
Brecheiniog, well adapted to literary pursuits and the 
contemplation of eternity, I envy not the riches of Croe- 
sus ; happy and contented with that mediocrity which 
I prize far beyond aU the perishable and transitory 
things of this world." It was here, in 1187, he enter- 
tained no less a personage than Baldwin, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, who, having come into Wales on his cru- 
sading mission, and having succeeded in making a con- 
vert of C4iraldus (who was the first to take the cross), 
stayed over the night with the Archdeacon at his palace. 
In Hoare's Itinerary Ave read : " The word of the Lord 
being preached at Llanddew, we spent there the night. 
The Archdeacon of that place having presented to the 
Archbishop his Avork on the topography of Ireland, he 
graciously receiA-ed it ; and either read, or heard a part of 
it read, OA'ery day during his journey, and on his return 
to England completed the perusal of it." It was fi-om 
LlanddoAv he accompanied the Archbishop on his mission 
through Wales ; and when the evil tidings were com- 
municated to him, as he Avas returning home from the 
Avilds of Cardiganshire, of the seizure of aU the lands 
belonging to the see of St. David, by William de Breos 
on behalf of the King, it Avas to his palace at Llanddew 
he alluded when he addressed those cheeiing words to 
his companions: "Have Ave not some good ale at home? 
Let us go and drink it before it be all gone." 

J. Lane Da vies. 

Llancldcw Vicaracrc : June 5tl], 1873. 





Sii!, — Mr. J. Rhys may assure himself that the names on the BridcU 
Stone have no connexion whatever with the "N'aion Leud of Ethel- 
werd's Chronicle", or the " Noelhaii and Niuijthou of the loJo MSS." 
I have already shown, beyond doubt, that there is no such form as 
Netta in the inscription; the language, formula, and characters of 
which are purely Gaedlielic. It is, therefore, a pure waste of time 
to spend further criticism on it. 

Mr. Rhys has also sought to find the names Vinnemagli and Seiie- 
VKKjli in Welsh records, and conceives that the former " has sur- 
vived in the form of Gwenfael, which occurs in the lolo MSS., p. 
144"; but that he has in vain "looked out for a representative of 
Senemagli in the form of Henfael". Both of the names in question 
are Irish, as are most, if not all, the names found on those monu- 
ments hitherto known as Romano-British. This is an assertion that 
I know will shock most of my Cymric friends ; but I cannot help it, 
and mean to prove it, though not on the present occasion. Vhme- 
magli is a compound name having the Vimie as a prefix. This is 
the Irish Finne, which signifies " whiteness", " fairness", and is used 
as a name in itself, and as a prefix to hundreds of Irish names, as 
Finntan, Finchu, Fiunbhar, Finnchadhan, etc. ; and also as a sufti.x", 
e. g., Brantinn, BairSnn, etc. In Irish there is no v, the sound is 
represented by mh and/. 

Magli. — This is a fcirm of the well known Irish term Mael. Ou 
the pillar of Eliseg it is found in the latter form in Brochmael. 
This word signifies " bald" or " tonsured", " a shaved person devoted 
to some religious order". (O'Reilly's Jr. D/c^.) In i\\& Axnah of 
the Four blasters we find three hundred names with this prefix (see 
Index nominum). The exact name, in the reversed form of AlaelHn- 
nia, will be found in the same authority, at a.d. 892,897,894,898. But 
more, the identical form will be found at a.d. 694, where we have 
recorded the obit of" Fianamhail, son of j\Iaenach"; and at a.d. G78, 
the slaying of Fianamhail, son of Maeltuile. Several other persons 
of this name are recorded in the same authority. 

Senemagli. — This is a name of similar formation. The Sen is a 
common prefix to Irish names. It signifies an " ancestor", a " se- 
nior", and is a term of dignity and reverence. Numbers of names 
with this prefix will be found in the indices of the Annah of the Four 
Madcrs, Martijrologij of Donegal, and other similar authorities, as 


Seuan, Sericlian, Scnog-, Seuacli. Such forms ns Finn Jlagawly and 
Seanach Ma.G^awly are frequent. 

Respecting the inscription at Peurlios Llngwy, Mr. Rhys states 
that "he" (Mr. Brasli) "tries to show that it commemorates a per- 
son belonging to the Gaeclhelio race." I liave not tried to prove 
that which is apparent to every person conversant with the Irish 
laug-uage. I have simply called attention to the form of the name 
in this inscription, which is purely Gaedhelic ; and I have givcii 
examples, from Irish som-ces, both of the formula and name. I will 
now give Mr. Rhys another in addition to those already quoted, and 
\vhich I have identified since my last communication. It is to be 
seen on an Ogham-inscribed stone standing 17 feet 6 inches above 
ground, at Ballycrovane Bay, in the extreme south-west of the county 
of Cork, and which commences with macui dkccedda. I i\-ould 
again remark that the old Irish used t and d indifferently and com- 
mntably; and also that they used the genitive in -i as well as in -a, 
particularly in Ogham inscriptions. Mr. Rhys has laboured very 
learnedly and very ingeniously to torture this inscription into that 
which it is not, moved evidently by a strong national prejudice, 
which should have nothing to do with antiquarian research. I, as 
an Irishman, recognise on Welsh soil a name and a formula that at 
a glance I know to be Irish ; and finding from ancient Welsh 
authorities, as well as from topographical names, that my country- 
jQen were once in possession of the very distiict in which sucli was 
found, what other conclusion could I come to ? Were I to find on 
the shores of Wexford or Waterford a sepulchral inscription to 
Grimth ap Owen, I should be fully as justified in claiming it to be 
Irish as Mr. Rhys is in claiming Maccui iJecefti to be Welsh. 

Respecting the inscribed monument at Clydai there can be no 
question that it was bilingual. I have carefully examined it, and 
find that a portion of the head of the stone has been knocked off, as 
it once did duty as the pedestal of a sun-dial, the stumps of the four 
iron pins which secured the plate being still in the top. The Ogham 
inscription has, therefore, been injured, and a portion of it lost. 
Vriiat remains reads as follows : on the top left hand angle, ettkkn' ; 
the X is close to the present top of the stone. On the opposite angle, 
reading from the top downwards, tor, the T being close to the top. 
Ic is here evident that the inscription commenced on the left angle, 
reading upwards, continued round the head and down the opposite 
angle; the entire reading etterni macdi fector. The Latin inscrip- 
tion reads from the top downward, on the face of the stone, eterni 
FILE VICTOR. As I have before remarked, the Irish used mh and / 
instead of i^, the patronymic must have read either fictor or fector. 
I incline to the latter form, Fee being a common prefix to Irish 
name.-;, as Fechin, Fecthach, Fechna ; and Tor signifies a " head, 
.chief, or sovereign prince", and is used both as a prefix and suffix, 
as Torbach, Torpan, Toranan. 

I have also examined and copied the Lougher Stone. The inscrip- 
tion is much damaged. Only two letters are determinable, ic. 


Before tlio I arc two scores across the angle, which, if a letter, would 
be G ; but as there is a flake off the angle before it, it may liave 
formed a portion of an k. There is neither an l nor an F on the 
stone. Farther down is one score ; but as the angle before and after 
it is damaged, it cannot be determined whether it is an M or a por- 
tion of another letter. 


Sir, — Tour correspondent W. H. P. will find in the Mijtholotjy 
and Eites of the British Druids several references to this subject, 
notably at pp. 4, 14, 60, 02, 69, and in several other parts of the 
work. Not being a Welsh scholar I am nnable to ascertain with 
what accuracy Davies has rendered from the original the passages 
quoted in his work ; whatever view we may take of his speculations, 
I am informed that he was a good "Welsh scholar, and generally a 
ftiithful translator. Richard Rolt Bkasu. 


SiK, — As inclosures and consequent improvements are fast remov- 
ing all traces of old landmarks, I think it desirable to call attention 
to a .small square entrenchment, unnoticed in Williams' Bndnorfhirc 
and the Ordnance survey, on what was Llandrindod common. Those 
who are acquainted with the turnpike road from Llandrindod to 
Howey, may remember tliat after the top of the hill is reached tliere 
was on the west close to the road a wide shallow pool, D5uch fre- 
quented on a hot day by cattle and ponies, which has now in a great 
measure disappeared by drainage in making the Central Wales rail- 
way. About a hundred yards to the noi'th of this pool I observed, 
while I was making arrangements for planting, an appearance of an 
earthwork almost obscured by gorse, which grew high and thickly 
there. Now that the gorse has been cleared away, the form of the 
earthwork appears in its original state, save so far as time has de- 
pressed the earth which was thrown up. Its form is square, and it 
presents all the requirements of a Roman camp in miniature; mea- 
sured from the outside of the fosse it is about IIO feet in length and 
nearly of the same width. There are four entrances, in the centre 
of each side of the square, those on the north and south about 10 
feet, and those on the east and west 6 feet wide ; fosse and agger 
together only occupy G feet in width. The site commands an un- 
interrupted view of the adjoining country on all sides, and is within 
signalling distance of Castle Colleu and of the circular entrenchment 
near Howey known as Caer Ddu. The old track referred to by BIr. 
S. W. Williams in his account of Castle Colleni runs a little to the 
west of the entrenchment. There can be but little doubt that it 
served as an outpost, or camp of observation ; for the camp at Castle 

Arc/i. Camb., vol. i, 4th Series. 

288 COItllES rONDENC E. 

Collen, for its small size precludes tbo supposition of auy but a tem- 
porary occupation of it. The main approach to Castle Collen was 
from Newbridge on Wye by Llanyre Church, on tlie west of Itlion. 
The line of the road is shown in the Ordnance survey ; but the ap- 
pearance of the narrow raised roadway has long since disappeared. 
"When the commons in Llanyre were about to be inclosed in ] 841-2 
its appearance attracted the attention of the passer-by and left no 
doubt on the mind who were its constructors, but the Commissioners 
.set out a new road, 30 feet wide, from Llanyre to Newbridge, pretty 
much on the line of the old road, tilled up the inequalities and planed 
a thick coat of road metal on the surface. The hard trap metal 
would not bind, and so river gravel was thrown on the face. This 
was obtained from two conical mounds, indicated by shading in the 
Ordnance survey, which stood on either side of the road on a farm 
called Cerrig Croes, and which were levelled for the purpose. I 
made inquiry of the roadman at the time whether any remains were 
met with, and was told that both mounds were mere heaps of river 
gravel, but it is quite possible that any signs of charcoal or ashes 
may have escaped his attention. 

I remain yours, &c. 
May 12, 1S73. R. ^Y. B. 


Sir, — It is needless to remind you, that, of the historical sciences 
which have lately come into existence, and commonly have the epi- 
thet "comparative" attached to them, comparative mythology is one 
of the most instructive and important; now I wish especially to ask 
whether you could not allow a little space in each number of the 
Journal of the Cambrian Archreological Association for abudget of 
folklore and mythology. Your readers are pretty well aware that 
this is no novel subject to yon, who have enriched the Welsh lan- 
guage with the term lien y weriu as a most happy rendering of the 
English "folklore", and contributed valuable articles on it to the 
late lamented Bnjilon. I may add that I think you would be able 
to fix on proper persons in different parts of the Principality to report 
to you the folklore of their respective localities, and, in default of 
this, it would be well to publish many a tale in the Arch. Camb., 
•which is now to be found in books only accessible to few. With 
your kind permission I subjoin my own humble contributions to the 
mythological budget I here propose : — 

1. It used to be said in north Cardiganshire about twenty years ago 
that when rain falls in sunshine the devil must be caressing his wife. 
Now, so far as I know, this is known to writers iu mythology only 
as a Teutonic saying, coupled with another to the effect that a rapid 
alternation of sunshine and shower is occasioned by the devil blanch- 
ing his grandmother. 

2. The Teutonic devil is a craven hungry fellow, by no means 
hard to be outwitted ; but no less so is he in Welsh traditions ; for 


instnncc, in ilic falc which relates how Devil's "Bridge was built ; by 
the way 1 helievc there is a Devil's Bridge in Dritanuy and another 
iu Switzerland, and, as for as I can recollect, the account of the 
building of them is nearly identical with that of ours iu nortli 

3. "In many popular tales," says Cox, in his work on the lUi/- 
tlioJogy of the Arijan Kailons, vol. ii, 280, " these blue pastures with 
the white flocks [= the clouds] feeding on them are reflected in the 
water, and the sheep feeding far down in the depths are made the 
means by which Boots or Dummling (the beggar Odysseus) lures 
his stupid brothers to their death." This calls back to my mind a 
story which I heard when a boy from a servant in Cardiganshire : 
as far as I fan recall it, it ran thus : " Once on a time there were 
three brothers who had some property left them to be equally divided 
among them ; the third brother seemed to be an idiot, and was 
treated as such by the other two. One day he drove to the yard a 
lot of fat sheep [how he got them I don't remember, though I think 
it was in the tale], the brothers asked him where he had got them, 
he answered that it was at the bottom of the sea ; the three then 
went to the sea, and one of the brothers was thrown into it at his 
own request (here the rustic imitated to me the bubbling of the 
water as it closed upon him). ' What is he doing now,' said the 
other brother to the idiot. ' Oh, he is picking out the best sheep, 
said the latter. 'Pray throw me in at once after him,' said the 
o-reedy brother who was left behind. Thus the supposed idiot got 
?id of his two brothers and came into possession of the entire pro- 
perty." I should be dad to have a better version of this tale as told 
in Wales, for I am nol sure of the details, but I am certain it con- 
tained nothing about the reflection in the water, and that it left 
untouched the question as to how the two brothers could possibly bo 
persuaded that their brother had got his sheep in the sea, and pro- 
ceeded iust as if it were quite a common thing to find flocks of 
sheep feeding in the sea. Without making any remark on the 
mythological importance of the above and sinular passages of a 
folklore which lingers underthe ban of our Sunday schools, I con- 
clude by returning to my original question as to whether the Arch. 
Camh. can do anything to save them from utter oblivion. 

I remain, vours truly, Pkilomythos. 

Sn;,— 1. In taking down Dyserth Church a stone has been dis- 
covered on which are the following inscriptions of the thirteenth or 
fourteenth century :— t HIC JACET : eobekT:f':RYN:f':BLED':f':MAD' and 
tmc JACET: H F':RYX:y':BLED' f' Jiad': that is, Hic jacet filius Ro- 
bert filius Ryn filius Bledyn filius Madoc, and Hic jacet H films 

Ryn filius Bledyn filius iladoo. The name of the .second brother is 
illco-ible, but would seem to begiu with H. Perhaps some ono of the 


readers of tliis journal will bo able to tell us who these men wei-o 
and when they lived. Bi/)i is to mo a new name, but I think it can- 
not be read evn, ;. e., Run. 

2. The Rev. D. R. Thomas of Cefn tells me that there is at Llan- 
ervyl in Montgomer^-shiro a stone which reads somewhat as follows: 


Would some member of the Association kindly take a rubbing of 
this stone ? 

3. The inscription mentioned in the Arch. Caml. for 18-lG, p. 
G7, as being at Heueglwys, is there given upside down. I see on it 
portions of the words filivs, anijia, and ukqviescat. The stone should 
be once more carefully examined and a rubbing taken of it. 

I remain, &c. J. RuYS. 


Sir, — I cannot pretend to be able to give a complete answer fo 
the queries of " Enquirer" (p. '201) respecting Cwm Dii ; but the fol- 
lowing extract from the Literary Remains of the late Rev. Thos. Price 
(Carnliuanawc), edited by Miss Jane Williams (Llandovery, 1855), 
tends to show that the statement made by Mr. Carlisle is not with- 
out foundation. At p. 200 of the second volume iliss Williams in- 
troduces us into the scene of Mr. Price's labours, and the place 
where he ended his days, in these words : " The inhabitants of Llau- 
fihangel Cwmdii say proverbially : 

' Cam euwir ef Cwmdu, 

Cwm gwjn yw'n cwm ni V 

The dark vale is a wrong name, 

Ours really beiug a bright vale. 

Its vicinity to the Mynydd DCi is supposed to have originated the 
title of CwnuKi." 

Whatever may be its origin, Cwm Du is a very inappropriate name 
for this valley, which is one of the brightest and prettiest in the 
Principality, and the natives seem to look upon it in that light. 

I am, Sir, yours tridy, Riiiangoll. 

Slidjaeolosical i^otcs nuU (liiucrirs. 

jVotc. 22. — C.Vi'H (p. 20G, ante). It is .some satisfaction to 
know that Owen Pughe was not the first to convert Cath. Balug into 
a myth, though the explanation in his Dictionar}- must have assisted 
to give currency to the fable. In " Trioed Arthur ae Wyr" (Triads 
of Arthur and his Men), a document apparently of the fourteenth 
century, printed at the end of the second volume of the Four Aa- 
cieid Buolcs of Wales, p. -150, from the Hcugwrl MS. 530, we find the 


myth in full bloom. One of these Triads (23), the subject of which 
is "Tri gwrdueicbat Yiiys Prydein" (the three powerful swine- 
herds of tlie Island of Britain) ends in these words : " Ac odyno yd 
aeth hyt y Jlaendu yn Llanueir yn Aruon ; ac yno y dodwes ar 
keneu kcneu hwnnw a uyrywys Coll mab Collurewy ym 
Jlenei; a honno wedy hynny uu Cath Paluc ; which_ Mr bkene 
translates as follows : " And thence going to Maendu in L anfare, 
in Arvon, and there she dropped a kitten, and Coll, son of Gollfrewy, 
threw the kitten into the Menai, and she became afterwards the 
Palnc cat." Thus we see that the myth of the "Paluc cat" must have 
been in a flourishint; condition several centuries before the birth ot 
Dr. Owen Pughe. Deixiol. 

A^o^e 23.-DEFYROEANI (p. 206, ante). While waiting for addi- 
tional information regarding this place as desiderated by Mr. Khys 
in the last number of the Joxmial, I may mention that the editors ot 
the Mo Manuscripts state in a note at p. 6G9 of that work that the 
Island of Ceylon, which they identify with Deffrobani,was"celebrated 
as havincr been the residence of Adam"; but they give no reference 
At T. ''62 of the same work the name appears in a slightly modifaed 
form' namely, Vcffro Bain, which the rhyme proves to be the correct 
reading, though the editors, for some unexplained reason, reproduce 
it as Defwhannaii. „ , , • 

Goruc Hugadarn gymmhram 

Ar Gvrary Ynys Prydain 

I ddyffryd o Ddeffro Bain. 

Thus rendered at p. 669 of the same volume :— 

The achievement of Hu Gadarn was forming social order 
For the Gymry of the Island of Britain, 
For their removal from Defrobannau [Deftro iJainJ. 
The Irish, too, appear to have their Defirobani, which, in their 
dialect, assumes the form oiTivraJaine or '^'^^'^^[Fame lu a poem 
e'criptive of the travels and adventures of Mihdh (Milesius) and 
his comrades from Scythia to Spain, attributed to Ci.infaela (who, ac- 
cording to the Irish annals, died a.d. 678 or 679), which is pre- 
se'Sn the Book of Ballymote, a MS. said to be of the latter end 
of the fourteenth century, and printedin the 2no.snchoHS of the now 
defunct Ossianic Society for the year 18o7 (Dublin, 1860 8vo), 
p 268, occur the following stanzas, which I give m the literal trans- 
lation 'of Professor Connellan :— 

They remained three months in the island 
Of rivrafaine oi YoxU ; _ 

Three months more, a stormy period. 

They sailed on the boisterous sea 

At the expiration of eight years from thence they sailed. 

Warned by fate to be their rightful destiny ; 

At Tiprafaine they remained a moiitli, 

lu which they experieuccd neither woe nor sorrow. 


That the Tiprafaine of these verses is the same as the Dcffrobani 
of the Welsh documents admits of but little doubt. It would be in- 
teresting to know what other allusions to this place there may be in 
ancient Irish writings. Deln'iol. 

A'ofe 24. — CoRSTiNABYL (p. 207, ante). The form " Coretinabj'l" 
appears to be peculiar to "Tstoria Chyarlys" in the Red Book of 
Hergest, and probably owes its origin to an error on the part of the 
scribe of that portion of the volume. Coostinobl (or some similar 
form with an n as the third letter) is the usual spelling, and in this 
guise the name is of no very uncommon occurrence. It would be 
interesting to know whether Corstiuabyl or CoJ'stinobl (with an ?■) 
occurs in any other ancient documents. Deiniol. 

Quenj 19. — Chwjlfyxydd. Is there any place in Upper Cardigan- 
shire or in the southern part of INIerionethshire known at the 
present day as Ghwilfijnydd ? The name occurs in a predictive poem 
found in the Red Book of Hergest, and printed in the Four Ancient 
Books of Wales, ii, 292, and is there associated with the river Eleri, 
which is the well known stream which flows through a portion of 
Cors Fochno, and now falls into the estuaiy of the Dyfi, opposite 
the town of Abcrdovey in Merionethshire. 

Llad a bodi. o eleri. hyt chwiluynyd. 

The Eleri formerly entered the sea at T Berth (the port), hence 
the name of that rising watering-place; and its present channel 
from that village to the DyQ is artificial. Chwilfynydd may not be 
fur from Cors Fochno and its meandering river, and the name may 
perhaps be known to some readers of the Archceolugia Gamhrensis. 


Query 20. — Two of Edward Lhwyd's letters printed in his Litho- 
j)lujLacii Britannid Ichnographia (London, 1699) are dated respec- 
tively Scotohuriji apud Pembrochienses and Gotohergi ? What places 
arc intended by these names ? The other letters in the same volume 
are dated Galdeice Dinieiaruni Insulce, North-Biorley, Cereticce, and 
CataraotcB apud Radnorienses ; and the "Prasfatio"' bears date, Mun- 
gomerice, i\ov. 1. Anno 1G98. Dyvedon. 

Note 25. — Stone Circle. On an elevated bleak flat lying be- 
tween two high hills, some three miles from the village of Taliesin, 
and about two miles from Taliesin's Grave, in the upper part of the 
parish of Llangynfelyn, Cardiganshire, will be found a stone circle, 
known in the neighbourhood as "Cylch Derwyddol" (Druidic circle), 
which, as far as I know, has not been hitherto noticed. ^ It mea- 

' We believe it was visited by members of the Association during the 
Aberystwyth meeting in ISiV. fee Arch. Camh., 1st series, vol. ii, p. 3S7. 
— Ed. Arch. Camb. 

miscp:llaneous nottcks. 293 

siires about IRO feet in circumference, and consists at present of 
about fort}- stones, some of wliich are about half a yard above the 
surrounding surface while others are almost level with it. Towards 
Moel Ll3-n, which lies to the east, a considerable number of these 
stones appear to have been removed for some purpose or other, as 
in that direction only some three or four stones remain in a segment 
forming about one-fourth of the circle, and there are some gaps in 
the other parts ; so that originally the circle would seem to have 
consisted of about sixty stones. This tract of ground, which is 
peaty and partially covered by heath, forms part of the farm called 
Cae yr Arglwyddcs, the property of Sir Prysc Pryse, Bart., of 
Gogcrddan. J. H. S. E. 

JHisccllancous Notices. 

The Tenbt Walls. — The spirit of Vandalism appears to have been 
rampant for some time past among a section of the town council of 
Tenby, and nothing seems calculated to satisfy it but the total demo- 
lition of the most interesting portion of the mediasval remains which 
form one of the principal attractions of the town. During the last few 
years proposals have from time to time been made by the more " en- 
lightened" members of the body corporate to relieve the town of every 
vestige of its past history, and their eye dwelt with particular ill 
favour on the South-western Gatehouse, which is a largo serai-circu- 
lar tower or bastion, pierced by a gateway, and confessedly of great 
antiquity and beauty, and of architectural and historical interest. 
Matters culminated on the 12th of May last, when at a meeting of 
the corporation a resolution was carried by the casting vote of the 
chairman (notwithstanding the opposition of the minority) for the 
removal of the Gatehouse, and advertisements were soon issued for 
tenders for the work of demolition. The opposition of the minority 
was supported by a protest signed by fifty-two out of the sixty free- 
holders of the town, and by many of the principal ratepayers. But 
town councillors, bent upon "improvements", and strong in a ma- 
iority of one, are not to be diverted from their object, and should not 
"be mistaken for ordinary mortals. With these magnates the oppo- 
sition of a minority, the protestations of freeholders and ratepayers, 
and the remonstrances of learned societies, were equally of no avail. 
There was, therefore, but one course open to the people of Tenby by 
which they could hope to save the doomed gatehouse from immediate 
and complete destruction. Dr. George Chater, a freeholder of the 
borough and one of the councillors that voted in the minority, applied 
to the Court of Chancery for an injunction to restrain the corpora- 
tion from pulling down this ancient structure ; and the case came 
on for hearing on the 23rd of June before Vice-Chanccllor Sir R. 
Malins; but the councillors, having apparently heard something 


about the better part of valour, did not appear to oppose tlie motion, 
and the injunction was granted. We hope that we have now heard 
the last of these barbarous and discreditable attempts to destroy the 
ancient walls of Tenby, and that the lesson just inculcated on the 
town council will not be lost on others whose organs of destructive- 
ness may be rather prominently developed. Dr. Chater is entitled 
to the warmest gratitude of his fellow townsmen and of all persons 
of taste throughout the country. 

The Celtic Remains. — Appended to this number of the Journal 
will be found an instalment of the Celtic Bemains, which it is in- 
tended to continue until the whole has been printed. Some account 
of the work, with copious specimens, appeared in the volume for 1872, 
p. oG. The specimens already given having all been taken from the 
first letter of the alphabet, the few reprints which will be noticed in 
this sheet are unavoidable. The work as now given is printed in its 
integrity, and -when completed will form a moderately sized volume. 

Cambrian Arch;eologial Association.— The twenty-eighth Annual 
!Meet!ng of the Association will be held at Knighton on jMonday, 
Auo-ust 4, and four following daj-s, under the presidency of the 
Hon. Arthur Walsh, M.P. 


A Short Account of the Chcroh of St. Johjt the Evaxgelist at 
Brecon. London: McCorquodale & Co., 1873. 

This little pamphlet appears to have been published with a view to 
promote the complete restoration of the Priory Church, a work 
which was partly carried out some twelve years ago, and is now 
beino- continued under the direction of Sir Gilbert Scott. It does 
not pretend to be more than a compilation, but still the subject 
matter is deserving of notice, as it relates to a church which Mr. 
Freeman considers "unquestionably the third church in Wales", 
and one which affords an excellent example of what Welsh builders 
were capable of designing and carrying out, when sandstone or 
limestone was near at hand. Much of the inferior work and much 
Qf the want in Wales of churches of early date may be attributed to 
the use of the schistous and perishable stones which prevails in the 
Principality, and to the want of a suitable local material for dress- 
ings. With a freestone to work upon, the native talent of Wales 
has ever developed a style peculiarly its own and one admirably 
adapted to the exigencies of the situation and exposure to wind and 
weather, as the existing buildings in the counties of Glamorgan, 
Pembroke, and Brecon abundantly testify. 

We may readily pass by the first part, which contains a some- 
what inaccurate history of the Lordship of Brecon, as foroi^'n to our 
subject and turn to the second part, which is a reprint of Mr. Free- 
man's admirable and accurate description of the Priory CLiurch. 
(ArcJi. Canih. N. S., vol. v, 1854..) As many of our readers are able 
to refer to his account, and others have recently visited Brecon, a 
few extracts may suffice to give a, general notion of the character of 
the church to those who liave not these advantages, first mentioning 
that its total length is 205 feet, of which the nave occupies 107 feet, 
the lantern tower 34 feet 6 inches, and the chancel 63 feet. 

The ground plan consists of a nave with aisles, the southern one not 
reaching quite to the west end, and a north porch, a central tower or choir, 
with transepts, and an eastern limb, forming a large presbytery, without 
regular aisles, but with remarkable arrangement of chapels on each side. 
Speaking generally, the eastern parts may be called Early English, the 
■western Decorated... 

The eastern limb, which, at least in the original arrangement of the 
church, formed the presbytery, consists of four bays. .As it originally stood 
the two easternmost bays were free, while chapels were attached to the 
western pair, but on the north side later alterations have somewhat inter- 
fered with this arrangement. This style is common Early English, ex- 
tremely good, but not remarkable for richness ; in the e.i;terior, indeed, 
remarkably the reverse. A triplet occupies each bay except the western 
one, and a quintuplet fills the east end. Externally these windows are as 
plain as possible ; within they have detached banded shafts and moulded 
jambs, but nothing conspicuous in the way of ornament. Those at the sides 
are singularly slender, and the centre light rises in an unusual degree 
above the side ones. The eastern quintuplet has broader lights and a more 
gradual rise, but the three central ones are larger and grouped more closely 
together than the external pair 

The internal aspect of the presbytery is extremely noble, though the 
contemplated vaulting has never been added. Vaulting-shafts, corbelled 
off at the string below the windows, rise between each triplet, and a portion 
of the springers is attached to each. The arches traced out for the vaulting 
are unusually acute, in accordance with the design of the triplets which are 
adapted to them. This circumstance, I believe, more than anything else, 
gives this presbytery its peculiar beauty 

There can be no reasonable doubt that the space under the tower was in 
this church also, as in so many others of early date, originally the choir, 
occupied by the stalls of the monks, the eastern limbs being merely the 

The nave is of four bays on the north side and three on the south, such 
being the number of arches ; the southern aisle, as has been hinted, being 
a bay shorter than the rest. But to the east of the arcade, beyond its res- 
pond, is a blank wall almost equal to another bay. This was the space 
occupied by the rood loft, the corbels for the support of which still remain, 
making it demonstratively certain that the choir was originally, as stated 
above, under the central tower. 

The recent removal of the plaster brings to light staircase open- 
ings on either side, and thus fully confirms Mr. Freeman's notion 
as to the position of the rood loft and the choir. 

The third part is chiefly composed of a reprint of Sir Gilbert 


Scott's report of Nov. G, 18G0. Want of space \Yill permit iis to make 
only a few extracts from it. 

I am not well acquainted with the history of the church. It is said, I 
believe, to have been rebuilt soon after the Norman Conquest ; but I have 
found in it no traces of work (the font alone excepted) of a date earlier 
than the thirteenth century. 

The eastern portions, including the chancel, the transepts, and the central 
tower, are (some subsequent alterations excepted) of one date, and the re- 
sult of one effort. They are of the earlier style of pointed architecture, but 
in its more advanced form, dating, perhaps, from 1220 to 1230 

The nave with its aisles is of the fourteenth century, and is simple and 
dignified in its character ; while the massive tower rising in the midst as- 
sumes, on a grander scale, the same stern and fortress-like aspect which 
characterises the smaller towers throughout South Wales. 

Under his direction a new roof covered with stone tiles was soon 
afterwards put on the presbytery of the pitch originally designed, 
the roof of the transepts was raised to the pitch shown by the 
weather mouldings on the tower, and the eastern limb with the at- 
tached chapels and the transepts was restored to pretty much the 
same state as the alterations in the fourteenth century had left it. 
The nave remained as it was, separated by a large glass screen, 
which filled the arch between the nave and the choir, and prevented 
any general view of the interior. 

This screen and the pews in the nave have recently been removed. 
The accumulation of earth, varying from 18 inches to 3 feet, has 
been removed down to the original level and the bases of the piers 
of the nave are now exposed to view. The ground (except the 
central passage, which is to be tiled) has been flagged with the 
stones found under the floors, sepulchral memorials of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, on which are carved many crosses of ele- 
gant design. The walls, stripped of the plaster which covered them, 
show the excellence of the walling of the north aisle and northern 
arcade and the inferior construction, due much to alterations, of 
those on the south. The pitch of the nave roof is not to be raised, 
as in the architect's opinion the effect would be to swamp the tower. 
The work is steadily progressing, but additional funds are still 
wanted, and so we hope our readers will contribute, if only with 
their mite, to perpetuate one of the noblest monuments of the Prin- 

Those who attended the meeting of last j-ear may remember tliat 
Mr. Matthew H. Bloxam, who has probably done as much as any 
man living to promote a correct notion of Gothic architecture, made 
some remarks in the Priory Church on the sepulchral monuments, 
which have fortunately been printed in the concluding portion of 
the present pamphlet. We therefore gladly avail ourselves of the 
opportunity to add them to the present notice, and state in explana- 
tion that No. 2 relates to Walter Awbrey and his wife, and No. 3 
commemorates a member of the family of Games. 

1. In the north aisle of the nave, within the north wall at the east side 

KKVIEWS. l'07 

of the aislo, is a fine opened shaped sepulchral arch, with numoroiis sets of 
mouldings, rounds and hollows. In two of the latter the ball flower is in- 
serted at intervals. This arch is surmounted by a plain but well propor- 
tioned hood mould, and the head of the arch within is engrailed or foliated. 
Beneath the arch, on a plain high tomb, lies the fine and perfect recumbent 
efiisy of a civilian well sculptured in stone. lie is represented bare-headed, 
hisliair curled on each side the face. He is clad in a long tunic or coat 
(tunica talaris), with close-fitting sleeves (maniccf; lotoraatece), with the 
hands conjoined horizontally on the breast as in prayer. Over the long 
tunic is worn a shorter overcoat (supertunica), with short, loose sleeves, 
covering the upper part of the arms, but not reaching down to the elbows. 
In front of the breast, and over the shoulder, is worn tippet-like the hood 
(capucium). The feet, the extremities of which have been destroyed, seem 
to have rested against a dog. The habiliments are such as we meet with 
znc'ienllj descrihed as tniitca et supertunica cum caputio. This is a very 
interesting effigy of a layman of the middle of the fourteenth century, 
circa 13.50, and the sepulchral arch over is also of the same period. It is 
figured by air. Theo. Jones, vol. ii, pi. iv, fig. 2. 

•2. In the north-east corner of the north aisle of the choir, on a slab on 
the pavement are the recumbent effigies in relief of a civilian and his wife, 
her effigy being placed on the left side. This is a monument of the four- 
teenth century, lie is represented as bare-headed, with curled locks on 
either side his face, the latter is close-shaven and the neck bare. He appears 
habited in the ttt7iica talaris, long tunic or coat with the mantle over, open 
in front with the caputlum or hood about the neck. The sleeves of the 
tunic are close-fitting. The hands, conjoined horizontally on the breast, are 
represented holding a crucifix. The lady's head-attire consists of a close 
fitting cap and wimple, the latter covering the sides of the face and coming 
under the chin. Her body habiliments consist of a gown with somewhat 
close fitting sleeves, and a mantle over, open in front and fastened by a cor- 
don crossing the breast. The hands are conjoined horizontally on the 

Between the heads of these two effigies, the rood or crucifix is represented, 
with the figures on either side of St. Mary and St. John, and in a kind of 
pediment which forms the head of the slab, rudely sculptured in relief, arc 
the figure? of angels with thuribles. 

Round the edge of this monument is an inscription in Longobardic 

The date of this monument may, I think, be ascribed to circa a.d. 1350; 
it is not very correctly figured by Jlr. Theo. Jones, vol. ii, p. 22 ; he gives 
the date 1312. PI. ii, fig. 6. 

3. Lying loose in the nave, but removed from its original position, is the 
recumbent effigy, carved in wood, of a lady, temp. Mary, circa 1555. The 
head is represented as reposing on a square double cushion, on the head is 
worn the close fitting cap of the period, with the partlet on the top, and 
round the neck is a rufF. Over the petticoat is a double chain worn over 
the shoulders and in front of the breast, the petticoat is stitf in front ; and 
hanging by a chain reaching nearly to the feet is a pendant ornament, po- 
mander or perfume box. Over the petticoat is worn an open robe or gown 
tied round about the waist with a scarf ; this gown is in numerous folds and 
is open in front up to the shoulders. The middle portions of the arms are 
gone, about the wrists are ruffs, and the hands are conjoined in prayer. 
The face is somewhat mutilated. 

This is the latest instance I have met with of a recumbent sepulchral 
effigy carved in wood. 

4th .sei:., vol. IV. 20 


4. In the north aisle of the choir, on a high tomb, is the recumbent sepul- 
chral effigy in marlilcor alabaster of Sir David Williams, one of the Juslicesof 
I'leas, who died A.v. lC13,with the recumbent effigy of his wife, Jlargaret, 
daughter of John Games, lying on his right side. He is represented in his 
Judge's robes — a scarlet coloured gown tied about the waist with a scarf of 
the same colour. Tlie sleeves of the gown are cuffed with ermine. Over 
the gown is worn the ermined mantle, open in front with a plain tippet over 
the breast, and a casting hood of ermine about the neek, round the which is 
a nebule-shaped ruff. On the head is worn ihe square judicial cap, the face 
has the moustache and beard, and the hands are conjoined vertically on the 
breast, the head reposes on a tasselled cushion. 

His lady has the partlet head-dress, wears a ruff round the neek, and is 
habited in a gown with ample skirts, over which is worn a rich stomacher 
buttoned in front of the breast. The sleeves are full at the shoulders, and 
cuffed at the wrists with small ruffs. The soles of the shoes are repre- 
sented unusually small, the hands are conjoined vertically on the breast, 
and the head reposes on a tasselled cushion, a chain is worn over the shoul- 
ders and hangs down in front of the neck. 

Near the south-east corner of the choir is a triple piscina, the fenestella 
of which is triple and the arches trefoiled in the heads. Beneath these are 
three basons perforated with drains. Triple piseinaj are uncommon. In the 
ruins of Salley Abbey Church, Yorkshire, is a piscina with these basons, and 
in Rothwell Church, Northamptonshire, are the remains of a triple piscina, 
the fenestella of which has been destroyed, but the basons with their drains 

Beuxaxs Meeiasek. The Life of St. ]\Ieriasek, Bishop and Cox- 
FESSOP. : A Cornish Drama. Edited, with a Translation and 
Notes, by Whitlet Stokes. Pp. xvi, 279. 8vo. London : 
Triibner and Co., 1872. 
The drama of the life of St. IMeriasek, rvhich forms a sequel to the 
Cornish Mysteries already published by Norris and Stokes, was dis- 
covered about three years ago, among the Hengwrt MSS., by Mr. 
Wynne of Peniarth. The MS. is a small paper quarto, measuring 
eight inches and a half by six, in an old leather binding labelled on 
the back, "310. Cornish Mj-stery", and consisting of about ninety 
leaves. The colophon states that it was finished in the year loOl' 
by " Dominus Hadton", in whose handwriting the entire MS. seems 
to be, with the exception of a few corrections and some stage- 
directions written partly in Latin and partly in English. 

The plot, which is clumsy and incoherent, is to the following 
effect. Meriadek, or, as he is called by the Cornish, Meriasek, is the 
son of a Duke of Britanny, who sends him to school, where he soon 
distinguishes himself by his studiousness and early piety. "When 
he returns home he is a paragon of goodness and courtesy, and an 
encyclopasdia of learning. Now it occurs to Conan, King of Little 
Britain, that he should like him to marry a certain wealthy princess, 
and somehow he gets a feast prepared for himself and his nobles at 
the house of the boy's father. At the close of this entertainment he 
broaches the question, to the great delight of both parents. The 
boy, however, is too good to hear of the marriage, and declares that 


he would be consecrated "a knight of God". Conan, finding his 
paternal designs and cares thus set at nought, departs in anything 
ijut an amiable mood, while Meriasek is ordained priest, and duly 
performs his first miracles. Subsequently he sets sail for Cornwall, 
saves the crew from shipwreck, and lands near Camborne, where he 
builds him an oratory, and calls forth a miraculous spring of water. 
Hei-e, of course, he heals the sick, the maimed, and the leprous ; 
but a certain pagan lord, or rather a much calumniated ilahomedan 
prince called Teudar, is roused to fury by the news of JMeriasok's 
doings. The latter is duly warned of his danger by a vision, and 
makes the best of bis way back to Britanny, where he tames a wolf, 
becomes a hermit, and builds a chapel on a moantain near Pontivy. 
Then the scene shifts to Rome, where we find Constantino sending 
forth bis knights to persecute the Christians. The martyrs' souls 
are received into heaven, the persecutors scared by lightning, and 
Constantino himself stricken with lepro.s^'. In order to be cured, 
the Emperor is ad^nsed by his doctor and his pagan bishop to take 
a bath of children's blood. Some three thousand children are col- 
lected, and afterwards dismissed by Constantino, who takes pity on 
them. Thereupon Peter and Paul appear to him in a vision, and 
order bim to be baptised by Pope Silvester. This is done, and the 
baptismal waters euro him. Again we are back in Britanny, where 
outlaws rob a merchant and a priest. This induces the Earl of 
Rohan to go to Meriasek. He vainly tries to persuade him to return 
to the world ; but succeeds in moving him to clear the country of 
robbers by sending fire on their forest, ileriasek, however, saves 
their lives, whereupon they very considerately leave the countr}'. 
The scene shifts again to Cornwall, where the Duke of Cornwall, 
having heard of Teudar's conduct towards Jleriasek, makes war on 
him. The latter, encouraged by demons to show fight, is of course 
defeated. The first day's play here ends with a genial exhortation 
to the spectators, one and all, to drink, dance, and be merry. 

The second part opens with a scene at Rome, whei'e Constantine 
announces the establishment of Christianity. Then follow various 
miracles performed by Meriasek in his native Britanny, until we 
come to the death of the Bishop of Vannes, when great and small 
entreat Meriasek to allow himself to be consecrated his successor. 
For a while he refuses with much grace and pious tact, but ulti- 
mately consents. A few miracles follow his consecration as a matter 
of course. Then we are treated to an episode from the Miracida de 
Beato Mereadoco, to the efl'ect that a certain woman's only son, in 
the service of a King Massen ( = Maxen ?), is taken prisoner by a 
heathen tyrant. The mother entreats the Virgin to e.^^ert herself on 
behalf of her son, but in vain, until at length it occurs to her to steal 
the child Jesus from her arms. The Virgin, seeing that the sacred 
hamhino -will not bo returned until the woman's son is restored to 
her, has no choice but to bring about the desired result. Then fol- 
low some more miracles performed by Meriasek, and a scene in 
Italy where two heathen dukes, attacked by a dragon, flee to Con- 


staiitiue, wlio seucls for Pope Silvester. The latter vanquishes the 
dragon, and performs several miracles. This scene is closed by the 
lieathen dukes, after having been baptised, going in procession to 
the Pope's palace. We are again taken back to Britanny, and this 
time to witness Meriasek's death, and the reception of his soul into 
heaven. The playwrigjit finishes oft' with another arguiiicnlum ad 
Jiomiiiem in the following strain : 

Drink, one anJ all, driuk with the play, 

We do beseech you now, 
Before ye hence begin to stray. 
Ye pipers, blow a merry strain, 

That each to dance may go; 
And if it please you to roniaiu 

A week or more, say we. 

Full welcome shall ye be. 

With respect to the language of this drama we may say, that, 
although it is Middle Cornish, it ever and anon presents points of 
considerable interest to the philologist ; nor is the meaning always 
transparent. But on the whole the editor has been able to accom- 
pany the original with a highly faithful rendering into English. 
Here and there we differ from him, as, for instance, in line 121, " da 
yv sevell worth vn pris", which Stokes, adopting the suggestion of 
Mr. Williams of Rhj'd y Croesau, translates, "good it is to arise for 
a while"; but surely it must mean " good it is to abide by one meal", 
which alone suits the context. Other instances might bo added 
which need no mention here, many of them having already been 
corrected by the editor himself; and the additional list oi corrigenda, 
which is to be expected, will probably leave nothing to be desired 
on this score. 

The editor's notes, which are nnracrons, and mostly philological, 
are highly valuable, and in the masterly strain usually his. Among 
them we find some stray notes from the author of thcLexicoii Coniu- 
BritaHnicuni, with some of which the printer seems to have reck- 
lessly dealt : for instance, he is made to say that he regards "givarth- 
evyas cognate with W. gwarclicid", the word to be compared being 
gwerthefin, " supreme", as in the Myv. Arch., p. 198 b. Similarly 
there is something wrong in his equating gal with 'SY.giuael, "vile", 
when he was thinking, perhaps, only of the Welsh word gel-ach ; 
and in his identifying l:eher with W. cur, "ache", instead of with 
cijhijr, " a sinew or muscle". It is also to be regretted that the editor 
has not been able to insert Mr. Williams' authorities for such Welsli 
words as crech, "a crash"; ynvio, " to urge"; rhijf, "presumption"; 
cuai)i, "to move"; ]itinedd, "somnolence"; and Uent, "to hinder". 
The very insignificant blemishes alluded to can in no way restrain 
us from heartil}- recommending this well got up volume to students 
of the Celtic languages, and from expressing our sincere thanks to 
the editor for thus increasing the available supply of materials for 
the use of Celtic philology. J. Rhys. 


The Kev. Dr. Bannister, vicar of St. Day, Cornwall, author of 
Glossarij of Cornish Names, is preparing an English-Cornish Dictionary 
in which will be given the Cornish and other equivalents to all the 
English words found in that Glossary ; in the Rev. R. Williams' Lex- 
icon Cornu-Britannicum ; in the vonabularies of Lhwyd, Borlase, 
Pryce, Polwhele, Couch, and Garland ; in Mr. W. Stokes' Cornish 
Glossary, and in his translation of Beunans Mariasek. It is also 
intended to give derivations of Cornish words both ancient and 
modern, synonyms in various languages, and the vulgar pronuncia- 
tion of common English words. 

The same writer has nearly ready Beliquice Corniihienses, or lite- 
rary remains of the old vernacular of Cornwall, including the story 
first published by Lhwyd (Arch. Brit., p. 251), the mottoes of old 
families, maxims, proverbs, colloquies, and songs ; with literal trans- 
lations, a vocabulary, and notes, etc. 

Dr. Bannister is also engaged upon The Nomenclature of Gormvall, 
which is intended to be introductory and supplementary to the 
Glossary which appeared some two years ago. Hints and helps arc 

Other instalments of Bye-Goncs have reached us, which contain no 
5mall amount of interesting ?nai(/oH. In these portions the field has, 
in some degree, been widened, which is so far an improvement. 


PAL.tOGRArHY. — The latest tribute paid by modern times to anti- 
quity is the proposition to form a small society for the of 
collecting materials for the study of paleography, a branch of an- 
tiquarian science which has hitherto been treated with imperfect 
success on account of the incompleteness, both in quantity and 
quality, o^ facsimile specimens of ancient writing and ornamentation 
of manuscripts, on the evidence of which it has been attempted to 
establish definite conclusions. The importance of palaeography has 
been recognised in various costly publications, as, for instance, the 
sumptuous work of Silvestre, that of Count Bastard selling at more 
than £10, and more recently the splendidly illustrated volume of 
Professor Westwood on "Irish and Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts". The 
most comprehensive endeavour, however, to sj'stematise the science 
was made by the Benedictines of St. Maur in their Nouveazi Traifo 
de Diplomatique, published in the years 1750-1762. The projected 
society, which is to be limited to 250 members, proposes to avoid 
the faultiness and imperfection which have characterised all former 
and hand-produced specimens by tlie employment of the autotype 
process of photography. By n)eans of this agency it is proposed to 
form an ample collection of facsimiles from pages of the most an- 


cient MSS. and otlier early writings, exact in every particular except 
actual colours. The action of the society will be extended to foreign 
countries, although in the first instance the selections must fall upon 
the finest examples of writing and ornamentation which occur in 
European, to the exclusion of Oriental MSS. 

Roman Remains at Silchestek. — On June 19th a paper, the third 
of a series, was read before the Society of Antiquaries, at its rooms 
in Somerset House, by the Rev. J. G. Joyce, rector of StratSeldsaye, 
in Hampshire, on the results of excavations which have been made 
during six years, wholly at the expense of the Dake of "Wellington, 
on the site of the ancient Roman city at Silchester, in the s.nme dis- 
trict. The chief objects discovered were two of the principal gates, 
the forum, the basilica, and the circular temple. The perimeter of 
the city, measured by a line taken along the centre of the walls, 
upon the plan executed by the Ordnance Survey, is 2,670 yards. 
In the course of the survey the precise spot was ascertained at 
which the ancient Roman road from London (which is incomplete 
as it approaches the city on the east) would meet the wall if pro- 
duced. This having been accurately determined a considerable 
gap, by which a modern highway now enters, was actually found to 
exist at the point. A trench was cut at this point in the direction 
of the road each way, and in a few hours the great east gate was 
laid open. The centre of the road from London entered the walls 
by this gate of 200 feet south of the corner next the amphitheatre. 
The gateway presented a curtain 46 feet wide, in which were the 
openings of the portals. This curtain stands recessed 9 feet from 
the level of the main walls, which make a sweep inward on each side 
to meet it. It is probable that one of the portals was designed for 
vehicles, and the other for foot passengers, but an ancient drain has 
cffiiced all marks from which their size might have been determined. 
In other i-espects the details are very complete. The portals gave 
access to an arched way 28 feet in length and of the same width. 
The arch rested on massive piers 13 feet thick, each of which had 
two guard-rooms in the thickness of its walls. It is not easy to de- 
termine how the gateway opened into the streets, because these have 
been traced, and are found to have been at right angles to each 
other, none of them apparently communicating direct with this exit. 
The gate faces to the north-west, while the streets are true to the 
cardinal points. Either there was behind the wall an unoccupied 
space, thepomceri'um, or a short connecting line led in a north-westerly 
direction from the gate to the end of the great road, across the city 
westward, which passed close along the north front of the forum in 
an unbroken line. At the south gate two ancient roads met, the one 
from Winchester, the other from Old Sarura. This gate is very 
similar to the east gate, but it appears to be more deeply recessed. 
From the gates Mr. Joyce passed to the forum. The extraordinary 
rarity of a Roman forum remaining to our day, entirely perfect in 
plan, so that every chamber admits of being accurately measured, 


renders this subject one of the keenest interest to avchteologists. 
Every Roroan town possessed its forum, but at Pompeii alone is 
there one preserved. Even in Rome itself, although most import- 
ant portions remain, a forum quite complete in plan does not exist. 
The other great towns of Italy ofl'er none. Gaul probably possesses 
them, but as yet has no forum disinterred. The fora of the Romans are 
capable, according to Vitruvius, of being I'cduccd to two classes. 
The Latin type was oblong and narrow, the Greek was square and 
surrounded by a double ambulatory. Singularly enough at Pom- 
peii, where a Greek type might have been e.xpeeted, there exists a 
distinctly Latin forum, and at Silchester, where a purely Latin type 
would be looked for, there is a mai-kcd example of the Greek. The 
forum at Silchester is not absolutely square, but very nearly so, and 
its three exterior sides are encompassed by a double ambulatory. 
This fact, when taken in connection with the position of the basilica, 
is not merely interesting, but gives a clue to its date. The forum 
is wedded to the basilica in the closest union, one great party wall 
along the fourth side of tlie former being common to both. This 
proves to have been in effect the very plan on which was constructed 
the world-famed forum of Trajan at Rome having the Basilica Ulpia 
by its side. The plan of this corj^s de hatiment is a great rectangle, 
313 feet by 276 feet. Those on the north and south sides gave ad- 
mission to the shops and ambulatories of the forum and to the courts 
of the basilica. Mr. Joyce, with singular ingenuity, pointed out the 
probable uses and occupants of the various shops, which had been 
excavated on the north side of the forum. 'Yhe "■ taherna argen- 
iarke," or money-changers, the butchers, the drinking shops, the 
"luncheon-bars," were indicated with precision. The paper was 
illustrated by carefully-executed plans and drawings, and numerous 
objects found during the progress of the excavations were exhibited. 
At the conclusion of the paper, Mr. J. H. Parker, C.B., F.S.A., 
called attention to the great value of the work which Mr. Joyce had 
carried on. 

The workmen employed in the construction of a reservoir on the 
summit of Humbledon Hill, near South Shields, have discovered 
another sepulchre supjjosed to be Celtic. 

Ruthin. — On the 24th of May one of the men engaged in drain- 
ing on the land of W. Cornwallis West, Esq., in a field adjoining 
the Rutliin Railway Station, discovered a curiously shaped earthen- 
ware pitcher, about four feet from the surface, and underneath it 
he came upon a quantity of quicksilver mixed up with the soil. The 
pitcher, which is nosv in the possession of Mr. W. Green, of the 
Castle Hotel, is supposed to be some centuries old, and is in a very 
good state of pi'eservation. The spot where the vessel was found 
is quite boggy. We are not told what are the proofs of its supposed 


GiAKTs' Graves. — A report on some official e.xplorations in the 
HiinciigmhcT, or giants' grave.s, in the Island of Sylt, off the western 
coast of Schleswig, has been recently published by Herr Hcinrich 
Handelmann, the Conservator of Isational Antiquities of Schleswig- 
Holstein. These barrow-diggiugs -were undertaken in the course of 
1870, 1871, and 1872. Some of the mounds ajipear to have been 
raerely cenotaphs, while others are true burial-mounds, referable to 
the early part of the bronze period, when the body was deposited 
iinburnt in a stone cist ; in some cases the burial has been by cre- 
mation. Among the objects deposited with the dead are vv'eapons of 
flint, bronze swords and daggers, and personal ornaments in gold 
and bronze. All the objects brought to light during these researches 
are deposited in the Museum of iS^ational Antiquities at Kiel. 

An Antique Ring. — An antique ring, bearing the inscription 
"Ethelswitha," has been found by a labourer in a field near Slier- 
burn, Tadcaster, and it is supposed to have belonged to the queen of 
Alfred the Great. It has been purchased by Canon Greeuwell, of 





1872 £ 



£ s. 


To Printing - - 177 



By Balance 

- 43 19 


„ Editor - - - 50 

„ Brecon Meeting 

- 80 

„ Wood-Engraving, etc. 56 


„ Sale of books - 

- 28 1 

„ Subscriptions - 

- 108 9 


,„ Balance 

- 23 3 





£283 13 


A udited and found correct. 

Thomas Powei.I;, ) Auditors 


Jons Morgan, j 1872 

Joseph Joskpu, F.S.A., Treasui 


Brecon : 1st May, 1873. 

gircluicotoriiii Camljn^iniiij. 


OCTOBER, 1873. 




{Continued from p. 257.) 

This township, wliicli is situate in tlie parish of Llan- 
fihano-el ym Mlodwel, was the inheritance of Ithel, who 
was called Lord of the Bryn. He married Annesta, 
daughter of Cynf}-n ab Gwrystan, and sister of Bleddyn 
ab Cynfyn ab G^^Ty3tan, Prince of Powys. By this lady 
Ithel had issue a son, Ednowain ab Ithel, Lord of the 
Biyn, who bore, argent, three wolves passant in pale 
s«6/c, collared of the field. Other heralds state, how-ever, 
that he bore, argent, three greyhounds courant sable, 
collared of the field. He married Generys, daughter of 
Pthys Sais, Lord of Chirk, Maelor Saesneg, etc., by 

4th ser. vol. IV. 



Avhom he had issue. One of his sons named Gwrgeneu 
Avas Lord of the Bryn ; and one of his daughters, named 
Genhedles, married Gwalchmai ab Meihr of Trefeihr in 
Cwmmwd Malldraeth/ son of Mabon ab larddur ab 
Mor ab Tegerin, who was descended from Cunedda 
Wledig, King of North Wales, by whom she was the 
mother of Einion ab Gwalchmai of Trefeilir, a celebrated 
bard, who flourished from about a.d. 1170 to about A.D. 
1220. Einion bore, o.rgciit, three riding saddles sahle, 
stirruped or. 

In the middle of the sixteenth century David ab 
Meredydd ab Gruftydd ab lenkyn Pen,of Pentref Sianyd 
or Pentref Siencyn, was Lord of the Bryn.^ 

The parish of West Felt on is also in the lordship of 
Oswestry, as is likewise the j^arish of Phwytyn, or 
Ptuyton of the Eleven Towns, which contains the 
eleven townships of Old Paiyton, Cotton, Shelfog, Shot- 
taton, Wykey, Eardiston, Tedsmore, Rednall, Haugh- 
ton, Sutton, and Felton.'' These townships form the 
manor of the Eleven Towns, which formerly belonged 
to Rhiryd Flaidd, Lord of Penllyn, Pennant Melangell, 
Glyn, and the Eleven Towns in Powys, and Eifionydd in 
Gwynedd. He bore, vert, a chev. inter three wolves' 
heads erased argent, and Avas ancestor of the Vaughans 
of Llanuwchllyn and Glan Llyn, Lloyds of Y Ddwyfaen 

1 Lcwys Dwnn, vol. ii, p. IG. - Ibid., vol. i, p. 281. 

^ Be.sides these towiisliip.=;, the pai-isli of West Feltoii contains the 
townships of Sandibrd, Twyford, and part of Woolston. 


and of Glanhafon and of Trevor Hall, and Lloyds of 
Llandderfel.Vauo-han of Ce.fnG\vyn,and Edwards of Tref 
Brysg in Llanuwchllyn, Owen of Cefn Treflaetli in Llan- 
ystumdwy, Jones of Helygen in Tegeingl, Ellis of Coed 
y Cra, and the Myddletons of Gwaenynog and Chirk 
Castle, who bore, argent, on a bend vert, three wolves' 
heads erased argent, langued gules. 

Einion Greulawn, Lord of Cruccaith in the lordship 
of Oswestry, was the son of Einion ab Rhiryd Flaidd, 
and was ancestor of the Lloyds of Pentref Aeron in the 
to\vnship of Oswestry. 

The parish of Kinnerley, which contains the town- 
ships of Kinnerley, Argoed, Dovaston, Kynaston, Maes- 
brwg Uchaf, Maesbrwg Isaf, Edgerley, Tir y Coed, and 
Osbaston, is also in the lordshijD of Oswestry. 


This township formed part of the possessions of lor- 
werth Goch, Lord of Mochnant (see Cantref Ehaiadr). 
His eldest son, Sir Griiffydd, who was a Knight of 
Pthodes, succeeded to his estates in tlic parish of Kin- 
nerley, and resided at Cae Howel in this parish. He 
was generally known by the name of "Y Marchog 
Gwyllt Gae Llowel" (the Wild Knight of Cae Howel), 
and mariied Mallt, dauo-hter of leuan Goch ab Gruffydd 
Goch ab Gruffydd ab Ehys ab Rhydderch ab Rhys ab 
Cadifor ab Dyfnwal ;^ but according to others," Mallt 
was the daughter and sole heiress of leuau Goch ab 
Howel ab David ab Madog, by whom he was father of 
Gruffydd Fychan of Cae Howel, who married Agnes, 
daughter of Robert, Lord of Bulkeley in Cheshire (who 
was living in A.D. 1241), by a daughter of the Lord of 
Warrington ; by v/hom he was father of Gruffydd 
Kunaston of Tregynffordd, Kunaston, Cae Howel, and 
Yr Ystog (Stoke) near Ellesmere, Avho married Gwen, 
daughter and coheiress of lorwerth ab Grutlydd ab 
Heilyn ab Meurig ab leuan ab Adda Goch ab Cyn- 

1 Harl. MS. 2299. " Leuys Dwiin, vol. i, p. 326 

21 = 


wrig of Y Fron Gocli (now called Celynog) in Mocli- 
nant, son of Pasgen ab Gwyn ab Gruffydd, Lord of 
Cegidfa ; by whom he had a son, Philip Kynaston of 
Yr Ystog, who nianied Gwerfyl, daughter and sole 
heiress of Ptoger Fychan, second son of Sir Roger de 
Powys, Knight of Pvhodes and Lord of Whittington ; 
by whom he had issue three sons : 1, Madog Kynaston, 
who was the progenitor of the various branches of the 
Kynaston family ; 2, leium ; 3, Morgan, who had Cae 
Howel ; and a daughter, Angharad, the wife of leuaf 
ab Madog ab Cadwgan Ddu, ab Cadwgan Goch, ab Y 
Gwion, ab Hwfa, ah Ithel Felyn, Lord of lal/ 


The first person mentioned in the genealogies as Lord 
of Maesbrwg was Cadwgan Fychan ab Cadwgan. He 
bore, azure, a boar's head couped argent, tusked or, and 
langued giiles. His only daughter and heiress, Eva, 
married Idnerth Benfras, Avho is said to have been a 
son of Uchtryd, Lord of Cyfeiliog and part of Meir- 
ionydd, the son of Edwyn ab Goronwy, Prince of 
Tegeingl. The arms assigned to Idnerth were, argent, 
a cross flory engrailed sable inter four Cornish choughs 
ppr.; on a chief azure, a boar's head couped argent, 
tusked or, and langued gules. By right of his wife, 

Cae Cyi 



Eva, he became Lord of Maesbrwg, and -was ancestor of 
the Bromfields of Bryn y AViwer in the parish of Rlii^v- 
fabon, Lloyds of Maen Gwynedd in Mochnant and of 
GLan Tanad Uchaf, Wynns of Abercynllaith in Llan- 
gedwyn, Humphries of Glan Ahven in Llangar, Maerdy 
in Gwyddehvern, and Llwyn in LlanfylUn, Lloyds of 
Llanarmon Mynydd Mawr, Griffiths of BrouGain, Lloyds 
of Bryngwyn, Lloyds of Mathrafal, and Le%^'is of Gil. 

Ninth in descent from Idnerth was leuan of Caer 
Einion, "vvho bore, argent, a lion rampant and canton 
sahle. He Avas ancestor of the Owens of Llynlloedd, 
"Woodhouse, and Condover, and the Davieses of Ilhiw- 
argor in Llanwddyn. Some genealogists state that leuan 
of Caer Einion had a son named David Aber, who was the 
ancestor of the Griffiths of Broniarth ; but Lewys D wnn 
and Rhys Cain' say that David Aber was the son of 
Matthew Caer Einion, who was a son of leuan ab lor- 
werth ab Howel Grach, an illegitimate son of Prince 
Owain Cyfeiliog. 

The lordship of Oswestry contains also the parishes 
of Knockyn and jMelverley, and the township of Sych- 
din in the parish of Llansilin. 

Besides those already enumerated, there were several 
other ancient famihes settled in the lordship of Oswes- 
try, among whom Avere the Joneses of TreHodwel, de- 
scended from Goronwy Ddu of Treflodwel, brother of 
Llewelyn Ddu of Abertanat ; William ab Pdieinallt ab 
David of Careg Hwfa, descended from Meredydd, fourth 
son of Ednyfed Gam of Pengwern in the parish of Llan- 
gollen ; the Pughs of Ty Ceryg in the parish of Llan y 
Myneich, descended from Grufiydd, fifth son of Eduj'fed 
Gam of Pengwern ; and the Joneses of Westyn Rhyn 
and Ty'n y Celyn in the parish of St. Martin. AH these 
families descend from Tudor Trevor. The Wynns of 
Pentref Morgan in Dudleston, and the Vaughans of 
Dudleston, descend from Owain Brogyntyn. 

1 Rhys Cain, the genealogist and historian, was a native of Oswes- 
try, and a disciple of William Lleyu. Dr. Owen Pughe states that 
he flourished from a.d. 1560-lGOO. 



The lovdsliip of Y Drewen, Blancheville, or Whitting- 
ton, comprises the parish of Whittington, which con- 
tains the to^Ynships of Whittington, Welsh Franckton, 
part of Old Marton, Bergheld, Day well, Fernhill, Hind- 
ford, Henlle, Ebnall, and Halston; which last township, 
in which there is a chapel, formerl^y Ijelonged to the 
Knights liospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem. 

This lordship, of which all the lands once belonged 
to Tudor Trevor, was given by his descendant, Tndor 
ab Khys Sais, who was Lord of Whittington, Chirk, 
Nanheudwy, and Maelor Saesneg, to his second son, 
Goronwy Befr (the smart or handsome), sometimes called 
Wrenoc, who married Maud, daughter of Ingelric, a 
noble Saxon ("who had previoiisly had a son named 
William, of whom the Conqueror himself was father"),^ 
by whom he had issue three sons : 

1. Sir William Befr, called also Sir William de Powys, 
Knight (Llwyth Gwydd y Derwen), who had an only 
dauo-hter, named Gwenhwyfar, who married Gwarine 
de Metz, a nobleman of Lorraine, and one of the Lords 
Marchers, by whom he had a son, the celebrated Sir 
Fulke Fitz Warine. As, however, by the British laws, 
a female could not inherit the manors or lands of her 
ancestors, the castle and lordship of Whittington went 
to Sir William de Powys' next brother, Sh Eoger de 

1 Arch. Camh., 1852, p. 28-5. 


Powys, Kniglit of Rhodes, who bore, vert, a hoar or. 
He married CeciUa, daughter of Hwfa ab lor^verth ab 
Gruffydd ab leuaf ab Niniaf of Maelor Gymraeg {gules, 
two hons passant argent for lorwerth ab Gruftjdcl), by 
whom he had issue four sons : 1, Sir Mauiice or Sir 
Meurig Lhvyd, Knight, and Lox'd of Whittington, Avho 
was slain by Sir Fulke Fitz Warine ; and thus, says 
Gutyn Owain, the lordship of Whittington went to 
Sir Fulke Fitz Warine,^ who had it confirmed to him 
in A.D. 1219 by Henry III, King of England; and for 
which confirmation he gave the King £'2G2 and two 

In an Anglo-Norman life of Sir Fulke Fitz Warine, 
Avritten in the time of Edward I, lorwerth Drwyndwn, 
it is said, "dona a Rogero de Pow3's, Blanche Ville e 
Maylour"; and when he died we are told that Llewelyn 
ab lorwerth, Prince of Wales, regretted his death " pur 
ce qe Morys fuit son cousyn."' 

2. Sir Roger Fychan de Estwick, Knight {vert, a boar 
or). He was declared to be the heir of his brother, 
Sir Meurig Llwyd, Knight, by a deed of settlement 
made by Llewelyn ab lorwerth. Prince of Wales, and 
confirmed by Henry III, King of England. He left 
issue, besides a daughter named Gweifyl, who manied 
Philip Kynaston of Stocks, ancestor of the late Sir John 
Roger Kynaston of Hardwicke, Bart., a son and heir 
called Meredydd, whose daughter and heiress, Gwerfyl, 
married leuan Foel ab Gwilym ab Cynwrig Sais ab 
Cvnwrig ab Owain ab Bleddyn ab Tudor ab Rhys Sais.* 

3. Owam ab Sir Roger de Powys, who had an only 
daughter and heiress named Gwerfyl, who married 
Einion, a son of Gwilym, an illegitimate son of Grufiydd 
ab Gwenwynwyn, Prince of Upper Powys, by whom she 
had an only daughter and heu'ess, Agnes, who married 
first leuaf Fychan, Constable of Knockyn Castle, son of 
leuaf ab Rhun ab Einion Efell, Lord of Cynllaith ; and 

1 Cae Cyrlog MS. - Pennant's Tour, vol. i, p. 323. 

^ Lewjs Dsvnn, vol. ii, p. 13, note. 

* Cae Cyriog xMS.; Add. MSS. 986i-C. 


secondly, Sir John Hannier, Knigiit, Constable of Car- 
narvon Castle in the time of Edward I ; and 

4. Goronwy ab Sir Eoger de Po\vts, who was the 
ancestor of the family of Pentref Madog in Dudleston, 
of whom an account has been abeadv given. 

III. The third son of Goronwy ab Tudor ab Rhys Sals 
was Sir Jonas of Penley in Maelor Saesneg, Knight 
(Llwyth Llanerch Banna), who bore, azure, three boars 
passant in pale argent, tusked and imguled or, and 
langued gules. He married Gwladys, daughter of Jen- 
kyn ab Adam Herbert, Lord of Gwern Ddu, and Gwen- 
llian his wife, daughter of Sir Aaron ab Pvhys ab Bledri, 
Ejiight of the Holy Sepulchre, by whom he had issue 
five sons : 1, Ynyi-,who had Penley; 2, David ; 3,Gwil- 
ym ; 4, Rhiryd ; 5, Goronwy ; 6. Llewelyn, third in de- 
scent from whom was leuan Llwyd ab Llewelyn ab 
David, whose daughter and heuess, EUiw, married 
Gruffydd ab Madog ab Einion, the ancestor of the 
Bromfields of Bryn y Wiwer in the parish of Rhiwfabon. 

Ynyr of Penley, the eldest son, manied and had issue : 
1, Gruffydd ; 2, Rhiryd, who had Penley ; and 3, Ithel. 

Rhiryd of Penley, the second son, had three sons : 
1, David Goch ;^ 2, Tudor, who had Penley, which he left 
to his daughter and coheiress, Margaret, who married 
David Dimog, alias Deio ab Madog, of Willington in the 
parish of Hanmer, of the house of Tudor Trevor, and 
ancestor of the present Edward Dymoke of Penley 
1 Harl. MS. 4181. 


Hall, Esq. ; and 3, David/ whose daugliter and heiress, 
Annesta, married Philip Hanmer, son of Sir John Han- 
mer, Knt., Constable of Carnarvon Castle, by whom she 
had a son. Sir David Hanmer, Knt., who was made 
Chief Justice of England in a.d. 1383. 

David Goch, the eldest son of Pdiiryd of Penlej, was 
fjxther of Sir Matthew Goch, Knt., who was born in a.d. 
1386 (10 Richard II), a most valiant and renowned sol- 
dier, and Governor of Tanceaiix, Le Hermitage, Tanque- 
viJle, and Liseaux. Being at last sent by the Lord 
Scales to assist the Lord Mayor and the Londoners 
against the arch-rebel Jack Cade, he was slain on Lon- 
don Bridge, valiantly fighting in defence of the King 
and city, July 4, a.d. 1450, in the sixty-fourth year of 
his age. He married Margaret, daughter (by Margaret, 
his wife, daughter of Sir Bryan de Harley, Knt., Lord 
of Brampton Bryan in the county of Hereford, the ances- 
tor of the Harleys Earls of Oxford) of Rhys Mowdde, 
Lord of Castell Edwyn, ab Rhys Mowdde ab David 
Mowdde, ab David ab Gruffydd Foel, Lord of Castell 
Edwyn, sou of Ifor ab Cadifor ab Gwaethfoed, Lord of 
Cardigan, by whom he had issue, three sons, Geoffrey 
Goch, Matthew Goch, and David Gocli, and a daughter 
named INIargaret. 

Geoffrey Goch, the eldest son, was born when his 
father was fifty-three. He had an estate in the Forest 
of Dean, in Gloucestershu-e, which he obtained thi-ough 
his wife Elizabeth, daughter and sole heiress of Avery 
Tralierne, Esq., by whom he was ancestor of the Goughs 
of Alvmgham.^ 

In A.D. 1220 the castle of AVhittington was dis- 
mantled by the Welsh, as we may infer from Henry 
having given Sir Fulke Fitz Warine permission to fortify 
it. The memory of this is still preserved in a room in 
the gateway, by a figure of a . knight on horseback 

' Lewys Dwnn, vol. ii, p. 311. 

- Harl. MS. 4181, where a very full account of the Goch or Gough 
family is given clown to the commencement of the seventeenth cen- 


coarsely painted on the wall, with the following lines, 
now ahuost obliterated, placed beneath : 

This was Sir Ffoulke Pitz Warren, late a great and valiant knight. 
Who kept the Britons still in awe, and ofttimes put to tiiglit. 
He of this castle owner was, and held it by command 
Of Henry, hite surnamed the Third, then king of all this land. 
His grandfather, a Lorrainer, by fame was much befriended. 
Who Peverloy's dau'r took to wife, from whom this Ffoulke de- 
His ancient feats of chivaliy in annals are recorded ; 
Our king of England afterwards, him baron made and lorded.' 

YDref Wen, or Whittington, was celebrated by Lly- 
warch Hen as the place where Cynddylan, King of 
Powys, was slain in a.d. 613." 

Gutyn Owain, the historian of the Abbeys of Basing- 
werk and Strata Florida, who Avas " Pencerdd" and bard 
to David ab lenan ab lorwerth, abbot of Valle Crucis,' 
and also to the abbots of the two first mentioned monas- 
teries, lived at Traian in this lordship. He was a great 
herald and genealogist, and wrote an epitome of the 
British history, which was preserved in Basingwerk 
Abbey, and from this circumstance was called Lhjfr Du 
Basiivj. It is now in the possession of Thomas Tay- 
lor Gnfiith of Wrexham, Esq. Gutyn Owain was 
nephew of John ab Richard, abbot of Valle Crucis, the 
immediate predecessor of the Abbot David ab leuan ab 
lorwerth.'' His pedigree, according to Lewys Dwnn, and 
preserved in the Cae Cyriog ]\ISS., was as follows ■J' 

1 Pennant's Toxir, vol. i, p. 327. 

- See Arch. Camb., 3rd Series, vol. ix, p. 148. 

3 David, abbot of Valle Crucis, was the son of leuan ab lorwerth 
ab leuan Beladr ab T Cethin ab leuan ab lorwerth Fawr ab lor- 
werth ab Heilyn ab Madog ab David ab Howel ab Meurig, who had 
half of Trevor in Nanbeudwy, fourth son of Tudor ab Rhys Sais, 
Lord of Cliirk, etc. (Harl. MS. 4181.) He was consecrated Bishop 
of St. Asaph, April 20, a.d. 1500. He died in a.d. 1503, as is sup- 
posed, at the Abbey, and was probablj' buried there ; where it is 
presumed he lived, on account of having no episcopal palace left 
standin" in his diocese, since it was destroyed in the wars of Owain 
Glyndwr. (Willis' Siirveij of St. Asaph.) 

4 Harl. MS. 4181. 

5 The Cae Cyriog ilSS. contain a most valuable collection of 


Gutyn Owain ab Huw ab Owain ab lorwertli ab 
Hwfa Llwyd ab Gvuftydd ab Adda ab TegAvared ab lor- 
wertli ab Trabaiam ab Cynddelw ab Ilhiiyd ab Pod ab 
Pasgen ab Helig ab GlanaAvg ab Gwgaii Gleddyfrudd, 
son of Caradog Freichfras, King of Fferlis and Breck- 
nock, and one of the Knights of King Arthur's Round 
Table, who bore, sable, a chev. inter three spears' heads 
argent, the points imbrued proper. 

According to the books of Thomas ab leuan, the above 
Hwfa Llwyd was the son of Gruffydd Goch ab David 
ab Tegwared. 

David ab=Tang\yystl, daughter of jMadog ab Cyfnerth ab Cuhelyn ab 
Tegwared | Llywavch ab Llywarch Goch ab Lljwarch Ilolliwrch. ]'erl, 
I a stag trijjpant anjent, attired and unguled or 

Gruffydd 6ocn= 

Hwfa =Gwenllian, daughter of lorwerth ab Meilir Goch Madog Tudur 
Llwyd I ab Meilir ab Rhys Goch ab Rhys Gethin, Lord Llwyd Llwyd 
I of Llanyraddyfri. Anient, a. lion mmpt. salle, 
armed, langued, and crowned ^ides 

Iorwerth=Agne.s, d. of Gruffydd ab Cadwgan ab Meilir Eyton, Gruffydd 
I Lord of Eyton, Erlishain, and Borashain. Ermine, Goch 
I a liou rampt. azure, armed and laugued gules' 

genealogies and family history, collected by John Griffiths of Cae 
Cyriog, in the parish of Rhiwfabon, Esq., -who died in a. p. 1098, 
which are now in the possession of his heir and representative, 
Thomas Taylor GrifSth of Wrexham, Cae Cyriog, and Pennant y 
Belan, Esq., by whom they were most kindly lent to me. They relate 
almost exclusively to the history of Powys Fadog, and contain many 
of the lost pedigrees of Lewys Dwnn, particularly those of the 
families of Trevor of Trevor Hall, Jones of Lhvyn Onn, and Lloyds 
of Plas Madog ; which last place is called by Lewys Dwnn, Plas 
Madog Warwyn, from Madog Warwyn, the eldest son of Elidir ab 
Rhys Sais, Lord of Eyton. The Lh/fr Goch o Bowijs and other 
volumes of genealogies by Lewys Dwnn are now lost; but Mr. John 
Griffiths and Mr. John Davies of Rhiwlas had access to them. (Lewys 
Dwnn, vol. i, introduction, pp. 30, 31.) 
1 Eyion Pedigree. 



IIuw ab 0\yain= David ab Owain= 

J L 

David GrufFydd ab Haw ab Owain, Angharad, coheiress, ux. Llewelyu, 
ab alius Gutyu Owain, ob. iu sccoud son of GrutFjdd ab Rhys ab 
Huw A.D. 1-i — , and was buried at GruflFjdd ab Madog Lloyd of 


Strata Florida Abbey Bryn Cunallt 

Gwenllian, ux. Howel Fyohan ab Howel,' of Oswestry. 

It is uncertain when Gutyn Owain died, but we find 
that "the first step" taken by the Earl of Richmond 
after his accession to the throne in a.d. 1485, was a com- 
mission issued to the Abbot of Llanegwestl, or Valle 
Crucis ; Dr. Owen Pool, Canon of Hereford ; and John 
King, Herald at Arms ; " to make inquisition concern- 
ing Owain Tudur", his grandfather. Dr. Powel, in his 
Historic of Cambria, printed in a.d. 1584, mentions this 
commission, and states that "the commissioners, coming 
into Wales, travelled in that matter, and used the helps 
of Sir John Leiaf (a priest), Guttyn Owain Bardh, and 
Gruflfydd ab Llewelyn ab leuan Fychan of Llanerch,co. 
Denbigh, and others, in searcli of the Brytish or Welsh 
bookes of petigrees, out of which tliey drew his perfect 

The Lloyds of Ebnall, in this lordship, were descended 
from Owain Brogyntyn. Edward Lloyd, the last male 
heir of this family, had an only daughter and heiress, 
Mary, who married Edward Lloyd of Llwyn y Maen. 
Traian once formed part of the possessions of Ithel 
Felyn, lord of lal. 


III. Cantref E-haiadr contained the three comots of : 
1, Mochnant Is Rhaiadr; 2, Cynllaith ; and 3, Nan- 

1 . The comot of Mochnant Is Rhaiadr, together with 
that of Mochnant Uwch Rhaiadr in Cantref y Fyrnwy, 

1 Howel of Oswestry died in a.d. 1481. (Harl. 51 S. 2299.) 
- Lewjs Dvvnii, vol. i, xiv. 


once belonged to lonvei-th Gocli, a younger son of Prince 
Meredydd ab Bleddyn. This chieftain fought, together 
with the other Welsh princes, at the battle of Crogen 
in A.D. 1163, against the English ; but soon afterwards 
he appears to have sided with Henry II, in consequence 
of which Owain, Lord of Mechain Is Coed, a son of 
Prince Madog ab Meredydd, and his cousin Owain Cyf- 
eiliog, in A.D. 1164, took the whole territory of their 
uncle, lorwerth Goch, and shared it between them ; so 
that Mochnant Uwch Pthaiadr fell to Owain Cyfeiliog, 
and Mochnant Is Pthaiadr to Owain ab Madog. 

lorwerth Goch, who had also parts of Tre 'r Main, 
Burgedin, Hope in Teirtref, and Whitting-ton, married 
Maude, daughter of Sir Richard de Manley, of Cheshire, 
Knight, by whom he had issue, three sons : 1 , Su- Gruff- 
ydd, who was a Knight of Rhodes and ancestor of the 
Kynaston family; 2, lorwerth Fychan, Baron of Main 
in Meifod, the ancestor of Llewelyn Foelgrwn, Baron of 
Main, who bore, argent, a lion passant sahle in a border 
indented gules, from whom descended the Parrys of 
Main, the Matthewses of Trefnannau, the Maurices of 
Bryn y Gwaliau and Bodynfol, the Lords Lilford, and 
the Powyses of Berwick ; and 3, Howel of Cae Howel. 

Besides these, lorwerth Goch had also an illegitimate 
son, Madog Goch of Mawddwy. This chieftain bore, 
argent, a che\Ton party per pale gules and azure inter 
three falcons sahle, the left leg of each lifted up, their 
beaks and right legs of the third, and a trefoil over the 
head of each azure. These were the arms of Llywarch 
ab Cadfan ; and Madog Goch wore them when he killed 
Llywarch ; and Llewelyn ab lorwerth. Prince of Wales, 
gave these arms, as well as the lands of Llywarch ab 
Cadfan, to Madog Goch.' The Owens of Trefeilir and 
Llangristiolus, in Cwmmwd Malldraeth, are lineally de- 
scended from Madog Goch. 

Mochnant Is Ilhaiadr contains part of the parish of 
Llanarmon Mynydd Mawr, the townships of Llanged- 
%vyn and Scrwgan in the parish of Llangedwyn, portions 
1 Cae Cyriog MSS. 



of the parishes of Llanavmon Dyftryn Ceii-iog, and Llan- 
gadwaladr, and the townships of Tre 'r Llan, Trewern, 
Henfachau, Banhadla Ucliaf, Banhadla Isaf, Trefeiliw, 
Trebys Fawr, Trebys Facli, Garth Eryr, and Brithdir, in 
the parish of Llanrhaiadr ym Mochnant/ and part of the 
parish of Llan y Myneich. 


In the time of Madog ab Gruffydd Maelor, Prince of 
Powys, Cadwgan y Saethydd of Mochnant was Lord of 
Henfachau. He bore, argent, a chevron gules inter 
thi-ee pheons pointed to the centre salAe. He was the 
son of Rhiryd ab Cadwgan ab Rhiryd, second son of 
Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, Prince of Powys, by his fourth con- 
sort, who was a daughter of Gruffydd ab Carwed ab 
Alaw of Llwydiarth in Mon. Carwed bore, sahle, an 
oak tree fructed or, the stem crossed by two arrows 
pointed upwards, saltirewise, argent. He married 
Angharad Fechan, daughter and coheiress of Gruflydd,^ 
third son of Meihr Eyton, Lord of Eyton [ermine, a Hon 
rampant azure),\>j whom he had a son named Goronwy, 
who succeeded his father as Lord of Henfachau. He 
married Eva, daughter and heiress of David ab HoAvel 
Fychan ab Howel ab leuaf, Lord of Ai-wysth {gules, a 

1 Mont. Coll., vol. iv, p. 201. 

- Gruffydd miirried Angharad, daughter and heiress of Llewelyn 
ab Meurig ab Cai-adog ab lestyn ab Gwrgant, Prince of Glamorgan, 
who bore, gules, three chevronells argent. 



lion rampant argent, crowiied or), by ^vholn he liad an 
onl_y dauoliter and lieiress, Eva, who married Culielyn 
ab Elum ab Einion Efell, Lord of Cynllaitli. 


Besides Cadwgan y Saetliydd, Rhiryd ab Cadwgan 

had another son named Ithel, who by his wife, 

daughter of Meredydd ab lorwerth ab Llywarch ab 
Bran, Lord of Cwmmwd Menai (by Angharad his wife, 
daughter and heiress of Howel ab Meredydd ab Bleddyn 
ab Cynfyn), had issue a son, Howel ab Ithel, Lord of 
Ehoswnog,' or, according to others. Lord of lihos and 
Pihufoniog," who bore, argent, a rose gules, seeded or. 
He married IMargaret, daughter of Thomas ab Cadwgan 
ab Cadwaladr and Gruffydd ab Einion, by whom he 
had two daughters, coheiresses : 

1. Margaret, wife of Howel ab Cynwrig Fychan ab 
Cynwrig ab Llywarch ab Heilyn, descended from March- 
weithian. Lord of Is Aled, who bore, gules, a lion ramp- 
ant argent, armed and langued «c!«re; and the ancestor 
of the Wynnes of Foelas, Prices of Ehiwlas in Penllyn, 

2. Annesta, wife of Cadwgan Goch ab Y Gwion ab 
Hwfa ab Ithel Felyn, Lord of lal,' who bore, sahle, on 

. ii, p. 343. 
Ibid. Cae Cyr 

Harl. MS. 2-299. 


a clievron, inter three goats' heads erased or, three tre- 
foils of the field. 

In a previous chapter, on the authority of the Harl. 
MS. 2299, I stated that Meredydd ab Bleddyn had but 
one son, named Howel, who was illegitimate ;^ but the 
same authority also states that Gruffydd Hiraethog, in 
the third volume of his books of pedigrees, says that 
Meredydd ab Bleddyn, by his first consort, Hunydd, 
had a third son named Howel, who, I think, must liave 
been the father of Angharad, the wife of Meredydd ab 
lorwerth of Cwmmwd ]\Ienai in Anglesey ; for Lew^'s 
Dwnn^ expressly states that she Avas an heiress, Avhich 
she could not have been had she been the daughter of 
the illegitimate Howel, who had two sons, Meredydd 
and leuan ; and I also think that it must have been 
Howel, the third legitimate son of Meredydd ab Bledd- 
yn, who was slain by his own men in a.d. 1140." 

1 An-h. Camh., Oct. 1872, p. 295. 

" Lcwys Dwnn, vol. ii, p. 207. 

3 I find that I am further corroborated in this view by an extract 
from Robert Vaughan's great Book of Pedigrees, in the possession of 
!^[r. Wynne of Peniarth, obligingly sent ne by H. R. Hughes of 
Kinmael Park, Esq. In this book it is stated that Meredydd ab 
Bleddyn had a legitimate son, named Howel, by his first consort, 
Hunydd, the daughter of Eunydd. 

(To be continued.) 

'1 1 



\. ,\ 








In Llowes churchy ard, Radiioi-shire, is a sing-ular monu- 
ment. It consists of a stone of great weight and size, 
standing in an upright position, to tlie south of the 
chiu-cli, close to the pathway, and measures in height, 
from the surface of the ground, about 7 feet 4-|- inches. 
Increasing in Avidth gradually from the top downwards, 
it measures at the top only 27 inches across, while at 
the bottom it reaches a width of 36 inches. It is worthy 
of remark that the plan adopted in the case of coffin- 
lids was the reverse of tliis. There the coffin-lids them- 
selves, as well as the crosses in relief on them, diminished 
in width from the top downwards. I believe this was 
a universal rule. Following likewise the same plan in 
its thickness as its width, this stone increases in thick- 
ness from 10 inches at the summit to 10:^ inches at the 
base. It goes by the name of " Moll Walbec", and on 
either side a cross is carved. On the side facing east 
is a cross of very irregular geometrical jjuttern, consist- 
ing of semilunar compartments, lozenges, and triangles. 
Almost every lozenge and triangle diiiers in size and 
shape from its corresponding one ; and they are evi- 
dently simply arranged with the idea of getting in so 
many of each, to make out the pattern, without any 
attempt at true symmetrical arrangement. The semi- 
lunar compartments are cut in to a depth of 2 inches, a 
greater depth than the rest of the pattern. On the 
west side is a Latin cross Avith bifurcated arms, cut in 
to a depth of 3 inches. The crosses, in both cases fol- 
lowing the increase in size of the stone, increase in 
width downwards. The stone, which is a limestone 
block, partly overgrown with lichens, has suffered most 
on its Avest face from exposure to the weathei", and on 
the soutli side of the east face. In the edge of the 
stone, on the north side, is a curious small hole, 2 inches 
aci'oss, which runs in 3 inches, tapering inAvards. 


Having thus minutely descvibed the stone, I will give 
part of its description by the Rev. Jonathan Williams 
in his History of Radnorshire. After giving its dimen- 
sions, which are very inaccurate, he goes on to say it is 
"carved or sculptured into the similitude of a human 
body. On its breast is delineated a large circle divided 
into four semilunar compartments separated by rich {sic) 
sculpture. In the centre of the circle is a lozenge. The 
lower part of the body is decorated with lozenges and 
triangles. Its arms have been broken ofp by accident, 
or violence, or by the corroding hand of time." 

What gave Mr. Williams any grounds for this fanci- 
ful description, I am at a loss to understand. He cer- 
tainly was wrong in supposing that the cross evei- had 
the arms he speaks of It does not bear the slightest 
trace of theii- loss. It may be described as a St. Cuth- 
bert's cross from the outline, which bears a similarity 
to the pectoral cross found in 1827 in Durham Cathe- 
dral, and disinterred with a skeleton supposed to be 
that of St. Cuthbert, by the Rev. James Raine, together 
witli some other most curious relics of the Anglo-Saxon 
age. Mr.AVilliams then giving the conjectvu-es of others 
with regard to what this figure (as he calls it) is sup- 
posed to represent, says, " some, among whom was the 
late Theophilus Jones, Esq., supposed that this formid- 
able figure represents Malaen, the British ]\Iinerva, the' 
goddess of war." Then speaking of the traditional 
report, which he treats as extremely extravagant, " it 
asserts", he says, " that a female figure of gigantic 
strength, called JMoU Walbec, threw this immense stone 
out of her shoe, across the river Wye, from Clifiord 
Castle, which she had constructed distant about three 
miles. The Biitish and original appellation of Moll Wal- 
bec was Malaen y Walfa, i.e.,' the fur i/ of the enclosure'." 

Ecjually extravagant is the present legend of the 
stone as related to me by the old clerk who has been in 
the parish for the last fifty years. He asserts that a 
duel was fought between two members of families living 
in the neiglibourhood, whom he named, and that accord- 


ingly tills cross was to tlicir mcinoiy. Possibly 
tlie simple cross was to commemorate the vanquished, 
and the more elaborate one the victor. In order to 
dismiss this view of the matter it will be only necessary 
to observe that we have no tradition of a cross ever 
having been erected to commemorate a duel, though 
there are traditions of such a character respecting the 
great vmdressed pillar-stones so common in Ireland. 
There was an old Breconshu-e family of the name of 
Walbeof, but it is now long since extinct. It appears 
from Jones' JBreconshire that many slabs were erected^ 
to their memory, and one monument is m the church of 
Llanhamlach near Brecon. Possibly the stone might have 
been named after the Walbeofs ; but of course tliis is 
purely conjectural. It is said (and it is the more pj'o- 
bable derivation of the word) that the name MoU Wal- 
bec was derived from Maude de St. Valerie, the wife 
of William de Breos, who was the victim of King John. 
Did not AVilliam de Breos fly to Ireland ? and was not 
she starved to death with her chilcben ? I cannot 
remember without books to refer to. The De Breoses 
were lords of the district. The name Moll Walbec has 
been applied by country people to the female corbel- 
head (now in a cottage) taken from Huntington Castle. 
It is likewise a common habit to call any carved corbel 
at Hay, or in the neighbourhood, by that name. Tak- 
ing these last facts together with the name applied to 
this cross, it would seem that the name of Moll Wal- 
bec was given by popular assent to any stone the 
natives could not understand. 

I ought not to forget to mention that the clerk in- 
formed me that this interesting monument had a very 
narrow escape from destruction, for he remembers, when 
he was a boy, that some men were chgging it up to 
place as the corner-stone of the new schools ; but the 
late vicar happening to come by, stopped the work, and 
ordered the soil to" be filled in again round it. They 
had got down to a depth of 4 feet, and had not even 
then reached the base of the stone. 

22 = 


AYitli regard to AA'elsli crosses in general, they appear 
frequently in the shape of a small cross within a circle, 
set in the top of a long shaft, tlie latter having at times 
the mterlaced ornaments in compartments. They often 
have inscriptions, ui the Romano-British character, to 
the memory of the persons for whom they wei'e erected ; 
but are destitute of anything resembling the symbols 
of the Scotch crosses, and differ from them both in de- 
sign and construction. The crosses of Ireland differ 
Avidely, too, from the Scotch. The Irish are cruciform 
in shape, with a halo or circle which binds the ai-ms and 
stem together, of -nhich we have only a few Scotcli 

Having thus spoken of the general characteristics of 
these three families of crosses, if I compai-e the Llowes 
Cross individually with the drawings of any one of 
them, I do not find one cross at all resembling it in pat- 
tern. In form it is allied most closely to the Irish. 
" The form of the Llowes Cross," the Ilev. James Graves, 
Treasurer to the Eoyal Historical and Archfeological 
Association of Ireland, writes, " is distinctly Irish ; but 
the ornamentation is not. The panels, with us, are 
filled up either with figures or interlaced work, — the 
lacertine ornament as it has been called." 

Going carefuUy through the two splendid volumes of 
that exhaustive work. The Scidjytured Stones of Scot-- 
land, by Dr. John Stuart, Secretary to the Spalding 
Club (published by that Club in the years 1856 and 
1867), I found, at Plate 104, a cross resembling it partly 
in outline ; but out of the nearly two hundred Plates I 
did not come across one resembling it at all in pattein. 
I have corroborative evidence, from two or three sources, 
of its ornamentation being unknown in Ireland. In 
England and Wales I know of no cross at all like it. 
The crosses in Cornwall are very dissimilar, and, as a 
rule, much simpler ; and in only one case have I heard 
of a cross of like kind, which a friend of mine has a 
recollection of having seen in some book with Runic 
inscriptions on it. I am, therefore, inclined to the belief 
that it is almost, if not quite, unique. 


Its date is a matter of great uncertainty. Mr. 11. R. 
Brash thinks the lozenge-panelling betokens a rather 
late date; but at the same time says the lozenge-pattern 
is very iniusual, and the head of the cross pecidiar. As 
it is not of any known marked type, and there is no 
inscription to help one, it is difficult to decide. Mr. M. 
H. Bloxam, who is well acquainted with English and 
Welsh crosses, difters from him, and tliinks that it dates 
from the early half of the eleventh century. I am much 
inclined to the same opinion, especially from the roi;gh- 
ness and general want of finish of the stone, and the 
extreme rudeness and want of symmetry in the pattern. 
There is no qnarr}' in the immediate neighbourhood 
that could have furnished the stone, and I think it ex- 
tremely probable that it was formerly a maen hir, or 
ancient, unlettered, sepulchral monument, which was 
removed from its original position, and converted into 
a Christian cross. Looking at it now, it bears every 
appearance of this. It is well known that in the eleventh 
century several instances occur of this conversion being 
made. There is a tradition that it stood on Bryn Rhydd 
Common, half a mile to the west of its present position, 
possibly with others ; and it is probable that this par- 
ticular stone was selected as suitable for the purpose of 
a cross. 

This Llowes Cross might have been copied from the 
original St. Cuthbert's, which seems to have followed 
him from Lindisfarne, and, together with his remains, 
appears to have shared his foi-tunes after his death. It 
is related that in the days of Simeon of Durham, whose 
history tennmates with the year 1096, St. Cuthbert's 
Cross stood in the cemetery of Durham Cathedral, and 
may be the one referred to by Leland as standing at 
the head of a tomb in the churchyard, on the south side 
of the Minster. "It is a crosse of a 7 fote longe, that 
hath had an inscription of diverse rowes yn it ; but the 
scripture cannot be red." 

Whether this Radnorshire cross is in any way con- 
nected with this St. Cuthbert's is, of course, uncertain ; 


but certain it is that the former is what may be de- 
scribed as a St. Cuthbert's cross, as well as that the 
latter, which formerly seemed to have had a wandering- 
life, was fixed in its place in the churchyard about or 
before the year 1096. 

The parish of Llowes was in the cantred of Elvael ; 
and it is worthy of mention, that in the taxation, in 
1291, of Pope Nicholas IV, the parish of Llowes is twice 
mentioned. This Pope granted the tenth to King Ed- 
ward I for six years, towards defraying the expedition 
to the Holy Land ; and amongst the other parishes 
taxed thus, Lewas is mentioned as having furnished its 
tenth : Lewas, £8:0: 0—0 : 16 : 0. There is thus evi- 
dence of its being a parish in the thirteenth century. 

With respect to the small hole in the edge of the 
stone, as it does not go through the face of the stone, 
or even through the angle (examples of which occur 
both in Ireland and Scotland), I think it cannot lay 
claim to be a " holed stone". Probably in this case it 
signified nothing, unless possibly the hole was drilled 
for the purpose of raising and transporting it. 

Having finally dismissed all the legends concerning 
its erection, let us see what were the general purposes 
intended by the erection of crosses. They were pro- 
bably various. Crosses were erected as memorials of 
the founders of churches; and Dr. Petrie supposes that 
on occasions, in addition to this, they served as sej)ul- 
chral monuments of these individuals. It may also be 
supposed that they were erected by the early mission- 
aries in place of the older stones of the native inhabit- 
ants, with the view of altering and sanctifying the 
principles (whatever they were) which had led them to 
set lip their rude stones. In the case of the erection of 
this Welsh cross, I am much inclined to adopt this last 
view. May not a monk of Celtic race have migrated 
from the north to Padnorsliire, carried with him the 
idea of the cross which he had seen, and endeavoured 
to perpetuate its form in his new residence ? 

Ernest Hartland. 



As an occasional rambler, resident for a few days at 
Beaumaris, I have always at hand a note-book to set 
down anything I consider deserving of being recorded, 
and whilst looking over (a few days ago) the Church of 
Beaumaris, the monume:it in the vestry, with its two 
recumbent effigies, struck me as worthy of a more 
lengthy and particular descrijation than it has hitherto 
received. The Church of Beaumaris is not unworthy 
of a note, though it may probably have been described 
at length in some pubhcation or other. 

It is a fair specimen of a town church. The tower, 
the upper part at least, is modern. The nave and aisles 
are of that style of ecclesiastical construction termed 
decorated, which prevailed from the latter part of the 
thirteenth to the latter part of the fourteenth century, 
during the reigns of the three first Ed\^'ards. The nave 
is divided from the aisles on each side by four jjointed 
arches, with moulded architraves of two orders of bold 
and excellent design, springing from plain octagonal 
piers, with caps of a few simple mouldings. Some of 
the windows of the north and south aisles are of pleas- 
ing contour, and the tracery with which they are filled 
is of good decorated design. There appears to have 
been at the east end of each aisle a small chantry chapel, 
anciently divided by screen Avork from the rest of the 

The existence of piscinte or water drains within niches 
in the south wall of each aisle is a sure indication of an 
altar having formerly existed at the east end of each 
aisle. The roof of the nave is not the original roof, but 
one of the fifteenth century. The chancel arch is of 
very good and bold character, of the same period as the 
nave and aisle, the architrave mouldings, however, con- 
sisting of quarter rounds, run from the apex of the 


arch down to the base, -ttithout any stop by way ot 
capital The chancel is at h\ast two centmies later in 
date than the body of the church, having been recon- 
structed on the site of a more ancient chancel, demo- 
lished probably sometime during the sixteenth century, 
when the present chancel appears to have been built. 
I have no records to consult respecting the church, and 
therefore simply form my opinion from the architectural 
features of various portions of tlie fabric. 

I regret I cannot s^^eak in commendation of the pre- 
sent fittings of the church, but with the revival of a 
better taste these wlU doubtless, at no very distant 
period I hoj^e, give place to fittings more in consonance 
with the architectural features of the church. I must, 
however, except the stall-like arrangement of the 
chancel with ancient sittings of greater antiquity than 
the jjresent chancel. These stalls were evidently re- 
moved after the suppression of the monasteries from 
some rehgious house in the neighbourhood, perhaps 
from the conventual church at Penmon, perhaps from 
the chiTrch or chapel now demolislied at the Fiiary at 
Llanfaes. The carved suhsellia, or underseats of the 
stalls are so fixed at the back of them that they are 
easy to be examined, but the carvings which appear to 
be of the fifteenth century, present no features worthy 
of particular notice, no groujis, the heads of a monk, 
of a bisho23, of a female rehgious veiled, \A'impled, and 
crowned. At the east end of the chancel is a monu- 
mental stone in commemoration of Sir Henry Sidney, 
lather of one of the great worthies of England, Sir Phi- 
hp Sidney. 

The most interesting of the monumental remams is, 
however, that high tomb in the vestry, removed, I be- 
lieve, from the Friary Church, at Llanfaes, long since 
demolished, and set up here ; nor is this a singular in- 
stance, for there are many monuments in different 
churches throughout the kingdom which were originally 
placed in conventual chm-ches, and on their suppression 
and demolition removed, and setup in some neighbour- 
ing parochial church. 


The recumbent effigies on tliis tomb are those of a 
knight and his lady. There is no inscription to denote 
the personages here represented, but from the style of 
armour of the knight and costume of the lady, the date 
to which this monument may be ascribed may safely be 
asserted to be of the middle of the fifteenth century, or 
reign of Henry the Sixth. The knight is re^^resented 
with his head resting on a tilting helmet with mantling 
and crest. On his head he wears that pecidiar kind of 
lielmet, a visored salade, the vizor being raised so as to 
disclose the face. About his neck and covering the chin 
is a gorget of plate, and over this is worn the collar of 
SS. The armpits are protected by gussets of mail ; the 
shordders and upper portions of the arms by pieces of 
plate, the prototypes of the pass guards, epaulieres and 
rerebraces. The elbows are defended by coudes, and the 
lower portions of the arms,, from the elbows to the 
wrists, by vambraces. The backs of the hands are pro- 
tected by gauntlets, composed of one or two plates only. 
The body armour consists of a breastplate with a 
placard or additional plate in front, to this is attached a 
skirt of taces overlapping upwards, and beneath this 
appears an a,pron of chain mail vandyked, and over this 
are worn angular tuilettes of plates fastened to the skirt 
of taces. Cuisses of plate defend the thighs, genouilleres 
the knees, jambs the legs, and sollerets of flexible over- 
lapping lamina3 of plate, with gussets of chain mail at 
the insteps, protect the feet which rest against a lion. 
Spm-s are fastened to the heels. The sword, which is 
gone, worn on the left side, was fastened by a narrow 
belt crossing diagonally from the right hip to the left 
thigh. The anelace or dagger attached to the right side 
is also gone. 

The recumbent effigy of the lady is on the right of 
that of the knight. She is represented weai'ing on her 
head a high cap something like a sugar loaf, to this is 
attached a veil. 

Eound her neck appears a leaf-like ornament. The 
gown is close fittmg to the waist, and openings at the 


sides disclose the inner vest ; the sleeves are close fit- 
tino- and cuffed at the ^vl'ists. The skirts of the gown 
fall in ample folds to the feet, which I'est against two 
whelps. At the back is worn a mantle or cloak fast- 
ened across the breast by a cordon, attached to a fei-- 
mail or ornamental appendage on either side of the 
mantle. The two tasselled extremities of the cordon 
hang down on the body. The head reposes on a cushion. 
The hands both of this and the other effigy are joined 
on the breast in attitude of prayer. 

The sides of this tomb are divided into eleven com- 
partments, containing alternately a shield and statuette. 
Each statuette is placed within a canopied housing or 
tabernacle. These statuettes are very interesting, and 
require to be described severally. Those on the north 
side consist of — • 

1. The statuette of a female clad in a gown and 
mantle, with a veil and crown on the head, and with a 
sword held in the left hand. This may have been in- 
tended for St. Catherme. 

2. The statuette of a bishop vested in the alb and 
chesible, with a low mitre on the head ; the right hand 
upheld in act of benediction, the left hand represented 
holding a pastoral staff. 

3. The statuette of an abbess habited in a full gown, 
with wide hanging sleeves, the neck and chin wimpled, 
the head covered with a veil and crowned. In the 
right hand is held a pastoral staff, in the left hand is 
held a book. 

4. The statuette of a bishop, vested as before. 

5. The statuette of a female religious, with the head 
crowned, habited in a full gown with a plaited gorget 
or wimple about the neck and chin, holdmg a pastoral 
staff" in the left hand and a book in the right. 

6. The statuette of a bishop, vested as before. 

The east or lower end of the tomb is divided into five 
compartments, alternately occupied by a statuette and 
a shield. The statuettes are — 

1. Statuette of a bishop, vested as before. 


2. Statuette of ctn abbot, bare headed aud tonsuved. 
vested in an amice, alb, and chesible. In the left hand 
is held a pastoral stafi", and a pan- of fetter locks, con- 
nected by a chain, appears to be suspended from the 
right hand. 

3. Statuette of a female not in a religious habit, but 
clad in a low close fitting gown and mantle, and crowned, 
with a staff in the left hand, the points of which is hi- 
serted m the jaws of a dragon — perhaps intended to 
represent St. Margaret. 

The south side of the tomb has the same number of 
statuettes as the north. They are as follows : — 

1. Statuette of a knight in armour, somewhat muti- 
lated, so as to render the details difficult to make out. 

2. Statuette of a female, crowned, perhaps intended 
to represent St. Catherine. 

3. Statuette of a prior or abbot, represented bare- 
headed, and vested in amice, alb, and chesible, holdmg 
in the right hand a book, in the left a pastoral staff. 

4. Statuette of a bishop, vested as before. 

5. The same. 

6. The same. 

The west end contains like the east, three statuettes 
as follows : — • 

1 . Statuette of a female crowned, and bearing a sword, 
perhaps St. Catherine. 

2. Statuette representing St. Christopher, bearing on 
his shoulder the Infant Christ, represented according to 
the story in the Legenda Aurea of Voragine. I have 
once before met with a sculpttired representation of this 
allegory of the schoolmen in a chtu'ch, I think Minster 
Lovel, in Oxfordshire, and a portion of an inlaid brass 
in Morley Chin-ch, Derbyshire, contains also a represen- 
tation of St. Christopher, there considered as a real per- 
sonage. Paintings of St. Christopher were frequent on 
the walls of our churches, and many such are still to be 
found in a greater or less state of preservation. 

3. Statuette of a Fi'iar in the garb or weed of a Domi- 
nican, his cowl or gown and hood with the scapular in 


front. I have only met with one other figure in the 
garb of a Dominican, and this is carved on one of the 
subsellia of the stalls in St. Mary's Church, Beverley. 
This statuette is then of extremely rare occurrence. 

On the north wall of the chapel is a sepulchral brass 
of the latter part of the fifteenth century or reign of 
Henry the Seventh. This is remarkable forhaving the 
conventional representation of the Holy Trinity, a some- 
what rare example, there being perhaps not a dozen 
brasses in the kingdom with this emblem. The Almighty 
Father is represented as the ancient of days, with a man- 
tle or cope, and tiara on the head. The Son as the 
image of the crucified. The Holy Spirit in the shape of 
a dove, above the Son. On one side of this, but de- 
tached, is the figure of the blessed Virgin, crowned and 
holdmo- the Infant Christ in her arms. On the other 
side is the figure of St. John, with the chalice contain- 
ino- the serpent in his left hand. Beneath are the effigies 
of a civilian and his wife. He is represented as bare- 
headed, his hair cut club-wise, habited in a merchant's 
gown, with two male children behind him, with a scroll 
issuing from his mouth, bearing the words " Osanna in 
Excelsis." His wife appears in the pedimental head- 
dress, a gown with full puckered sleeves, and a female 
child behind her. Issuing from her mouth is a scroll 
containing the words " Kyrie eleyson." The inscrip- 
tion beneath is in commemoration of Richard Bulkeley, 
a merchant, and Elizabeth his wife, but there is no date 
on the monument. 


The Isle of Priestholm, Ynys Seii'iol, now often 
called Puffin Island, about four miles north-east of 
Beaumaris, is doubtless visited during the season by a 
number of tourists. Uninhabited by man, it is yet of 
considerable interest from having been the abode of 
Seiriol, a religious recluse of the sixth century. A 


small monastic establishment was early founded here, 
of \vhich the to^\'er of the ch\n-ch and some foundations 
of the conventual building-s on the north side are the 
only existing remains. This towei-, small in size, and 
in point of architectural construction exceedingly rude, 
is nevertheless, from its extreme antiquity, of no slight 
interest. It is I think the earliest Christian structure 
now existing in the principality of Wales, and the 
approximate date I should, for reasons I Avill adduce, 
assign to it, is the latter part of the seventh century, or 
about A.D. 680. The external dimensions of this tower 
are on either side thirteen feet eight inclies, the in- 
ternal dimensions on either side eight feet two inches, 
the thickness of the wall being two feet eight inches. It 
is of two stages in height, each consisting of about 
twenty feet, divided externally by a square edged 
string course. In the lower stages are three semi- 
circular beaded arches rudely constructed of laminas or 
tliin uncut pieces of rag stone, that on the west, now 
blocked up, leading into the nave, now demolished, 
being five feet eight inches in diameter, tbat on the 
soutli side to which a modern shed is now attached, led 
into a southern transept ; by that on the east, which 
formed the communication with the chancel or choir, 
access to the interior may stiU be obtained, though it 
has been partially closed on either side. Each of these 
two last arclaes are of similar construction to that first 
described. The walls in the interior have been covered 
with plaster. There is no internal division between the 
two stages, nor is there any appearance of a staircase. 
The upper stage is lighted by a window on each side, 
that on the east has a single stone in the head I'udely 
Avorked to a semi-circle, the jambs are pieces of rag- 
stone, three in number on each side. The north win- 
dow is also of a single light, with a single stone for the 
head rudely worked into a semi-circle, with each of the 
jambs formed of three pieces of rag stone. The windows 
on the south and west are double light windows, the 
heads are formed of a single stone each, rudely fashioned 


in two semi-circular openings ; but the intermediate 
shafts or baluster divisions between the lights are gone. 
The jambs of the south window consist of four pieces of 
uncut stone on either side, those of the south of three 
pieces on one side and four on the other. The jambs 
are all straight-sided. The roof is of stone, pyramidi- 
cally formecl, and is perhaps not only the very earliest 
prototype we have of the -spu-e ; but the earliest exist- 
ino- roof, I think, in the kingdom of any building above 
ground. This extremely ancient and interesting struc- 
ture is constructed of imhewn masses of stone, set in 
mortar of great strength. The only approach to movdd- 
ings, and they can hardly be called such, are the square- 
edged string course, and the heads of the windows. 
This building may well be compared in its constructive 
features with the chancel of Jarrow Church, in North- 
umberland, and the remains of Innisfallen Abbey, near 
Killarney, both, I think, of the seventh century ; and I 
trust this ancient tower at Priestholm may long be 
preserved as one of our national antiquities. I believe 
that by excavations judiciously carried on, the site of 
the church and plan of the conventual buildings might 
be fairly developed. 

Matthew Holbeche Bloxam. 

Townsend Cott.age, Beaumari 
Alls. 27, 1867. 





The paper on " The Ancient Forest of Deerfold," in the 
ArchcBologia Canibrensis (4th Series, vols, i and ii), 
created considerable intei'est, from the account it con- 
tained of the Lollards in Herefordshire, and the pro- 
ceedings taken against them by the Bishop and Canons 
of Hereford. 

On the death of John of Gaunt, in 1389, the leading 
Lollards dispersed in various directions to esca})e the 
persecution to which they were immediately subjected. 
William Swynderby, with several companions, took 
refuge in the extreme seclusion of the Forest of Deer- 
fold, under the direction, there is good reason to sup- 
pose, of Sir John Oldcastle (Lord Cobham). Swynderby 
was the most eloquent of the immecliate followers 
of Wycliflfe,' and it- was not likely that his eloquence 
could I'emain long undiscovered anywhere. He came 
into the diocese of Hereford early in the year 1390, 
and, taking no notice of an inhibition at once served 
upon him at JMonrnouth, he preached in the churches of 
Whitney, Almelej", Croft, Leominster, and Kington, and 
took up his residence in the Forest of Deerfold. 

In 1391 a process Avas issued by Bishop Trefnant of 
Hereford against William Sw3mderby, which is given at 
full length in the Hereford Episcopal Register for that 

1 In a mandate issued against the Lollards by the Bishop of Wor- 
cester two years before (1387), Swynderby is especially named, with 
Hereford, Asshton, Pnrney, and Parker, and they are thus described : 
"Insanii'i mentis perducti, ac suk salutis immemores, sub magna; 
sanotitatis velamine venenum sub labiis in ore meJUjiuo habentes, 
zizanium pro fruraento seminantes." (Reg. Wakefield, Wigorn., 
fol. ]2S ; Wilkins, iii, p. 202.) In 1391 Swynderby had the high 
tribute paid to his eloquence of a special inhibition from Archbishop 
Courtney, " lest any one should presume to listen to the preaching of 
WiUiam Skynderbye." (Eeg.Courtney.fol.SSSA ; Wilkins, iii, p.215.) 


year. By the sixteenth and seventeenth articles of thi.s 
process, S^vynderby is accused of having " presumed to 
celebrate", in certain chapels "not hallowed", situated 
in " Dervoldswood" and in "the Park of Newton, nigh 
to the town of Leintwarden". It thus became a matter 
of much interest to discover the site of these chapels, 
or small chantries, as they probably were. 

It was found that at the hamlet of Newton there is a 
field of old pasture called " The Chapel Meadow", and 
here there can still be ti-aced clearly, beneath the grass, 
the foundations qf some small building. 

In the Forest of Deerfold the name and traditions 
belonging to the " Chapel Farm" led before to the disco- 
very that the farmhouse itself Avas an old oak building of 
so rich and interesting a character that it was minutely 
described and figured. It is undoubtedly a building of 
the end of the fourteenth or the beoinning of the fif- 
teenth century, and was probably built by the Lollards 
as a place of worship, although not in itself of an eccle- 
siastical character. No direct evidence could then be 
discovered of the existence of any previous chapel there. 
A careful examination of all the walls supporting the 
woodwork of the house and the surrounding buildings 
only led to the discovery of a single stone of interest. 
This stone was built in the north-west corner of the 
house, and was of a sandstone foreign to the locality; 
but yet offered no other special character on its exposed 

It has been necessary to recall these facts to remem- 
brance, that the interest attaching to a discoveiy made 
there last March (1873) may be clearly seen. 

The Chapel Farmhouse has been undergoing consider- 
able repairs, or has been suffering terrible desecration, 
as the alterations may be looked upon from an econo- 
mical or an archaeological jjoint of A'iew. At the north- 
-west corner of the house, about two feet below the 
surface, the workmen dug out some yards of worked 
sandstones similar in character to the one already men- 
tioned, and quite foreign to the district. Many of these 



stones had already liecn used as foundation or plintli 
stones before any avclia;ological eye fell upon them; but 
amongst those left were those which evidently formed 
the upper part of a small Norman window. There were 
four other stones of similar mouldings, but not quite 
matching these. Others were jDlainly lined, or had a 
simple moulding at the corners ; the n:iajority were plain. 

/ // 

J — 



Elevation of three upper Stones of saill Norman Window. One-eighth full size. 

The discovery of these worked stones, together with 
the history, the names, and the traditions of the place, 
proves, therefore, satisfactoiily that the site of the Chapel 
Farmhouse was also the site of the ancient chapel or 
chantry mentioned in the Hereford Episcopal Register 
of 1391 as one of those in which Swynderby was accused 
of ofiiciating unla^^■fully. Henry G. Bull. 

4t1I SElt.. VOL. IV. 23 



(Read at Knighton.) 

Wapley Camp, apart from history and tradition, Avears 
every aspect of being a British camp, and a British camp 
of the date of their eventful struggle with the Ilomans. 
It is not one of those circular, small, single-ditched 
"rings" which represent defensive works between the 
Welsh and the Anglo-Saxons. Its shape, situation, 
ramparts, outei-vvorks, all bespeak an earlier, a Roman in- 
vasion date. Here is the rocky or stony height a-top of 
which a more or less flat surface of considerable propor- 
tions has been enclosed by a formidable agger or ram- 
part of stone and earth, and outside of which, on all 
sides but the north, the mounds and ditches are, or liave 
been, fivefold. The shape of this enclosure has been 
miscalled elliptical; but the map and plan Avhich accom- 
pany this paper, and which we owe to the kindness and 
zeal of Mr. Fulwar Craven Fowle, C.E., will satisfy any 
one that it might be more accurately described as nearly 
triangular. A Roman camp such as the local talk pro- 
nounced Wapley to be, until the spirit of archaeological 
incpiry led us to be more j^recise, would certainly have 
been square or oblong ; more marked by its distinct 
gates ; and most of all, in a hostile country like this, 
it would have been situate rather on level ground, or at 
least in the lower lands, for fear of entanglement in 
mountains imperfectly known to a foreign foe. It would 
also have been fortified with earthworks only, from de- 
fault of stone. 

In similar camps on the Welsh border, like Wapley, 
abiding memorials of a severe and supreme struggle 
(notably at Croft Ambrey, seven miles or thereabouts 
distant to the east), we find the three sides which are 
most accessible and assailable, fortified with manifold 


;;|i; .•^a\ /f.r 


WAy'LKY CAMP. 339 

lilies, tlic innennost much the highest and strongest ; 
whilst on the t'ourth side (for \Yapley has a very slight 
facing to the west, at the vertex of its triangle), which 
side is, in both these cases, the north, a single entrench- 
ment only surniounts the sharp, sheer steep which 
frowns over the vale below, and enables the camp, on 
this hand, to laugh its foes to scorn in its grand, self- 
sufficient, natural strength. 

At Wapley the sole ancient entrance, so far as it can 
be traced, would seem to have been to the south. At 
Croft Ambrey it is to the north-west. Another little 
difierence between the two is this, that whereas at the 
Ambi-ey soil and stone from the interior have plainly 
been removed from the now imeven and irregular 
surface, to add greater streng-th to a naturally strong- 
rampart, at Wapley we find an almost flat tableland 
within the enclosure, as well as a perennial reservoir of 
water towards the south extremity, which might encou- 
rage the notion that this fortified camp was designed 
rather for permanent residence than for a place of resort 
and resistance in case of sudden attacks or hard-jiressed 
retreats. This feature, so far as is known, has no parallel 
in any of the Herefordshire camps. I concur, however, 
with Professor Babington, who ^■^sited this Camp with 
the Cambrian archasologists in 1863, on the occasion of 
the Kington Meeting, in thinking that it was simjily a 
camp of casual resort; though, no doubt, there is room 
enough for British, or, for that matter, Roman huts in 
respectable numbers within the barriers. 

From Mr. Fowle's map and its measurements it will 
be seen that the camp is about 572 yards in length, and 
about 330 yards in breadth at its broadest. But the 
truth is, the geograjihical position of these border camps 
bespeaks them the inner line of fortresses for the pro- 
tection of the Silures and Ordovices against other native 
tribes, in case of local disturbance of friendly relations, 
and still more against the foreign invader, who, as we 
know from the historian Tacitus, forced them success- 
ively, on his march towards the final place of conflict. 


Avith so much difficulty and so much loss. ]\Ir. Havts- 
liovDe, in liis Salopia Antiqua, — a work which evinces 
a careful examination of the whole subject in connexion 
with its topography, as well as much orderly thought 
in systematising the results of personal hivestigation, — 
has set down Wapley and Croft Ambrey^ as the south- 
ernmost of Caractacus' interior line of camps,- — a line 
which begins with Hen Ddinas, near Oswestry, on the 

Without aspiring to he a seventh Eichmond in the 
field, or to add another conjecture to those hazarded by 
more or less enterprising antiquaries, at this distance of 
time, as to the site and locale of the " last battle of 
Caractacus" (the localisation of which at this remote 
point of time, and in our dearth of historical data, I take 
to be well nigh hopeless), I fear I must trouble you to 
go back with me to that hero's gallant and final struggle, 
because it affords a way, in fancy at least, of once again 
covering Wapley with living forms less peaceably in- 
clined than the last considerable gathering on its top, 
when it was invaded by the Woollaope Clab, under my 
leadership, on the 15th of May last, — forms, however, 
from one half of whom (the weaker half) we inherit our 
British love of freedom, whilst from the other and 
stronger we get om- civilisation. To avoid the possibi- 
lity of misapprehension, I must repeat that I regard 
Wapley ("the place of weapons," as Mr. Flavel Edmunds 
considers it to mean) as one of the last entrenched camps 
defended by Caractacus, and stormed by Ostorius on 
the road to the supreme decision of the struggle, wher- 
ever that may have been.^ 

' See Salopia Antiqua, p. 72 : " They arc the key to Eadnorshiro 
and Montgomeryshire, and before Ostorius could advance into those 
counties, which I suspect were occupied by the Ordovices, it was 
necessary they should be forced." 

- The Welshman, Humphrey Lloyd, of Camden's date, considers 
Caer Caradoc, near Chin, to have been the scene of this last battle. 
Aubrey, Gibson, and others, argue for Coxwall Knoll, which General 
Roy in 1772 puts out of the question by showing that it only corre- 
sponds with Tacitus' account in some points, while Caer Caradoc 

WAl'LEY CAMP. 341 

It was in the year 50 A. P. tliat Ostorius Scapula, the 
general sent by Claudius in succession to Aulus Plau- 
tius, having sujDpressed the rLsing of the Cangi and 
Brigantes north of Mersey, turned his attention towards 
the Silures, a peoj^le of South "Wales, as to whose pre- 
cise situation it is vain to attempt definiteness, though 
Professor Pearson thinks that in early times they must 
have stretched from South Wales into Gloucestershire,^ 
the territory assigned by Ptolemy to the Dobuni. 
Whatever their boundaries, their consecjuence and influ- 
ence must have been considerable, as may be inferred 
both from their provoking Ostorius to measures of re- 
pression, and also from the nature of one of these mea- 
sures used, as Tacitus tells us,^ to effect such repression. 
He established a Roman colony at Camulodunum (near 
Maldon), in the country of the Trinobantes {h. e., Hert- 
ford and Essex), and this to overawe the Silures, — a 
colony in the east of Britain to hold in check a nation 
of its far west. The clue to this seeming paradox is, 
that Caractacus was the son of Cunobelin, king of the 
Trinobantes, — a chief who seems to have held an ex- 

does so in none. Hartsliorne inclines to the fortificfition on the 
Breiddin Hills, on the north-west base of wliich rolls the river 
Severn ; or to Cefn Carnedd, near Llandinam, in Montgomeryshire, 
also washed by the Severn. But if so, why did not Tacitas name 
the " Sabrina", with which he was familiar ? Coxwall is derived, 
according to Hartshorne, from the Celtic " ysgod" {sijlva) and 
" gwal" {vallum). There is a Coxwall Wood in Wilts. As to Caer 
Caradocs, there are three at least in the field : one near Church 
Stretton, and one near Sellak in Herefordshire. See Hartshorne's 
Salopia Aniiqua, p. 51, etc. 

1 " My opinion is that there were fewer dynasties and peoples in 
historical times than would appear from a list of clan-names, and 
that tlie Brigantes on the north, the Iceni and Trinobantes on the 
cast, the Gaelic Ordovices and the Welsh Silures on the west, and 
the Dumnonii, Belga3, and Cantii on the south, comprise all the 
names of any real consequence." (Pearson, lioman llritain, p. 7.) 
" I am inclined to think," he adds in p. 9, " that in earlj' times the 
Silures must have occupied part of the territory assigned bj' Pto- 
lemy to the Dobuni, and were probably driven back upon Wales by 
the Romans." 

- Tacitus, Ann. xii, c. 31. 


tended sway over the soutli and centre of Britain, and 
to have been regarded as paramount in arms by the 
Celtic races on the Severn and beyond it : so that this 
colony which Ostorius planted was designed to punisli, 
at the centre of Cunobelin's or Caractacus' sway,_ the 
protracted resistance of the outskirts and extremities. 
The distance betwixt Maldon and this side of the Severn 
becomes less of a difficulty if we bear in mind the con- 
nexion of east and west by kinship and comnion sove- 

At the time, however, with which we are concerned 
Ostorius had been constrained to direct his operations 
more pronouncedly against the Silures, who were both 
themselves high-spirited beyond their neighbours, and 
furthermore emboldened by the valour and tried courage 
of their leader. Caractacus, it appears, had led out his 
tribesmen far beyond their native mountains into the 
more open country, which is now Herefordshire and the 
valley of the Wye. He had laid waste the fields of the 
Koman settlers on the Severn and the Lower Avon,' 
that Avon which flows through Somersetshire and Wilts. 
Ostoiius collected his contingents from his various en- 
camjDments and fortresses on the Cotswold, crossed the 
Severn, and pressed the forces of Caractacus first to 
their outer line of defences on the Malvern Range, and 
then, when driven from these with great loss of men 
and spirits, upon the camps of Whitburne and Thorn- 
bury (in the Bromyard and Leominster district), upon 
Croft Ambrey and ujwn Wapley. There were, doubt- 
less, other points of resistance; probably other lines of 
pursuit and retreat beside, and connected with, these. 
Tradition associates Diuedor Camp, near Hereford, with 
the same period, and connects its local name of Oyster 
Hill with that of the famous Roman general. But from 
each of the fortresses named there is more or less 
ground for supposing that the Britons were driven, and 
this in the order given above. The gate out of which, 
in confused disarray, the stormed Silures poured forth 
1 See Tiieitus, .1/!/,. xii, c. 31. 



from the Croft Ambrey ^vhen they could hold it no 
lunger, is just Avliere Ave should expect it it the next 
point to be made was Wapley 

^ I am not concerned with the route ar,d fortimes of 
Caractacus after Wapley was gained and lost. Dnven 
thence he may have led his dimmished but not utteily 
disheartened forces, who had Claudius threat of extei- 
niination to spur them on to extremities ol va our either 
towards Knighton, near to which ave supi^sed entrench- 
ments ofCamctacus at Burrough Hill, Billings Ring 
and Bury Ditches, and where the Bomau camp at No - 
ton enabled the invaders to command the defiles to the 
east and west ; or along the valley of the Luo-g, which 
washes the northern base of Wapley, into the Leint- 
.vardine open country, where^ at Coxwa 1 fno > ^ome 
traditions place the scene of Caractacus last battle, it 
may be that, repulsed from Wapley, he divided his 
forces into two bands,' and that one, proceeding Kmght- 
onwards, in due time reached th« last raUynrg point by 
the course of the Teme, whilst the other found it less 
circuitously by the streams of the Lugg. But whe eve 
the last battle was fought,_there is a certainty that m 
Tacitus' vivid description, it partakes as o s t a ion 
assault and defence, of a character which tnouIcI be 
Sellio'ible if we put either Wapley or Croft Ambrey 
in the° place of it\ although, when *^7™y-^- 
aster came, the Britons, according to Tac;itu= (c. _34-3o , 
hacl mountain fastnesses to flee into ; whereas m both 
these p aces they would have had first to make their 
escape down a very sharp declivity, and to cross streams, 
ere^they could regain the fastnesses of then- native 
nioimtains.^ ^ . . ^ . , , 

seen, the conditions of Taoitus" description. 


This note of dlfterence narrows considerably the list 
of competing claims for the site of tlie last battle. For 
my own pnrpose let me endeavour, with the text of 
Tacitus in my mind's eye, to note some common points 
between the stronghold of Wapley, its occupation and 
its storming, and that which the Roman historian has 
portrayed in connexion with the details of another and 
slightly later scene of conflict and resistance. 

First, then, of the situation. Caractacus chose a site 
of such a nature that approach, retreat, everything, was 
against the invading Ptoman, and in favour of the Bri- 
ton on the defensive. Such is Tacitus' express state- 
ment. On one side was a steep mountain ridge ; on the 
others, where there was smoother and easier access (" si 
qua clementer accedi poterant", c. 33), a stone rampart 
was opposed to the assaulting army. So far there is 
pretty exact correspondence, as there is also about the 
river which washes the base of the hill, though as for 
the "shifting ford", or "uncertain fordage", which Taci- 
tus commemorates in the words "vado incerto", this is 
alike inexplicable in almost every site which antiquaries 
have pitched upon for the scene of the last battle. 

I think, however, that the clause which comes next 
in Tacitus is one that affords more help and light upon 
our present inquiry. He notes that "catervpe armato- 
rum pro munimentis constiterant", which I take to mean 
that, on the part of the assaidted, crowds of armed men 
were posted in front of the inmost and stiiFest en- 
trenchments, — in the ditches and spaces between the 
second and tliird, and even, as at Wapley, the fourth 
line or agger. At the first brush this must have been 
fierce work for the assailants. We seem to see the 
innermost line surmounted by so-called barbarians 
busily plying the arrow, the javelin, and other more 
casual missUes, over the heads of the occupants of the 
lower and outer trenches, who in their turn were not 
only playing the same game, but ready with sheer force 
to meet the brunt of the invading squadron, should 
they, mu-e]>ulsed by missiles, succeed in getting to close 

WAPLEY CAJir. 345 

quarters. In the case of two equall}' matched barbarian 
a\-niies it would strike ns that the one possessed of so 
elaborate a vantage would have been the next thing to 
impregnable. But Ptoman generals and legions were 
wont to take a raj)id account of what could and what 
could not be taken by assault, — "qua3 impenetrabilia, 
quo3que pervia essent", — and relying on their discipline, 
mode of warfare, and practice in scaling and siegework, 
to be slow in concluding that any position was wholly 
in the first category; and so, as Tacitus shows us, on 
coming near the agger, and whilst the fight was with 
missiles, they would put up with a large proportion 
and a severe loss of killed and wounded,' filhng up the 
thinned ranks with dogged endurance, and with unre- 
mitted vigour of assault. At last the arrowy shower 
w'ould get so thick and dense, that they had to form the 
testudo, or "tortoise," or "shed", — a great Roman re- 
source in scaling fortified places, which got its name 
from the bonded combination of shields wherewith 
soldiers tiled then- heads so as to form a scale-like 
covering. In Rich's Companion to the Dictionary of 
Antiquities, the testudo is described as "a compact 
covering like the shell of a tortoise, or the pent of a 
shed, which Avas made by raising each shield over its 
owner's head and shoulders, and fitting each shield 
closely under the shield next to it. Over this pent every 
missile would slide off without detriment to those below 
it ; and this pent was produced by the outer ranks 
stooping whUst those in front of them stood more and 
more erect." It becomes intelligible what an appliance 
this must have been, when the struggle came to close 
quarters, for enabling the assaulting party to tear away 
barriers of rudely pUed earth and stones, to breach line 
after line of defence in succession, and to crush those 
who manned each of them in hand to hand encounter : 
nay, when they came at last to the innermost and most 
impregnable rampart of all, the odds must have been 

' Seventy thonsaud Roman colonists arc said to have porislied in 
Boadicea's revolt. 


strongly in flxvour of the Roman thus shielded as well 
as cquipjjed in defensive body armour, as against the 
Britons who had seen each line in succession broken, 
who had no body-armour to protect them, and whose 
resistance depended a good deal on fitful discharges of 
arrows and other missiles, as to Avhich we do not find 
that they possessed any special skill. If we may trust 
the Ptoman historian, the result was commonly the 
same; and could it be recnacted before us, it is probable 
that so much as we have described of the incidents of 
Caractacus' last battle, wherever fought, would serve 
for a true and correct account of how it fared eighteen 
hundred and twenty-three years ago ^\-ith Wapley 
Cau:p and its gallant defenders, when, however much 
the poet Cowper may seek to redress the balance of 
odds, in the final Avords of Boadicea's prophecy, the 
empire of Borne was brought one step nearer to its cul- 
minating point, and the shame and ruin of the native 
tribes more irrevocably accomplished. 

It is hard to see what help remained for those who 
manned the innermost line of fortification when those 
who Avere, as Tacitus writes, " pro munimentis", or au 
advanced guard, had been slaughtered, as they must 
have been (for there was no retreat up a stifi' and sheer 
wall), and served, in their slain and trampled heaps, as 
steps to reduce the labour of scaling for the victorious 
assailants. The utmost that remained was . to contest 
the rampart while they might ; and then, while a de- 
voted few delayed the invincible legionaries for a brief 
space, to pour forth at outlets and byways best known 
to themselves, and flee into the plains below, where 
they would hurriedly gather their scattered remnants 
for future resistance, according as pluck and occasion 
might suggest. 

It may be said that this picture is a draught on fancy. 
Be it so. What else have we to refer to or to build 
upon, where the actual facts are so dim, distant, and 
luirecorded ? One object of this brief paper is to pro- 
voke inquiry and discussion ; to invite a consideration 


of the Bi' cam]is, in wliicli Herefoixlsliire and Tiad- 
norshire are so rich, on a system and as a whole ; and 
to stimulate the study and presei'vation of old memo- 
rials which deserve to be had in honour not only as 
monuments of national patriotism, but also as valuable 
memorials of our j^rimasval history. 

The scenery over which the eye may range from the 
vantage ground of Wapley's bold and grand outlook is 
not strictly Avithin the proposed scope of this paper ; 
and even if it Avere so, I should be afraid that, as a 
native Silurian, I might, if I ventured on description, 
be tempted to picture it too fondly, and Avith undue 
prolixity. I Avould, however, just remark that, look 
which wvay you will, whether upon the wooded knolls 
and smiling pastures of Herefordshire, or on the wdlder 
and more mountainous districts of Radnorshire and 
Montgomeryshire, traces in considerable numbei's exist 
both of the Roman invader and the bold Briton who 
resisted him. 

Of some of the Roman camps, such as Sutton Walls 
and Risbury (though these, Mr. Hartshoi'ne thinks, 
were later works), the Woolhope Club has discussed the 
history and topography in its useful and valuable Trans- 
actions. On the Radnorshire side, hoAvever, there is a 
large field for the antiquarian in vestiges of the gallant 
defence of which WapJey forms a section or chajoter. 
Tomen Castle near Ncav Radnor, Castell Cefnllys, Caer 
Ginon, another Tomen near Builth, Castle Ring (south 
of Discoed), and Burva Bank or Camp, — some of these 
Avithin the range of the eye from Wapley, — are a feAV 
of the British Avorks that crown divers eminences, and 
recall the struggle of the middle of the first century. 

Let us hope that this A'isit of the Cambrian archaeo- 
logists to the district Avill bear fruit in greater assurance 
and certainty touching the debatable question of Carac- 
tacus' latest efi"orts to avert the invincible supremacy of 
"Rome for empire ftir renowned." As Plautus has it, 
" Pluris est oculatus testis unus quam auriti decem", 
Avhich in our English dramatist's Avords is roundly reu- 


dered, " Give me. the ocular proof." Using our eyes, 
and comparing the harvest of them witli Tacitus' data, 
we shall gain a better acquaintance with the British 
and Roman camps than arises from contemplatuig an 
isolated specimen. 

The excrescences on the surface of the ground within 
and without the entrenchments at WajDley were ex- 
amined by the Woolhopians on the 15th of May in this 
year, and were generally allowed to be made ground for 
the object of aifording easy burrows for the rabbits 
when the camp first became a warren. There is no 
reason to think that there were sepulchral tumuli. 

Mr. F. C Fowlcj's plan, which will accompany this 
j5aper,^ is the first, so far as I know, which has been 
made of it, and I desire to record the zeal and interest 
with which he threw himself into the task. 

James Davies. 

lloor Court, Kiiu'ton, HeroforJsliire. 


During the Meeting of the Society at Hereford, in the 
year 1867, the late Dr. Wilson, formei-ly President of 
Trinity College, Oxford, drew the attention of some of 
the members to a singular stone object, the use or in- 
tention of which puzzled even those who might have 
been exj3ected to throw some light on its history. 
Dr. Wilson subsequently communicated a short notice 
of it to the Archceologia Canihrensis, which appears in 
the volume of 1868, p. 446. The cut there given is here 
reproduced, not only for the benefit of those who have 
not the volume to refer to, but because it bears a strange 
similarity, in some respects, to the stone relic wliich 
forms the subject of this short notice. 

1 Tlic Association is indebted to Mr. R. W. Bauks for liis liberal 
present of the illustratiou. — Ed. Arch. Camh. 



Dr. AA'iLson, among oilier suggestions offered from 
clifterent quarters, and Avliicli are, in liis judgment, un- 
satisfactory, alludes more jDarticuIarly to one Avliich 
sujiposes that the stone may have been some kind of 
hammer used for purposes other than the ordinary one 
of such an implement. This idea he rejects, not only 
from the softness of the stone, Avhieh would not bear 
percussion without material damage, but because of the 
additional weakness caused by the perforations. Nor 

does the implement show any marks of such usage, for 
the sm;dl fracture, or rather chip, shown in the cut has 
been caused by some accident, and is not, moreover, in 
that part which would have been used if it had been 
a hammer. He adds, moreover : " It has occurred to 
me (a conjecture which I offer with much difEdence) 
that it may have been rather an article of ornament 


tlian of use, and employed as a gorget suspended 
fi-om the ncclc by a cord or thong passed tlu-ough tlie 
larger hole, while objects of triumph or supposed mag- 
nificence Avere hung in proud display from the smaller 
ones. And this idea, perhaps, derives some little con- 
firmation from the two pieces of antiquity found in 
the same place, and the fii'-t une of N\hich is also en- 
graved; for these a]ip(ai n .t to be spuidle-whorls : 

indeed, they are neither large enough nor heavy enoiigh; 
and the circumstance of theh being worn smooth equally 
on both sides seems to imply that they have formed 
part of a barbaric necklace." 

This conjecture, at first sight, seems by no means an 
improbable one, although as a central pendent orna- 
ment its size must have made it clumsy and inconve- 
nient. The suggestion, however, although perhaps the 
best ofiered, must be rejected, as there can be little 
doubt that the pierced stone to be mentioned below is 
of the same kind, and probably intended for the same 
use; but its form is such that it could not easily have 
served as a pendent ornament, especially as the central 
hole, if sttch had been the c«se, would not have been 
placed where it is. 

This stone object, which it Ls believed has not yet 
been noticed or described, was found in clearing out 
the rubbish which had, in the cotirse of years, accu- 
mulated in one of the drains of Stokesay Castle, namely 
that which empties itself into the moat at the south- 
east corner of the Gastle. Fortunately Mrs. Acton 


Stack! lOuse had undertaken the supeiintendencc of this 
and other proceedings connected Avith this Castle, at 
the recjuest of Lord Craven, at that time the owner of 
it ; otherwise this very singular stone might have been 
either overlooked, or perhaps destroyed. It was imme- 
diately rescued by her, and is now placed in a glass 
case in one of the upper rooms of the Castle. The mate- 
rial is soft sandstone of light yellowish tint ; and the 
stone measures in length nearly three inches, in breadth 
about two. It is an inch thick at the larger end. On 
the edges appear seven small holes, while the larger 
and central one has a small groove worked in tlie inte- 
rior, about half way down, and which seems to have 
been formed by some bent instrument. 

It is somewhat remarkable that two such stones 
should be found within the same district ; for the one 
described by Dr. Wilson was found near Cleobury Mor- 
timer, in the same county of Salop, and about ten or 
twelve miles from Stokesay. This stone, the property 
of E. Whitcomb, Esq., of Cleobury Mortimer, was found 
in 1816, about a mile from the town. The discovery 
took place in ploughing a small entrenchment upon 
Holly "Waste, or Holly Fast, near Girch ; and the only 
record of the place and manner of finding is a memo- 
randum of the father of the present owner, as the 
farmei" who picked it up, and his two servants who were 
ploughing, are dead. According to this memorandum 
two perforated discs of sandstone were discovered not 
far from it, which Dr. WUson conjectures may have been 
members of the necklace, of which the central pendant 
he sup)posed to have been the larger stone. The import- 
ance, however, of these discs having been found near 
the stone is diminished by the fact that the discovery 
of the Stokesay stone seems to disj^ose of the conjecture 
of Dr. Wilson ; for although the two stones differ in 
many details, they essentially are of the same kind, as 
will probably be admitted on comparing them. 

Both stones have seven small holes. Dr. Wilson 
conjectures that in the one he describes an eighth may 


have existed wliere a chip occurs in the edge (which is 
the small fracture already alluded to) ; but indepen- 
dently of other reasons for setting aside this conjecture, 
the presence of an eighth hole must have interfered 
■with the uniformity and regularity of the pattern. 

In the Cleobury Mortimer stone the number of small 
holes may have been limited to seven, as neatly filling 
up the space ; but the same motive could not have led 
to the adoption of the same number in the Stokesay 
stone, as there was not only room for additional ones, 
but a vacant space is left, the filling up of which with the 
same kind of holes would have made the Avhole arrange- 
ment more uniform. It may, therefore, be legitimately 
inferred that the number seven is not an accident, but 
has some meaning or reference yet to be explained. 

If, however, the two stones so far are alike, yet they 
differ in other respects: thus the larger -one being "in 
shape like an escallop joined to the plane side of an 
oyster-shell, one side being flat, the other concave" (p. 
447) ; the smaller one, on the other hand, is more like 
an ordinary stone hammer with one end more pointed 
than the other, having both its upper and under sides 
convex. The contrast between the two stone objects, in 
this respect, is very marked. 

In the larger one another peculiarity exists which is 
wanting in the other, namely the horizontal (if the term 
may be used) piercing in a direction at right angles to 
the longer axis of the stone, and so near the narrow 
end of It that any small shaft or pin Inserted would not 
come into contact or in any v/ay Interfere with the 
handle inserted In the central round hole, which Is evi- 
dently intended to receive a handle. 

On refeiTing to the engraving of the Cleobury stone, 
lines radiating from the central hole, and surroimded 
W'lth a circle nearly perfect, are seen. They evidently 
have no connexion of any kind with the seven small 
apertures, and are simply ornamental, and nothing- 
more. The form of the Stokesay implement w^Ill ac- 
count for theli- absence. There are also other details 


]iointGd out by Dr. "WOson which are altogether A\'ant- 
ing in tlie Stokesay implement. Thus at the lower part, 
or smaller end, "certain lines seem to have been drawn, 
apparently, when complete, describing a parallelogram, 
two of which remain." In addition to these lines, an 
inspection of the cut will show three small cu-cular de- 
pressions like cups, with a larger one below, all which 
are apparently ornamental decorations, while the Stoke- 
say specimen does not exhibit the slightest trace of even 
an attempt at ornament; for neither can the small holes 
be called ornaments ; while the narrow groove in the 
central hole, if intended as a decoration, would have 
been invisible both if the stone were fitted with a handle 
or used as a pendent ornament. 

But different as these two stones are in so many 
points, their singular agreement in having the same 
number of small holes, in addition to the central one, 
shows that they probably belong to the same class of 
such relics ; for there seems good ground for thinking 
that the number of these small holes, viz. seven, is not 
accidental, but designed. It is true that in the larger 
stone that number conveniently fills up the space, and it 
would not have been easy to add two more, as wiU be 
seen from the drawing ; yet by diminishing the size of 
the holes, their number might, if recjuired, have been 
increased. In the Stokesay implement there is no appa- 
rent reason why the number was limited to seven, as 
there was ample space to add two others, as already 
stated; and if mere ornamentation had been the object, 
this addition would have been an improvement. If, 
therefore, there was some particular meaning in this 
number, these two stones seem to form a distinct class. 

What they really are it is hard to say. As already 
shown, they could not, for more than one reason, have 
been used as hammers. A conjecture that the Cleobury 
stone is a pocket-dial has not met general acceptance ; 
nor is it very clear how it could have been so utilised. 
But however that may be, it is clear that the same ex- 
pla nation cannot be given as regards the Stokesay speci- 


men. Others may yet come to liglit, as these two have 
ah-eady done. In that case additional facts may _!^i\e 
information -which may assist in arriving at their secret. 
It may cr may not be of importance that these two 
curiosities, which, as far as we can learn, may be consi- 
dered unique, were found wltliin so short a distance of 
each other. Both are of a soft sandstone, although of dif- 
ferent colours. Too much uncertainty exists as to the 
discovery of the Cleobury one, as all that is really known 
is that it was laid bare by the plough in a pai'ticular field. 
The stone discs, if connected with it, as they were found 
near it, may indicate a sepulchral deposit; for that they 
Avere beads of a necklace, of which the stone itself was 
the centre, is not likely, as has been already shown. The 
finding of the Stokesay implement in the rubbish of a 
medifeval drain of the thirteenth century might indicate 
that it is a mediaeval production, unless collectors of 
antiquities lived in those days, one of whom may have 
by chance lost this curiosity, whence it foimd its A\'a.y 
into the drain, and there remained until rescued by 
Mrs. Acton Stackhouse. That they are not to be re- 
ferred to wliat is called the stone j^criod is nearly cer- 
tain ; and if there was any design in the number seven, 
as there seems to be, they may be probably referred to 
Christian times, and have been some kind of charm 
against evil, or connected with cabalistic mysteries. 

E. L. Baexwell. 






(Continued from p. 270.) 

CALAMUS, 'a reed': W. calaf, as in calafCyd), ' the stalks (of 
corn)'; slug. cii}(fijii : 0. W. calamcnnou (gl. 'culmos'). 

CALDAKIU^I, 'a vessel to hold warm water for batliing': 
"W. callaior, calloi; mas., 'a cauldron, a pot', a. The change of 
a into has already been noticed under ' altare'. b. The evolu- 
tion of aw from the same is exceedingly common. The steps 
may have been tlie following : a, 6, 6", au {aw). Other instances 
will be found under 'canalis', 'caseus', 'contrarius', etc. 

CALEND^E, ' the calends, or the first day of the month': W. 
calan, m. sing. We speak of new year's day as y calan, the 
calends ;;ar cvcellcnce. Besides this we have (old style) calan- 
mai,'i\ie calends of May'; and calaii cjauaf, 'the calends of 
winter', i. c, the 13th of November. «, On a for e see ' argen- 
tum'. h. The change of gender was the natural result of the 
change of nimaber, which must have taken place rather early : 
thus, y calan might be either plural, where gender is seldom dis- 
tinguished in 'Welsh, or masc. sing.; whereas the feminine would 
be y galan, which seems never to have been tried. This settled 
the question of gender; but compare 'litteme' and 've.sperte'. 

CALLUM, • the hard skin or flesh of plants': W. call-od, ' the 
pods in which pulse grows'. But according to Davies the word 
means 'niuscus arborum'; and Pughe makes callocl y coed mean 
' the fungi of trees'. 

CANALIS, 'a pipe', ' gToove', ' channel": W. ccnawl, canavA, 
' a channel' (Davies). This word is roiawl in Ystoria Chyarlys, 

where we read 'y da'fyr a ymadauis ae gcnawl', 'the water 

left its channel' (Jicd Book, col. 623). In the MaUnogion (i, 17) 
we have the words 'a dcu ganniul eureit ar yr clh/n', which 
remind one of the lancea trisulcata mentioned in the Lilcr Lan- 
dav., p. 15. Whether our modern canol, 'the middle or centre of 
anything', is a different word is not clear to me. 

CANCELLUS, j\I. h?it. = cancelli, ' a lattice', ' railings': W. ca7iy- 
licll, fem., ' a chancel'; cangl^eJlydd,'cX\T^\\CQ[\o^:'. Der. ' cancellus': 
W. '*canghceU', 'caughelf, 'cangell'. a. On the disappearing of 
c after ngh, see ' ancora'. h. In pronunciation, ng, n, m, preced- 
ing c, t,2J, become ngh,nh, mh respectively; and the h, if followed 
by the tone-vowel, is retained both in the pronunciation and the 


spelling, otherwise situated, it is liable to be left out iu tlie 
former, though retained iu the latter in a good many instances. 

CANDELA, 'a candle': W. camujU, pi. canwyllau. Here we 
must suppose a sort of compromise with the diminutive ending 
-dla, so that the Welsh should probably start from a form can- 
della, witli which compare French chandelle, Irish cornnill, and 
Med. Lat. candellus, 'chandelle de cire'. a. On the disappear- 
ance of d see 'Ambrosius'. b. On my or uuj for e, see ' bestia'. 

CAPELLA, M. Lat.=' the cape worn by St. Martin',' the build- 
ing in which tliat relic was preserved', and lastly, ' qurevis ffidi- 
cuJa sacra, oratorium, quod proprios sacerdotes non habebat': 
W. cafell, ' chorus ecclesiaj, adytum' (Davies). "Whether the word 
was received into Welsh in the form cabeU(i,0T was succes.sively 
reduced in it into cabell, cafell, is not certain ; but compare sojl 
imder ' stupula'. 

CAPISTEUil, ' halter': W. cehjstr. 

CAPEIO,Med.Lat.,iuferred from the plural cajJriones^^Trench 
chevrons in the Cassel glosses, and meaning in the first place ' a 
goat', whence by a transition illustrated by our 'clothes-horse', 
and suggested probably by the caprcoU, 'props', ' stays', of classi- 
cal Latin, it came to mean ' a support', ' a beam': W. cebr, ceibr, 
fem. siiig., ceibren, ' a beam', ' rafter'. Pughe, in making celr and 
ceibr a singular and a jslural respectively, shows the strong tend- 
ency which we have in Welsh to make all nouns of the form of 
celhr into plurals, and has the derivative ceibren iu his favour ; 
but in Davies' time ceibr meant ' longurius'. AVe might start 
from a slightly difierent but better attested form, cairro, but for 
cipriou or cepriou, which is the old Welsh form of the word in 
the Lux. Folio. Der. 'caprio': W. '*caprjo', '*capro', '*cepr', 
' cebr', ' ceibr'. a. On e for a before o, see ' draco', b. As to the 
omission of i, it is to be observed that Latin i before another 
vowel is treated in Welsh as a semivowel, whicli is now and 
then elided, as will be seen rmder ' legio', ' martiolus', ' fj.vpid^, 
' paries'. 

CAPTIVITAS, 'captivity': W. ceifhiwed and caethiwed, mas. 
(also fem. in Amos, i, 6, 9). a. As a rule, Latin v makes in Welsh 
ni or IV. b. Gaethiwed, which is the form now in use, was obtained 
from ceithiwed under the influence of caeth. The My v. Arch. 
(p. 6-54) has the form cethiwct, fem., in the words ' dyborthi hir 
gethiwet waradw^'dus'. Indeed, I cannot assign any reason for 
the word being masculine in modern Welsh at all. 

CAPTUS (-a, -um), 'caught', 'captive': W. caeth. Der. 'cap- 
tus': W. ' *capt', ' *caphth', ' caith', ' caeth'. The change of at into 
ae in modern Welsh is very common : thus the Luxembourg 
Folio has air and caioii, which now are aer and caean. 

l'];O.M LATIN, ETC. 357 

C'AECER (ace. ' caiccrem'), ' a iirison': W. carcliar, ' a prison'; 
and in S. W. carchar ilwr =' sivictnre'. Der. ' carcereni', W. 
'*carcre', '*carc'r', '"carch'r', 'carcliar'. a. On the irrational vowel 
see ' barba'. h. According to the rule alluded to nnder ' affec- 
tus' (which see), re, rt, rp, become rcli, rth, rph (or rff), respect- 

CAEINA, ' the bottom or keel of a ship'^ ' a vessel', ' a boat': 
y^ .cer.mjn, pi. cerwi/ni, 'tubs or large pots': the plural ccrocnhoii, 
occurs in the Oxford Glosses. Der. ' carina': W. ' *cerina', '*cer- 
eiua', '*cerain', '*ceroin', '*ceruin', 'cerwyn', 'cerAvyn'. Compare 
what has been said under ' bestia', and the instances which occur 
imder ' castigo', ' lignum', ' papyrus', ' siguum'. This process of 
diphthongising i does not seem to have grown obsolete till the 
beginning of the ninth century, as we read olin, now ohni/n, in 
the Oxford Glosses on Ovid's Ars Amatoria. Some prefer deriv- 
ing this word from Med. Lat. caranum, ' vinum coctum'. 

CARITAS (ace. ' caritatem'), 'dearness', 'love': W. 'cardod', 
also ' cerdod', ' charity', ' alms'. Der. ' caritatem': W. ' *caritat', 
' *carit6t', ' car'dod', ' cardod', ' cerdod'. Possibly we may start 
here from the accusative rather than from the genitive : simi- 
larly in the case of the instances under ' civitas', ' fons', ' grex', 
'lopSuvr]<;, 'pons', 'pulvis', 'Mars', Mwutj-^?, ' trinitas', ' tripus', 
' unitas', ' Venus'. 

CASEUS, '': W. caws/ cheese'; cosyn-, ' a'. Der. 
' caseus': W. ' *caseu', ' *cos', ' *cows', ' *cows', ' caws', ' cos-yn'. 
a. On 6 for a, see ' acer'. b. The diphthongising of 6 into ow is 
parallel with that of e into ei. c. In modern Welsh ow becomes 
regrdarly aiv, sometimes «;;, of which the former is liable to be 
reduced again into o, as in cosijn. With this compare e becom- 
ing ai, liable to become again e, under the word 'animal'. 

CASTANEA {KuaTavov), ' the chestnut tree': W. castan. 

CASTELLUiM, ' a castle': W. castell. 

CASTIGO, ' I chastise': W. cystwij-o, ' to chastise', ' to'; 
cysiwy, 'chastisement'. On the assimilation of the a to the i, 
and its becoming ij, see ' Ambrosius'; and on the disappearing of 
the (/, see ' argentum'. 

C ASTRA, ' a camp': W. caer, ' a fortified place', ' a town': Caer- 
lleon = Cash-a ZeY//on!(»i = Chester or 'Caerleon' in South Wales. 
Der. 'castra': W."'*castra',(*casthra),'*casra','*caira', '*cair', ' caer'. 

a. The only parallel which I can suggest to this derivation is 
chmaer, 'sister', for ' *svasr'. The Irish forms, caihair, 'town,' 
and sethair, 'sister', follow suit in a most exceptional manner. 

b. Other instances of the Welsh having taken a neuter plural as 
a feminine singular will, I think, be recognised in ' arma', ele- 
menta', ' frena', ' inferna', which see. 


CASULA, ' a little casa, and in Islid. Lat. ' a kind of dress': 
0. W. casuUietic (Capella Glosses, 72) = ' peuulata'. Tlie modem 
casul, quoted by Pnglie, seems to be merely a learned abbrevia- 
tion of tlie Latin casida. 

CATENA, 'a cbain': W. cadmyn (pi. cochcynau) and cad-ncn. 
Botli are feminine in spite of Pughe's statement to tlie contrary, 
wbicli one can regard as the outcome of popular etymology re- 
garding cad^vyii, as consisting of cad w-ijn, witli the decided mas- 
culine affix -ijn. Ou the otlier hand, the feeling that the Avord 
was feminine may have suggested the termination -en instead of 
-yn, and thus given rise to cad.ven ; but the bifurcation hardly 
requires us to suppose this, as will be seen from the following 
derivation : 

'catena', W. '*catena', '*cadoin' (see f '*cadoen', 'cad.wen', 
'bestia')... '(_ '*cadoyn', 'cadiiyn'. 

Compare a similar case under 'habena'. 

CATHEDRA {/cadeSpa), 'a chair': W. ccidair and cader. Un- 
like the case of Latin cJi (on which see ' brachium'), th counts as 
t. This seems to indicate that the Romans did not distinguish 
them in their pronunciation, for we have no reason to believe 
the Welsh to have had any antipathy to fli : the derivation 
accordingly would be 'cathedra', '*catedra': ^V. '*catedra', ' *ca- 
teira', 'cadeir', 'cadair', 'cader'. a. The reduction of ui into e 
lias been noticed iinder ' animal', h. Tlie i in ' cateir-a' stands 
for the lost d. Compare ' ir catteiraul rettetic strotiu-' (gl. ' sella 
curulis'J in the CapeUa Glosses of the eighth century ; also Bret. 
cadocr, Ir. cathuir. 

CATTA, M. Lat., 'a cat': W. cath, fem, 

CAUCUS, M. Lat.='vasis genus, patera'. W. caiug, 'a jug'. 

CAULA,M.Lat.='caula3', ' a sheepfold', 'a pen': W.coiV. Other 
instances of u becoming i occur under ' cicuta', ' cupa', ' nume- 
rus'. The Lux. Folio contains two instances of eu where we now 
use ei, namely in 'eusiuiou' and ' douolouse", from the bases of 
Avhich ' eisin' and ' llais' come. 

CAULIS, 'a stalk', 'a cabbage-stalk', 'a cabbage': W. ca((7, 
' cabbage'; also in South Wales ' a pottage in which cabbages are 
boiled', and finally, ' any pottage or soup'. 

CAVUS (-a, -um), 'hollow': W. cai^, Dimetian coi (for *to!?), 
■'hollow'; ccit-bren, 'a hollow tree'. 

CELLA, ' a cell': W. cell. 

CENTRUM,' a prickle or sharp point': \'I.cethr, fern., 'a spike', 
' a nail'; pi. cethri and cythrl in ' Ystoria Chyarlys'; Com. center; 
Bret, hentr, 'eperon'. Der. 'centrum': W. '*centr', '*centhr', 
' cethr'. a. In the case of ntr and nil, etc., the t is not assimilated, 
but remains to become fJi, according to the rule mentioned under 


'affectus'. h. Before tlie spirani,s, /", th, cli, s, the letter n gene- 
rally disappears "without componsatiou, as in tlie present case. 
Other instances will be found under the words ' coiitrarius', 'con- 
trudo', ' iuterveuio', 'punctura'. To these may be added iVelsli 
instances such as 'ewytlir' (=Bret. eontr), 'matliru' ( = ]'ret. 
mantra), 'uthr'='*vuntr', of the same origin as the English 
'wonder'; 'cathl' (='*cautr). 

CEEA, ' wax': W. cwyr, juas. See ' fetas' and ' bestia'. 

CEliASIUM (pl.'cerasia'), M.Lat.=cfiiY(Si(s,'a cherry': W.ceir- 
jos (in North Wale.s) and ceiros (in South Wales), 'cherries'. The 
derivation is doubtful, but parallelled by cffros from ' euphrasia', 
which see. It may, perhaps, be the following : 'cerasia', W. ' *cer- 
esi', ' *ceris', ' *ceiris', ' *ceir-is', ' ceir-os', ' ceir-jos'. a. The form 
^cciris may have given way to ce»-os, with the plural ending 
-OS of diminutives. To this I may add that I have never heard 
the herbs called in books hocys spoken of but as hocos. b. The 
insertion of j before a termination beginning witli a vowel is 
carried to an excessive extent in some of the dialects of North 
"Wales, such forms RHJachjati and hirjactJiu being commonly used 
fov jachau and hiraethu. See also in this list ' horarium' and 
' sonorus'. 

CERTO, 'I contend': W. certh-an or ccrth-ain (Pughe), ' to 
contend, fight'. 

CEEVUS, ' a stag': W. carw, pi. ceirvj. On a for e see ' argen- 
tum'. Here, were the e not superseded by a, the singular would 
liave had the form ceirw, which is the actual plural for *fei\ni, 
Lat. cervi. It is very possible, however, that this word is not a 
borrowed one. Compare Kepa6<: (for Kepafo';, 'horned', and Lith. 
l-arve, 'cow'. 

CHA^IISIA is an inferred aspirated form o( camisia (to be 
compared with the attested ones, ' chenturio', ' chorona', ' prte- 
chones', etc., for ' ceuturio', ' corona', ' prfficones', etc.), meaning 
'a linen nightgown', ' a shift': W. hefijs, mas. ; Bret, hiviz, 'che- 
mise de femme'. Der. ' chamisia', W. '*chamisi', '*chemis', '*che- 
fis', ' liefis', ' liefys'. a. The relation between ch and h being an 
intimate one in Welsh, as in most languages, and the former 
being seldom allowed, excepting wdieu followed by oi (for ori- 
ginal sv), to begin a word, chejis, we presume, became hejis. 
b. The change of gender is perfectly regular: see 'brachium'. 
Other instances of this kind occur under 'collatio', 'lis', 'lorica', 
penna', ' pix'. 

CHRISTIAXUS, 'a Christian': W. Crisijon, pi. Gnstjonogjon. 
It would seem that the h was not heard in GItristianus, otlier- 
wise the word might he expected to have taken a differerit fornr 
in Welsh. 


CnrJSTUS (Xpto-ro?), 'the anointed': W. Crist, 'Christ'. 

CICUTA (lA. cicufn'), 'hemlock': W. cegid, 'hemlocks', sing. 
cegidcn. Dot. 'ciciitffi': ^Y. '*cicute', '*cicit', '*cecit', 'cegid'. 
a. On u becoming i see 'canla'. Other instances of i — i becom- 
ing e — i recur nnder ' corrigia', ' divinus', ' hibris', ' iniquitas', ' Ibc- 
ivium'. Salesbury writes ' ciciit', ' ceciit'. 

CIPPUS, ' a stake', ' post': W. cyff, ' the stem of a tree or of a 
family', ' a trunk', ' a box'; pi. cyffion, ' the stocks'. Pp, according 
to rule, becomes ff or ^j/t in "\Yelsh, but the instances are rare. 
The only other one in this list will be found under ' cloppus'. It 
is perfectly clear tliat the "Welsh never heard cipus, which Fick, 
in Kuhn's Zeitschrift (xx, p. 361) would like to regard as the 
more correct orthography, any more tlian they did 2^eco, which 
he would fain prefer to pecco, in Kuhn's Beitrdge, vii, p. 126. 

CIECO, M. Lat., ' I go hither and thither', ' I search'; and in 
Propertius (4, 9, 35), we have circai-e=' to surround': W. cyrcli-ii, 
' to make for', ' to fetch', ' to attack'; cyrch, ' an onslaught', also 
' the goal for which one makes'. 

ClPvOELLUM, M. Lat.=i<:i/r!tZ»s, 'a circle': W. cyrcMl, fem. 

ClliCIiSrUS, 'a pair of compasses': 0. W. circhin, as in 'bet 
circhinn irguolleiini' (gl. 'sub occidum cceli') in the Juvencus 
Codex ; also ' ordamcirchinnuou (gl. ' ambagibus'), ibid. Pughe 
gives the modern ci/rchyn = ' a. surrounding'. 

CISTA, • a box or chest': W. cist. 

CIVITAS (ace. ' civitatem'), ' the state', ' a city': W. ciwaid or 
ciwed, ' a crowd', ' a rabble'; citcdawd or ciicdod, ' a tribe', whence 
pien-ciwdod., ' a chieftain', and ciwdodwr, ' a citizen or burgess'. 

CLATHEI, 'a treUis', 'grate', especially in speaking of the 
cages of animals : W. dedr, as in 'cledr (y Haw), 'the palm (of 
the hand'); 'cledr (y ddwyfron'), 'the breastbone'; ' cledr-eu', 'a 
rail or pole, especially the iipright pole to which a cow is tied in 
a cowhouse'; ' cledr-flbrdd', ' a raUroad'. 

CLAVUS, ' a painful tumour', ' a wart': W. clew-yii, ' a pimple', 
used in Cardiganshire. 

CLOCCA, M. Lat., 'a bell': W. clod,. 

CLOPPUS (-a, -urn), M. Lat., 'lame': W. doff. 

COAGULUM (gen. 'coagiili'), 'rennet': W". caul (Dimetian, 
coil), 'stomachu.s, communis lactentium, coagulum' (Davies). 
Der. ' coagulimi': W. ' *coogiir, ' *c5gid', ' ^cowl', ' *coul', ' caul'. 

COCCUM (atokko?), ' the berry that grows upon the scarlet 
oak', ' scarlet colour': W. cock, ' red'. Other instances of cc becom- 
ing ch occur under ' occasio', ' occupo', ' peccatiun', ' pecco', ' sac- 
cus', ' soccus'. 

COCTUS (-a, -um), 'cooked', 'prepared by fire': W. cocth, 're- 

FltOM LATIN, ETC. 361 

fined', 'purified', 'pure'. Der. 'coctus': W. ' *cochtli', ' *coitli', 
'coetli'. On oc for oi see ' fetas'. 

COLLATIO, ' a collection', ' a gratuity collected for the Eoman 
emperors': W. ctjUid (also cyllti/d), 'revenue', 'budget'. Der. 
•coUatio': "\V. '*collati', '*collati', '*colleti', '*colliL', ' cellit', cr/llid. 
a. On Latin a treated as «, see ' animal', b. Other instances of e 
Lecommg i may he found under ' deficio', ' deleo', ' dependeo', 
' deacendo', ' distillo', ' desubito', ' leuio', ' penna', ' verus'. Add to 
this that the dcrmorion and dren of the Luxemburg Folio are 
now diifnu'ijon and trin. c. When such a word as ' altare' be- 
came in Welsh ^alitor and allor, there seems to have been a 
period of hesitation between lit and Z/,whicli eventually cut both 
ways : hence njllti/d and silltaf (for sillaf), which see under 
'syllaba': compare also ctjfaiU and ci/faiUt, 'a friend'. 

COLPU.S, !M. Lat., from colaphas, ' a blow': "W. ciulff, ' a good 
piece or lump of anything'. As to the transition of meaning, com- 
pare the Trench cocp, heaucoiip. In North Wales ciflff'is made 
into chrff: compare phj(jain under ' pidlicantus', and jiluor imder 
' pulvis'. 

C0LIT;MBA, ' a dove': W. colbm-en, ' a pigeon'; (' llysiau'r') 
cwlwm, mas., 'columbine'. Der. 'columba': W. '*colomba', '*co- 
lomb', '*colom' (whence 'colomen'), 'cwlwm'. LlysiaiCr cwhuvi 
evidently have nothing to do with the ordinary word cwlwm, ' a 
knot', u. Other instances of o becoming w occur under ' concha', 
' consolido', ' diabolus', ' fornax'. h. With the change of o into vj 
followed now and then a change of gender from the feminine to 
the masculine, as mentioned under ' brachium'. Other instances 
occur under ' concha', ' membrana', ' metula', ' primus', ' turba'. 

COLUIMXA, 'a column': W. colofn. Der. ' columna', W. '*co- 
lomna', '*colom'na', '*colom'n', 'colofn'. The sound now given 
to tlie u-rational vowel between the/ and the n closely resembles 
that of e in ' garden'. 

COMMENDO, 'I entrust', 'commend': W. gor-chymyn, ' a com- 
mand'; (Uythyr) cijmyn,'a testament or bequest', which reminds 
one of Cicero's ' testamento commendare', and of the later ' dare 
in commendam'. It will be found that the Latin prefix, com, 
regularly becomes cyf; assimilated, as it Avould seem, to its 
Welsh representative, which in 0. W. is cim, now cyf: con- fol- 
lows suit, becoming ci/n-. 

COAOIUXIO, M. Lat. =' the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper': 
W. cymun. 

COMPAE, ' an equal': W. cymar, 'one of a jiair'; cymhdru, ' to 
compare.' On mh for mp, see 'cancellus'. 

C0I\irELL0, 'I compel': Yi. cij)nell,' to compel', ' toiirge'; ci/in- 
hillodd/Qie) mged'. 


COiSrCAUSA, M. Lat., 'simul causa', or 'causa cooperaus': 
W. cijnr/ aw s ' a.n advocate', and perhaps also a 'lawsuit'; cipig- 
hawsp.dd, 'an action', 'a lawsuit'. 

COISrCHA, ' a muscle-sheir, ' a vessel for holding oil': W.cwch, 
mas., ' a boat'. Compare Cornish coc, ' a boat'; English, ' cock- 
boat', ' cockswain'; French, coque, ' a shell', ' cod', ' hull of a ship'. 
Der. 'concha', W. '^concha', '*conch', '*coch', 'cwch'. a. With 
the change of o to xu followed also a change of gender, according 
to the analogy mentioned under ' bracliium'. h. The elision oi 
n before the spirant ch is mentioned render ' centrum'. 

CONFECTIO, 'that which is prepared or made ready': W. 
cyfeithj-o, 'to dress', as in cyffeWij-o (crwyn), 'to dress (skins)'; 
cyffeithjo (tir) 'to manure (land'); cyffaith, mas., 'a confect or 
medical preiDaration'. Other instances of n elided before the 
spirant /, according to the rule just alluded to, occur under the 
words 'coufessio', 'continium', 'interna'. Why ci/ffaifh is mas- 
culine is not evident. Compare other perplexing instances rmder 
' grammatica', 'lamna', ' nota', 'occasio', 'rosa'. 

CONFESSIO, 'a confessing': W. cyfes. 

CONFINIUjM, 'a boundary': W. cyffin, pi. cyfjinjan. 

COXSECEO, 'I consecrate': W. cyser/r-n, 'to consecrate'; cys- 
egr, ' a sanctuary'. See addiirn under ' adorno'. Other instances 
of the elision of n before the spirant s occur under ' consilium', 
' consolido', ' consouus', ' Constantinus', ' construo'j ' densus', 
'mensm-a', 'pensum'. 

COjSTSILIUM, ' deliberation', ' plan': W. cysyl, ' counsel, ' ad- 

CONSOLIDO, 'I consolidate', 'make firm': W. cysyllUi, 'to 
'join', unite'; cyswllt, ' a joint'. Der. ' consolid-', W. ' *consold-', 
' *consollt-' ' =i=cosoUt-', ' cyswllt-'. On the elision of the unac- 
cented vowel i, see ' articulus'; and on lit for Id, see ' caldarium' 
and ' altare'. 

CONSOXUS (-a, -um), 'harmonious': W. ci/son, 'consistent'. 

CONSTi^LlS:S (gen. ' Constantis'), ' Constans': Mid. W. ' Cys- 
teint', which would now be ' Cystaint' or ' Cystain'. 

CONSTANTINUS, ' Constantine': W. Gystenyn (also Cys- 
tenyn, in Cardiganshire, which is wrong). The exact form one 
might expect would be ' Cyst^.nin', but it is easy to see that the 
termination -in had here to give w^ay to the favourite -yn. Com- 
pare the case of Nadolig, which see under 'natalicia'. 

CONSTEUO (ger. 'construendum'}, 'I build or construct': W. 
cystrawen, fem., ' syntax, the construction of sentences'. Der. 
'construendum', W. ' *construend', fem., ' construend', '^cinstru- 
end', ' *cinstrauend', ' +cistrawen', ' cystniwen'. On the gender of 
cystrawen see ' brachium', and on the assumption of the Latin 


^ovimA see 'lego'. The vowel v 1ms been lengthened by its con- 
tact with the subsequent e. Similar cases occur under ' destruo', 
' paries', ' ruina', ' struo'. Compare also jnnieri for ju'ten (for Latin 
jiucri) on the Glanusk Park Stoue, whicli reads, TVKFILLI ic iacit 


CONTEXDO, 'I contend', ' strive': W. ci]iicn, ' strife', pi. njii- 
lihuiu. It is possible that cf/nen is derived" from content! o ; but 
then one would rather expect the word to have assumed the form 
cijnnnt or cf/nuinf. 

' CONTEARIUS (-a, -um),' contrary': W. ci/tJiraiL-I,as in girtjnt 
cythraivl, 'a contrary wind'. «. This, if well founded, would bo 
an instance of I changed into )•. See ' Februarius', ' martyr', ' ras- 

COXTEUDO, ' I press or thrust togetlier': W. cijt]tritJJ-o,'io 
disturb', ' throw into commotion'; cythrudd, ' horror', ' anger'; 
' pcrturbatio' (Davies). On tin- for nti; see ' centrum'. 

CONVENTIO, 'an assembly', 'a meeting': W. cenfainf, 
'grex proprie porcorum' says Davies; but in the MyvijfUni 
Archceology (p. 432) we read the plural form, leniieinoed {or 
iiwenyn)=' swarms (of bees'). The word should now be cynmcii 
or cynniaint ; but as it is only a book-word, it seems to have 
been revived from J\Iid. Welsh, which did not always distinguish 
/ from %v or m in writing. 

COCINA, M. Lat.= 'coquina', 'kitchen': W. ccriin. 

COCIXO, ^I. Lat., ' I cook'; W. cor/in-o, ' to cook'. This is an 
instance of o not affected by a following i. 

(.'OQUIIS, ' a cook': 0. W. coc, now cog or cog-ydd. 

COPiBUS, M. Lat.= 'a saddle-bow': W. corf, fem. ; i>l. cyrf 
(Davies). In the Mahinogion, ii, p. 38G,and iii, p. 147, the word is 
corof (pi. corfcii) ; and corijf in Mah. i, p. 294, if I understand the 
passage rightly ; also in Mah. ii, p. 60. Der. ' corbus', W. '*corb', 
' =i=cor'b', ' cor'f, j ,' '^ _p' I ' corf. The word is obsolete, and its 
meaning somewhat uncertain. Davies, induced probably by the 
usage of the poets and the ambiguity of INIid. AV. orthogTaiihy, 
identifies it with corjih, 'hody'; but quotes a couplet in which 
corf-Ioyw ('having a shining corf) appears as an epithet of a 
saddle. From the Mab., which should be carefully consulted, 
it would appear that there was a fore corof and a hind corof; 
that is, probably, the saddle formed a kind of apex both in front 
and behind the rider, resembling that of the ystarn wliich one 
sees sometimes used in Cardiganshire. A kind of arch resem- 
bling such an apex seems to have divided the halls of the 
I'rin'ces of Gwynedd into two parts, called is coref (' below coref) 
and uch corrf\' iihowe coref), con/ being, accori,ling to the ortho- 


grapliy of the Venedotian yersion of the Laws of Wales, in which 
it occurs, only another Nvay of writing coryf. In Salesbnry's Dic- 
tionary (1547) we liave Av// (imexplained) and Icoryf kyfrvnjf— 
'saddell belle', which means either sadcUe-bow or saddle-tree. 
In the Oxford Glosses, Latin corhum appears glossed by a Welsh 
corhum, which would be a derivative from W. *corb, like iotum 
(gl. 'jus') from iot (gl. 'pultum'), now KincZ, ' porridge', in the 
same JMS. 

COENU, ' a horn': W. c.j,-n. 
COEONA, ' a crown': W. coron. 

COriPOPtO, 'I incorporate': W. corphor-i,' to incorporate'. 
COEPUS, 'a body': W. corph, pi. cyrph; JNIid. W. also cor- 
phoroecl {Mahinoijion , i, p. 36). Not only are tliese words writ- 
ten with^j/i or j^'indiflereutly, but the highly irregular form corf 
(with/=i-) occurs frequently in poetry in the My v. Archceology. 
COEEIGIA, ' a shoe-latchet': W. carai. Der. ' corrigia', W. 
'*corrigi', ' *correghi', '^cerregh', '*cere', 'c.\rei', 'carai'. a. On 
e- — -i for i — /, see ' cicuta'. h. A sort of reversion of o or e into a, 
in initial syllables, occiirs not unfrequently in Welsh. Instances 
will be found under ' maceria', ' monachus', ' natalicia', ' occasio', 
' occupo', ' oleum', ' orthographia', ' porcellus', ' Saturiius'. 

COXA, 'the hip': W. coes, 'a leg'. Der. 'coxa', W. '*cocsa', 
' *cochsa', ' *coisa', ' *cois', ' coes'. The instances where a mute 
before s is compensated for are rare, and to be found under 'laxus', 
' pexa', ' Saxo'. 

CEASSO, 'I make thick', ' condense': 0. W. crasetlcion (gl. 
' spi[s]si3), Lux. Folio. 

CEASSUS (-a, -um), ' solid', ' thick', 'dense': W. eras, ' rough', 
'gruff', 'scorched': crasu, 'to parch or scorch'. 

CEEO, 'I create or make': W. cre-u, 'to create'; creedigactJt, 
' creation'. 

CEUX (gen. 'crucis'), 'a cross': W. crog, 'the cross'; crog-lifh, 
' the lesson respecting the cross or cruciiixion', whence Good 
Friday is called Dydd Gwener y Ch-oglith, lit., 'Friday of the 
Crucifixion lesson'. The reason for changing u into o in this 
instance is not evident, but compare veodr under 'neuter'. 

CUPJTUS, ' a cubit': W. cufydd in books, and so pronounced 
in North Wales ; but in South Wales it is cijfydd,\vhich is a more 
regular form. As to dd for t, it seems to owe its presence in this 
word to the ambiguity of Z^Iid. Welsh orthography, which used t 
for t and dd. 

CULCITA, 'a bed', 'cushion': W. cylched; 0. W. cHcJicL Der. 
' culcita', W. ' *culceta', ' cilchet', ' cylched'. The change of !f into 
i is mentioned under ' Caula'. It is also probably an interme- 
diate step in the transition of vj into y, as here, as well as of o 
into y. 


CULEX, ' a gnat', ' midge': W. ci/Jjon, 'Hies'. 

GULTELLUS, 'a small knife': W. ci/Hr/Z and cimteU (Salcs- 
Lury), fern., ' a kuife', pi. cyUijll. On U = lt, see ' altare', and on 
the gender see ' briicliinm'. The coUociuial very commonly makes 
cyUr/l into cylldli. , , ^^ ,,, ,,, 

CULTER C"en. 'cultri), ' a plonghshare': W. civlltr or cwlUyr, 
bnt in the spoken language cvillhvr. Der. ' cultri', W '*cwltr', 
'cwllt'r' (written 'cwlltr'), whence 'cwUtwr' and 'cwlltyr. 

CUNEUS, 'awedge': W. c-/h. , n i if , 

CUPA, ' a tub', ' cask': W. ci^-?/», ' a vessel to hold halt a 
bushel'. See ' caula'. ^ -,-,■, , ■ • 

CUriDUS, ' a greedy person': W. ci/hjdd, a miser . 

(To he contimied.) 


(Read at the Knighton Meeting.) 

In an " Extent of Merionethshire, temjx Edward I," 
transcribed in the Archceohgi'aCambrensis for July 18G7, 
there occurs the passage, "Decasus quia Eex remisit per 
cartas suas. De Monachis de Mochrader pro procura- 
tione quam facere solebant Principi per j noctem vjh. 
De eisdem duo pullani de mehon equitio suo xls. pre- 
tium pullani xx6-."; and in a footnote the transcriber 
asks " Who were the monks of Mochrader ? 

To this question he has himself partly supplied the 
clue when he states that "the monks of Ystrad Mar- 
chell had a grant of land from Prince Gwenwynwyn m 
Mochraidre", though the similarity of the name rather 
misled him to look for its identification in the neigh- 
bourhood of Llanrhaiadr ym Mochnant. The remark, 
however, coupled with the evidence of the Extent itself, 
helps materially to the recovery of the long forgotten 
locality, for the passage already quoted occurs m the 
"Extenta Commotl de Penthlyn"; and the question 
naturally suggests itself : is there in the Hundred ot 

1 II. C. J(ones), F.S.A., Secretary of the Povvysland Club, and 
editor of the Montgomeryshire Cullcdiom. 


Penllyn any place tliat meets the several requirements 
of tills case ? 

In an outlying portion of tlie parish of Llanycil, near 
the present highway from Bala to Festiniog, and not 
far from an ancient Roman road (Milltir Gerryg), is a 
place called "Bochraiadr",near which we meet with the 
expressive name of Coed y Mynach (the monk's wood), 
and adjoining it lands which are known to have be- 
longed to the monks of Ystrad Marchell (Strata INIar- 
cella), for in 1183 Elise ap Madoc,' first cousin to Owen 
Cyfeiliog, granted in part, and in part sold, to the said 
monks, "pro tribus libris totam terram que vocatm- 
liechendin", the boundaries of which are enumerated 
in the following order, with their modern names given 
in brackets : " Follow Abercummein (Cwm Main Brook) 
to its source in Blaencummein ; thence, in a straight 
line, to Kairrunhok (qu. Castell on the Ordnance Map); 
then follow the stream to Ridolwen(Rhydol\ven); thence 
to the source of Nant Ucheldre; follow this to Manach- 
diner (Pont Mynachdwr) ; thence up the stream to the 
A larch, and so on to the Geyro" (probably the branch 
of it marked Nant yr Arw Wlaw).- 

Closely following the notice of this grant and sale, 
we find in an Inspeximus Charter of Edward I' another 
sale, by the same Elise, of lands in Nantfaith (qu. Nant 
Each), and a free grant of all the lands held by the 
monks in Penllyn, viz., a part of Keman (qu. Penmaen 
or Cwm Main), and of Lledweni (Bodweni ?), and Penan 
Maelgwn (probably Pennant Melangell),from Kewedauc 
(Pdriwaedog) to Mantho (Mawddwy) ; and then imme- 
diately after this follows a description of lands pur- 
chased from Madoc Hethgam, the boundaries of which 
have been identified by Mr. H. W. Lloyd much as fol- 
lows : " From Llinheskyn follow the Kaletdimer (pro- 
bably Clettwr, an old name of Afon Hescyn, and not 
an vmcommon one in this county) to the brook called 

1 The names of both father and. sou are handed down still in 
Ehj'd Elise and Hafod Fadog. 

2 Mont. Collect., 1871, p. 23. 3 jn^., p. 312. 


Brattbs (\\lucli name now occurs as that of the hill Brot- 
tos ; whilst the brook takes its name from the wood 
which forms tlie next point in the boundary Hne at 
Nant y Coed, near the end of the wood ; and onwards, 
in an oblique direction, to an upright stone on the 
mountain ;' and thence on to the top of Pwtll (Bwlch 
y Foel Poeth, qu. Y Twll Du ?) ; thence to the river 
Tarwerigin (Treweryn), which follow up to the junction 
of the Kelin (Celyn), and keep along that brook to the 
boundary line of" Penllin and Gwenech (Gwynedd). 
Pass on thence to Ekelchet (Y Gylchedd), and so on to 
the source of the Geyro.' The date of this purchase is 
not distinctly stated!^ but it is enough for our purpose 
that the lands now acquii-ed adjoined those previously 

Passing on to the grant of Prince Wenwynwyn, we 
find that°he bestowed upon the monks of Ystrad Mar- 
chell, inter alia, " Nantmeichat, from its beginning 
even' to Mochraedr"; and although the actual name is 
altogether lost here, and there is another Nant y 
Meichiaid in Montgomeryshire, at no great distance 
from other properties of the monks ; still there seems 
to be a sort of natural connectiorj, or rather play, upon 
the names themselves that induces ris to fayourtheir 
conjunction here, and, contrary to the classical mter- 
pretation of Mochraiadr as " the rapid waterfall," to 
suppose that, like Mochnant itself, it may have been 
vulgarly interpreted, "the waterfall of the swine," 
ancf therefore as a suitable accompaniment to Nant y 
Meichiaid, " the dingle of the swineherds." _ In any 
case the two names occur together as "Mochraidre Nan- 
meichat" among the donations of Wenwynwpr to the 
monks in the Inspeximus Charter of Henry VI. 

Now all these places do lie within the commote of 
Penllyn, and they belonged to the Abbey of Strata 
Marcella (Ystrad Marchell) ; and these are the two 

1 I can hear nothing of this stone now. Could it have been tlie 
Llcch Eudin which gave its uame to tlic former grant ? 
3 Mont. Coll., 187-2, p. 100. 


jrioints which we are chiefly concerned to prove, and 
which are mainly needed to answer the question, "Wlio 
were the monks of Mochrader ? But there are other 
points Avliich gi-eatly confirm this conclusion, and are of 
themselves higldy interesting. 

Wherever the monks had outlying properties, it was 
their custom to establish there a cell or small establish- 
ment for the twofold purpose of looking after their 
temporal interests, and also for the celebration of divine 
service and the spiritual good of the locality ; but a 
special obligation rested upon them to have a cell here, 
inasmuch as one of the conditions of their tenure was 
that they should provide entertainment for the Prince 
for one night in each year on his journeys through 
these wild and barren mountains. When the Knights 
of St. John of Jerusalem founded their hospice at Doly- 
gynwal (thence called Yspytty Ifan), it is probable that 
this cell lost much of its importance. Still its situation 
among these barren mountain passes must have ren- 
dered it a grateful refuge to many a weary and be- 
nighted traveller, and may well have given rise to a 
tradition that seems to have lingered until recent days, 
that there formerly existed on the Arenigs a sort of 
Mont St. Bernard. Of their spiritual duties we may, 
perhaps, have some traces in another tradition Avhich 
states that a beam over the fireplace in the fann of 
Ty Nant, and the principals of the barn at Ber-th Lafar 
Fawr, were formerly portions of the timber-v.-ork of 
Eglwys Ana, an extinct chapelry in this neighbourhood. 

That condition of their tenui-e which required the 
annual payment of "two colts of their sujoerior breed", 
connects their cell very closely and curiously with the 
mother establishment in Montgomeryshire, for it is evi- 
dent that it refers to that famous breed of which we 
read elsewhere, that " in this third district of Wales, 
called Powys, there are most excellent studs put apart 
for breedmg, and deriving theii" origin from some fine 
Spanish horses which Roljert de Belesme, Earl of 
Shrewsbury, brought into this country ; on which ac- 


count the horses sent from thence are remarkable for 
their majestic proportion and astonishing fleetness."' 

At the time of the dissolution of the Abbey these 
lands, called " Tyreymoneth" (Tir y Mynydd), situate in 
the county of Merioneth and dominion or lordship of 
Po\\7S, and forming part of its temporalities, "u-ere held 
on lease by "Eobert ap Rhys, Cleric, for 66s. Sd." This 
Robert was the son of Sir Rhys Fawr, the standard- 
bearer of Henry VII at the battle of Bosworth, and was 
himself chaplain and cross-bearer to Cardinal Wolsey. 
The monumental effigies of father and son are still to 
be seen at the west end of Yspytty Church. The family 
was one of much wealth and influence in this neigh- 
boiu'hood, and acted as stewards for most of the sur- 
rounding monastic property ; wliich it, moreover, suc- 
ceeded in securing for itself,either by grant or purchase, 
at the dissolution. Thus this Robert ab Rhys handed 
down these lands of the monks of Ystrad Marchell to 
his son Cadwaladr ab Robert of Rhiwias ; another son, 
the notorious Dr. Elis Price ("Y Doctor Coch"), obtained 
the lands of the Knights Hospitallers at Yspytty; and 
a nephew acc^uired the adjacent ones of the monks of 
Aberconwy. And these several huids, with the excep- 
tion only of Yspytty, are stiU held by then- respective 
lineal representatives. ^ 

D. R. Thomas. 

1 Hoaro's Glraldus Camhrensis, vol. ii, chap, xii, p. 173. 

" It is interesting to notice that, in regard to the identification of 
several localities mentioned in the docnment under consideration in 
this paper, both i\Ir. Thomas and ilr. H. W. Lloyd arrived at simi- 
lar conclusions by totally independent methods, and about the same 
time.— Ed. Arch. Gavih. 

4th ses. vol. 



In the Britannia Depicta, ov OgiJhy improved, the 
principal roads, -with the measured miles, are repre- 
sented such as they were in the seventeenth century. 
Many of them have ceased to exist as maiu r'oads of 
communication from one extreme point to another, or 
have become neglected byways and narrow lanes. 
Amongst others thus represented is the great road, lead- 
ing from Holywell in Flintshire to St. David in Pem- 
brokeshire, as if there were constant and regular com- 
munication between these extreme points, the whole 
distance measuring one hundred and fifty-six miles. 
Although the frequenters of St. Winifred's Well may 
still be not inconsiderable in number, few devotees find, 
then- way at the present time to the shrine of the great 
Welsh saint ; but in former times, when it was believed 

Roma semel quantum bis dat Menevia tantuin, 

or that two pilgrimages to St. David's were equal to one 
to Rome, or, according to Manby, that every one must 
go once to St. David's, dead or alive, we may imagine 
that the routes leading to this popular shrine were con- 
stantly traversed by numbers, although at present they 
may be almost deserted. 

The road commencing from Holywell crossed the 
lower pai-t of the Clwydian range of mountains, passing 
between Caenvys on the right and Ysgeifiog on the 
left, and descending by the present momitain-road by 
Bron Fox (so called from the sign of a way-side inn), it 
continued along the pi'esent narrow by-road, passing 
under Llangynhafal Church, ruitil it reaches Ruthin, 
whence it continued by a route under the Castle and 
over the side of Coed Marchan. A portion of it has been 
since stopped up. After bearing to the right, and leav- 
ing Derwen Church, it reaches Bettws Gwerfyl Goch ; 


and if the common name of Bettws is a corruption of 
Bedehonse, this may have been a halting-place. About 
seventy years ago this now deserted aiid somewhat 
dangerous road for respectable carriages was the only 
available one. The road continued southwards at some 
distance from the present line, until it reached Bala ; 
and keeping the lake on the right hand side, it followed 
the present line to Bwlch y Groes (spelt in the map 
Bulla Groes). Here, as the name implies, stood a cross, 
which was, no doubt, a way-side one ; and as the roacl 
is even now of precipitous and somewhat dangerous 
character,' the position of a cross on the summit of the 
pass was suitable, and would remind the traveller and 
pilgTim to offer up their thanksgiving for so much of 
the journey safely accomplished, and prayers for their 
continued safety. At Dinas Mawddwy the line would 
cross the great route from the east to Wales, and pro- 
ceed mostly along the present route to Aberystwith. 
About seven miles from this place a mound surmounted 
with two upright stones is marked, and corresponds in 
distance with Meinei marked on the Ordnance Map ; 
and which was probably so called from these stones, the 
remains, no doubt, of a larger gi-oup. At Llanrhystud it 
crosses a small stream described as the "Wenay,^ conti- 
nuing its course to the west of Llansantffraid, and not 
to the east as the present road does. If the map is 
accurate, the road led to Llanarth and Blaenporth, and 
throiigh Cardigan to Newport, probably being the pre- 
sent line, — a question that those residing near can de- 

Although Never n Fluvius is mentioned, yet that 
name is not given to the church, which is called Eglois- 
nou-ith, evidently meant for Eglwys Newydd. The pre- 
sent building is of the fifteenth century, and in Ogilby's 

' In ancient times tlie road proceeded along tlie southern side of 
the defile. It was in 1796 that the present road which runs along 
the northern slope was constructed. Portions of the old road are 
still visible.— Ed. Arch. Camh. 

- The Wyrai, which, after passing through Llanrhystud, falls into 
Cardigan Bay about a mile below that village. — Ed. Arch. Camh. 


time still retained the name of "New Clnn-di", althoi«;'a 
no tradition of its ever having been so called is said to 
remain. A church must have existed here from the 
earliest days of Christianity in the country, if the pre- 
sence of Christian sepulchral memorials is any evidence. 
Thus the now lost stone of Vitalianus/ mentioned in 
Cough's Camden, and noticed by Professor Westwood 
in his account of the well known Nevern Cross in the 
ArchcBologia Carnhrensis of 1 860, as well as the mutilated 
inscribed one at present in the south wall of the church, 
both of them in good Roman capitals, prove that very 
soon after its first foundation by St. Brynach, an Irish 
missionary, and a contemporary of St. David, and the 
founder of several other churches in South Wales, burials 
of persons apparently of some distinction took place. 
Fenton conjectures that the original castle, subsequently 
converted into a Norman one, was the chief palace or 
residence of the early reguli of the district, who may 
have been some of the earlier converts of St. Bryn- 
ach. But how^ever this may have been, there is little 
doubt but that in very early times it was a favourite 
place of interment; and in confirmation of this ai'e indi- 
cations that the size of the churchyard was unusually 
large, according to a statement of Mr. Bowen of Llwyn 
Gwair. There is also, according to the same authority, 
a legend generally believed, that Nevern was the last 
stage of pilgrims on their way to St. David's ; and that 
it frequently happened that, their strength failing 
them, they died and were buried there. Hence the ex- 
tensive dimensions of the original churchyard. There 
^vas also, according to the present vicar's account, some 
kind of religious house near Pvhosmaen (to the north of 
Cwm Kene), a place called " Bwlch y Fedwen," which is 
now part of the vicarial glebe. Nor is there any doubt 
of its having been a burial-jilace. All these circum- 
stances combine to show the extent and importance of 
the place. 

' Mr. Rhys, as will be seen in a subsequent page, has rediscovered 
this stone. — Ep. Arch. Camb. 

rA^i ^r:'^ 




It has, Iiowuver, one relic of former times wliich is 
probably unique in Wales, namely, a cross in relief, cut 
in the face of the rock, with a corresponding hollow 
below, cut out to serve as a kneeling-place. The accom- 
panying view, from a drawing of Mr. J. T. Blight, made 
in 1866, gives an accurate representation of it. It is 
on the right hand side of a narrow road running at 
right angles to the line of the main road, and at present 
leading nowhere, being now blocked up. There seems, 
however, to be some uncertainty as to tliis ancient 
road, according to Mr. Bowen. Some think it was con- 
tinued from east to west, in the direction of St. David's. 
Others are of opinion that this kneeling-place, or little 
platform, was not on the actual road, but that the spot 
was a mere turn-aside, the actual road going up to the 
Castle. Mr. Bowen thinks the present position to be 
this. The path by the cross is an old church-path pass- 
ing by Glandwr, and coming out at Pont Newydd, just 
imder Berry Hill, and behind Llwyn Gwair, when it 
joins, and is lost in, the road from Cwm Kene to Llwyn 

Whether, however, this cross was an ordinary way-side 
one, or a kind of appendage to the church, the interest 
attached to it is much the same ; but the greater proba- 
bility seems to be that it was a way-side cross, and that 
the present blocked road over which it hangs Avas the 
ancient road to St. David's. Mr. Bowen mentions the 
curious circumstance that there are other kneehng re- 
cesses or platforms in the road described by him, which 
are probably not unconnected with the one underneath 
the cross. 'They are, at least, exactly similar in charactei 
and execution, and formed probably a kind of station foi 
particular prayers; similar to, but not identical with the 
stations common in Roman Catholic churches or their 
precincts. If such were the case it strongly confirms the 
tradition that Nevern was the last stage of the pilgrim- 
age. As the distance is upwards of tv.'ent}^ miles, there 
may have been some intermediate resting-place of less 
importance ; but we may easily imagine that after this 


long and toilsome journey the pilgrims might vish, for 
greater solemnity, to collect together in one large com- 
pany before commencing their last journey. Hence, 
perhaps, the assemblage of way-side kneeling-places for 
the devout. Then- number may be also partly accounted 
for by the fact that the parish is the largest in the county, 
and hence greater accommodation was required than in 
smaller parishes. But however this may be, the cross 
still exists, an interesting relic of Welsh piety of former 
days. Fenton, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, and other topo- 
graphical writers, seem to have been ignorant of it : at 
least they have all ignored it. 

E. L. Barnwell. 


In September, 185.5, some excavations were made near 
the site of the high altar of Wenlock Abbey, to ascer- 
tain whether any remains of distinguished persons or 
benefactors of the church existed. The search does 
not seem at first to have led to any discoveries of 
interest ; but on continuing the exploration behind the 
altar there was found, half way between the eastern 
end of the Lady Chapel and the back of the high altar, 
a perfect skeleton, unaccompanied by any traces of 
coffin, grave-clothes, or any other indication of its hav- 
ing been interred in the ordinary manner. A kind of 
rude grave had been excavated, and in it the body 
simply deposited and covered up. At a short distance 
from the skull was discovered a vase of j^ale red pot- 
tery,] 6 inches high, measuring 39 ins. round the middle 
portion of it, and 32 at its base. Tlie site is mai^ked 
No. 1 in the plan. Near it were found two saucers 
(No. 2), one placed over the other, as represented, made 
of the same kind of ware as the vase. The lower of the 
two measured 10 ins. in diameter, and G in depth. The 
upper one was rather smaller. The interior of all three 



vessels was perfectly clean, indicating no trace of any- 
thing having been deposited Avithin it. The vase was 
unluckily broken by the labourers ; but the fragments 
Avere easily reconstructed so as to admit of a complete 
restoration ; and it was at that time that the .sketches, 
from which the accompanying illustrations are engraved, 
were fortunately made by Mrs. Acton Stackhouse. The 
fragments of the vase admitted of an easier examina- 
tion as to its former contents, if any ever existed ; bat 
no traces of any could be found. It was the same with 
the saucers. These, with the vase, Avere placed in the 
Museum at Wenlock, but soon after vanished in some 
mysterious manner; since which time, in spite of the ex- 
ertions of Mrs. Stackhouse, no trace of their subsequent 
fate has been discovered, and it is much to be feared 
that they never Avill be recovered. Had it not, there- 
fore, so happened that Mrs. Stackhouse had taken the 
precaution to draw them, nothing more would probably 
have been heard or known of Avhat must be considered 
a very curious sepulchral deposit. 

So' far the history of the discovery. But for Avhat 
purpose the articles Avere placed at the head of the body 
is a question not easily answered. Nor, indeed, are 
their age and kind quite free from doubt, for one of the 
smaller ones, in the opinion of a competent judge, Mr. 
W. C. Lukis, has "a very Celtic outline", although the 
vessels can hardly be referred to such an early period 
unless it is presumed that the church was built on 
ground used as a burial-place centuries previously. 
'Vases have been frequently found buried in churches ; 
but these are supposed to have contained the hearts or 
viscera of those whose bodies Avere buried elscAvhere. 
An account of a vessel Avith a lid or cover, discovered 
in Buxted Church, Sussex, Avill be found in the Sussex 
Archceological Collections (vol. xxi, p. 202). The A'essel 
stood about two inches beloAV the flooring-level of the 
nave, supported on a plain black encaustic tile. It AA'as 
of a light red colour, almost approaching to pink, and 
in that respect was not unlike the Wenlock vase ; but 


in form and dimensions it was ve)y different, being little 
more than 6 ins. high, independently of the lid, Avhich 
slightly exceeded 2 ins. Both jar and lid -were parti- 
ally glazed, as if intended to hold some preserving- 
liquid in which the heart or viscera were immersed, the 
jar being then sealed close in some way. The shape of 
the jar (very like modern jars of domestic use) renders 
it very suitable for such contents ; which cannot be said 
of the Wenlock one, which, moreover, had no cover 
or lid. The Ilev. Edward Turner, who communicated 
the notice of the Buxted vase to the Sussex Archaeolo- 
gical Society, mentions two others discovered in lower- 
ing the area of the tower of Blatchington Church, near 
Seaford ; one found in the chancel of Sutton Cluu'ch, 
near Petworth ; the two former being evidently Boman 
or British, the latter undoubted Boman : so that these 
must have been placed there anterior to the erection 
of the churches. Ptoman urns were found about a year 
before Mr. Turner's notice, in taking clown the walls 
of the chancel of West Hampnet, in the construc- 
tion of which church much Boman brick has been em- 
ployed. A vase was also found in Slaugham Church, 
in a perfect state, and in a similar position to that of 
the Buxted one ; but was of the commonest shape and 
material, very like the ordinaiy crock still used in 
Sussex farmhouses for preserving butter or lard for win- 
ter use. 

About 1845 were found, about the middle of the 
north aisle of the Temjile Church (London), and near to 
several leaden coffins, three earthen vessels, from three 
to four feet below the old pavement, and about a foot 
from the gravel, in clean made earth. They were very 
thin, well turned, of excellent workmanship, and of a 
light yellow colour. Two of them had originally two 
handles, one on either side. One of these was green 
glazed within. The third, a jug, was of the same colour 
and material; but glazed only on the handle and its 
upper part, or the outside. This jug Mr. Way thinks 
very like one represented in an illuminated manuscript 




supposed to be of English execution, and of the time of 
Edward I. The form of these two-handled vases Avas 
totally unlike the Wenlock one, and more adapted for 
festive purposes than preserving any relics such as Avere 
probably contained Avithiu the Buxted vase. 

How general was the practice of burying the bodies 
of distinguished persons in one place, the heart in 
another, and the viscera in a third, Mr. M. H. Bloxam 
has shown in his able communication to the Sussex 
Archceological Collections, in answer to Mr. Turner's 
inquiry as to his opinion of the Buxted A^essel, and which 
he thought to have contained the heart or viscera of 
some one connected Avith that parish. Among the many 
examples there given is that of lianulph de BkmdeA'ille, 
sixth Earl of Chester, AA'ho died in 1232. His viscera 
Avere buried at Wallingford, his heart at Dieulacres 
Abbey in Staffordshire, and his body in the Chapter 
House at Chester. The motive for this kind of burial 
is evidently either personal attachment to, or supersti- 
tion connected Avith, some particular place. But to 
practise tliis tripartite mode of burial where the three 
portions were to be placed close to each other would be 
absurd, and therefore independent of all other consider- 
ations it is eAadent that the A'essels found near the 
skeleton at Wenlock could not have been intended for 
any such use. Mr. Lukis oflers the conjecture that the 
body may have been that of a head mason Avho died 
during the erection of the building and was honoured 
Avith interment in so distinguished a situation, his food 
vessels Avhich he had daily used being also deposited 
near him ; but he considers his conjecture a doubtful 
one, for although the vessels may easily have contained 
food, as far as their forms go, yet the custom of deposit- 
ing such Avith the dead, or rather close to them (for 
they Avere not actually in the grave in this instance) can 
hardly be alloAved to have been a Christian custom, at 
least as late as the thirteenth century; nor can the 
difficulty be explained as easily as that of finding Eo- 
man and British Avai'e in the Sussex churches, alreadv 


ineutioned, for it is most improbable that the Lady 
Chapel would have been built over this grave, lying as it 
does east and west and nearly in the centre, by mere 
chance, or rather that the position of the grave was a 
mere accident, and its existence totally unknown to 
the builders of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. 
It should, ho%vever, be remembered that the present 
ruins are those of a church, which succeeded at least 
one if not more than one, if it stands on the ground 
occupied by the original church said to have been 
founded about G80 by Milburga, a daughter of King 
Merwald, and niece to Wholphere, King of Mercia. 
Her building is said to have been destroyed by the 
Danes, then restored by Leofric, Earl of Chester, in the 
time of the Confessor, and having fallen into decay was 
rebuilt by Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Arundel (14th 
William the Conqueror), or as others say by Warine, 
Earl of Shrewsbury. In Leland's Collectanea both are 
named as the builders ; but whichever of the two was 
the builder he may have possibly constructed his new 
building not on the sites of the older ones but adjoining 
them, so that the new one was a kind of prolongation 
of the earlier one, and on a larger scale. 

The Lady Chapel is of somewhat later date than other 
parts of the church, but would at any rate occupy the 
site of the old church if the work of rebuilding was 
carried on as suggested. In this case the interment of 
the remains may have taken place in the earlier church, 
and thus its remarkable position is easily accounted for. 
The grave was not more than a couple of feet below 
the present surface of the ground, which must be 
somewhat higher than the original level, and it is curi- 
ous that at such a shallow depth it should have re- 
mained so long unkno^^■n. Unfortunately no compe- 
tent person examined the bones at the time, so that 
not even the sex is known, but the j^resence of the 
vessels would perhaps show that it was the skeleton of 
a man. 

If its position is thought to indicate an individual of 


importance, it cannot have been that of Saint Milbm'g-a, 
whose fame as a saint was so great that it was thonght 
desirable by reformers to take up lier bones and burn 
them in the market place, according to the local story. 
AVilliam of Malmesbiiry tells lis, that for some time 
after the arrival of the Normans, through ignorance of 
the place of her burial she was neglected, but while the 
new church was being built a boy accidentally broke 
into a hollow vault and discovered her body. On this 
discovery a sweet balsamic odour pervaded the whole 
building. She was taken up, and performed so many 
mh-acles of healing that even the surrounding pjlains 
could not contain the swarms of pilgrims. 

Leland also mentions this discovery, but speaks of 
the place as a desert in Eoger Montgomery's time, and 
the complete destruction of every monument in the an- 
cient church {Collectanea, \o\. ii, 266). If this account 
is correct, the overlooking of this interment may be ac- 
counted for. According to the author of the account 
of Shropshire in the Beauties of England and Wales 
we read, " It is said that the body of King IMerwald, 
father of Melburga, was found buried in a w^all of the 
church" — meaning of course the later church. Had 
there been any reason to suppose that this king 
w-as buried in the original church of his daughter, 
there is nothing but the rudeness of the inter- 
ment to render it very unlikely that these bones may 
have been those of Merwald himself; who, moreover, 
may have desired to be buried in this homely fashion, 
for the vessels found with the bones may be assigned to 
the period in which he lived and died. If the remains 
are not his they may have been those of some cotem- 
porary, Avhen newly converted Christians might have 
easily retained some of their more harmless Pagan 
practices ; and it is well known that few customs re- 
main so long unchanged as those connected with 

The conclusion, therefore, one might be inclined to 
draw is that this is an interment of a Saxon Christian, 


nearly cotemporary with the saint in whose church he 
was interred. 

There is another remarkable circumstance connected 
with this abbey, although not with the subject of this 
notice. A few years before the discovery in the Lady 
Chapel the bones of a young boy were found in the 
Chapter House, in a small stone coffin about 10 ins.^^■ide. 
The late Mr. Hartshorne was present at the discovery, 
and has left a memorandum, now in the possession of 
Mrs. Acton Stackhouse, stating that when the lid was 
removed the skeleton was perfect. William Lambarde, 
the lav>'yer and antiquary, who died in 1601, about the 
a^i'e of sixty-five, in Xnal^ipograpliical Dictionary {which 
was pubhsiied after his death) says that about forty years 
after the rebuilding of the abbey a young boy was mar- 
tyred at Wenlock. Gervase, in his AnncUti as quoted by 
Leland, has, under the year 1179, '• Puer qiiidam cqnid 
Wenlock "inartyrizatur"; and as Gervase lived at least a 
century before Matthew, it is probable that he is the 
authority on which Matthew of Westminster relies in 
assertino- the fact. Lambarde adds, " whether it were 
by some holy murder of these monks, or otherwise, I 
Avill not determine, because I have no authoritie that 
affirmeth the ceiiantie." 

If this was a case similar to that of Hugh of Lincoln 
it would probably have been noticed in fuller terms, but 
it is better to follow Lambarde's example and to remain 
satisfied with two fects ; first, that a boy was cruelly 
put to death at Wenlock, for Gervase of Canterbuiy 
stands foremost among our old chroniclers for correct- 
ness ; and secondly, that a skeleton of a young boy 
was found in the chapter-house of Wenlock Abbey, and 
there probably was some special reason for his being 
buried in such a place. Eapin, indeed, has stated that 
the stories of Jews crucifying young boys is a mere 
calumny of enemies anxious to prosecute and plunder 
that people, and the story of the boy at Lincoln is one 
of those set down as such ; but independent of 
the respectable authority of Matthew of Paris, who 


gives tlie whole story of his namesake of West- 
minster, Avho mentions it more briefly, thei-e are two 
documents existing, one a commission to seize the 
houses of the Jews at Lincohi, " suspensorum pro 
puero ibidem orucifixo," and the other a pardon to one 
John, a converted Jew, who had been condemned " pro 
morte pueri nuper crucifixi apud Lmcoln" {Arclueologia, 
vol. i, p. 28). This event, however, if it did take place, 
took place 40 Henry III (1255) ; Avhereas the Wenlock 
murder is said to have occurred in 1 1 79, or nearly a cen- 
tury before. The discovery of a boy's skeleton in this 
abbey is certainly a curious circumstance worth record- 
ino-. There are more instances than one of boys buried 
in^athedral and monastic churches ; but these are by 
some assigned to the boy bishops who died during their 
short tenure of oflice. In this case the very small dimen- 
sions of the grave seem to point to a very young boy, 
and Hugh of Lincoln is said to have been only three 
years of age when he suffered. 
•^ E. L. Barnwell. 


"William Eees, Esq.— Since the appearance of our last number, 
llv Ree= lias been called away from us. In his death, which oc- 
curred somewhat suddenlv on the 13th of July, not -only has our 
Association lost an active member and valuable Local Secretary, but 
the Principality at large has been depnved of one to whom she is 
much indebted, and whose services she could ill aflurd to lose. He 
ioined our Society early, and from time to time contributed several 
valuable papers to the pages of the Journal, the last being that on 
"Loventium" which appeared in the April number of the present 
volume He had intended a series of papers on other Roman roads 
and stations in Wales, and had made considerable preparations with 
a view to that object, when the hand of death put an end to his 
interesting researches. . , . -,■ . ■ i 

Mr Rees was bom July 8, 180S, at Tonn, in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Llandovery, being the third son of Mr. David Rees of 
that place, and a younger brother of the late Professor Rees, author 
of the Welsh Saints. Having received such education as his native 
district afforded, he completed it at Swansea School He married 
June 27, 1836, Fanny, youngest daughter of the late Mr. George 


Fni'mer of CardifT, b}- whom (who survives him) he left a family of 
tliree sons and two daughteis ; the eldest of whom is married to 
of Sir Edmund Buckley, Bart., M.P., of Plas, Dinas Mawddwy. 

Mr. Rees for many years carried on business as a publisher and 
printer in the town of Llandovery, and from his press emanated 
some of the most valuable as well as most elegant books connected 
with the literature of Wales. Among them we may particularly 
notice the Liber LMulavensis and the Lives of the Camhro- British 
Saints (both edited by his maternal uncle, the late Rev. W. J. Rees, 
F.S. A., rector of Casgob, Radnorshire) ; Dvvnn's Heraldic Visitations 
of Wales, edited by Sir Samuel Meyrick ; the lolo Manuscrijits ; 
Meddijgoii Mijddfai ; and the other works issued under the auspices 
of the Welsh MSS. Society. But the masterpiece of his press is the 
Mahinogion, which was published at intervals, and completed in 
18^:9. These three superls volumes would reflect credit on the press 
of any capital in Europe ; and were it not for the imprint, few would 
have suspected that such a work could have proceeded from the 
small country town of Llandovery. It was, we believe, in reference 
to this remarkable specimen of typographic art that the present 
learned Bishop of St. David's complimented the printer as " the 
Bodoni of Wales." Sir Samuel Meyrick, in the introduction to the 
Heraldic Visitations, in mentioning Mr. Rees' name, writes : " His 
beautiful and splendid press has raised the typography of Wales 
from the most inferior to the highest possible character, and his un- 
wearied efibrts in this respect have shown his enthusiastic love for 
his country in deeds as well as professions. His compatriots, thus 
benefited by the exaltation of Cambria, owe him a debt of gratitude. 
Besides the care he has bestowed in printing this work, I am in- 
debted for the great pains he has taken to render it accurate through 
his genealogical knowledge and the general aid he has so readily 
accorded whenever required." We may add that the quartos of 
the Visitati-ons are not the only productions of his press, to which he 
contributed valuable notes and elucidations. He was, moreover, a 
skilled musician, and to the great attention he paid to the ancient 
music of Wales, and his superior knowledge of it, Mr. Brinley Ri- 
chards paid a just tribute in a pathetic speech which he delivered 
at the late Harlech Eisteddvod. 

In 1855 Mr. Rees disposed of the greater part of his business and 
removed to Tonn, which he considerably enlarged and improved, 
adding a spacious apartment for a library, which he filled with a 
most valuable collection of Welsh books and books relating to 
Wales. Among these treasures he would generally spend a por- 
tion of each day, principally engaged in his favourite archaeolo- 
gical pursuits. It would, howevei', be hardly justice to Mr. Rees' 
memory if we were not to mention that his exertions were by no 
means confined to literary matters and antiquarian researches. He 
was always foremost in the advocacy of every good cause, espe- 
cially such as had reference to the benefit and improvement of the 
town of Llandovery. When the authorities of St. David's College 


ungratefully declined the munificent proposal of the late ilr. Thomas 
Phillips of Brunswick Square, London, to found and endow a Welsh 
ju-ofessorship at Lampeter, in addition to several valuable scholar- 
ships and many other favours conferred on that institution, Mr. 
Eees -was mainly instrumental in inducing Mr. Phillips to confer the 
rejected boon upon Llandovery, and the result was the foundation 
of the Welsh Collegiate Institution at that place, of which Mr. Rees 
was appointed one of the first trustees, and in which he always took 
a lively interest. He also exerted himself to give the inhabitants of 
that town the advantages of a railway which they now enjoy. For 
several }"ears he acted as a magistrate for the county of Brecon, and 
latterly also for that of Carmarthen. 

Though his health had for some years past been delicate, his last 
illness was only of a week's duration, and not until a day or two of 
his death any serious apprehension entertained. He died 
peacefully at Tonn, with all his family around him, having just 
entered upon his sixty-sixth year. Mr. Rees was eminently a good 
man, a sincere friend, a true patriot, and a person highly respected 
in all the relations of life. 




Sir, — Welsh historical and topographical works are frequently 
depreciated, and justly so, for their lack of trustworthiness. Many 
things are stated in them which cannot be depended upon as strictly 
correct unless properly verified. Similar want of trustworthiness 
also exists as regards some Welsh MSS. of traditional lore. In 
them anachronisms and contradictions occur which cannot possibly 
be reconciled with any degree of satisfaction. The prevalence of 
such defects is a source of much annoyance to modern authors who 
desire to be truthfully correct in every statement they make. To 
render an historical work of any real value, especially if it be in- 
tended to be a standard woi-k of reference, accuracy and trustworth- 
iness are indispensable. When difficulties occur in Welsh ilSS., 
which cannot be satisfactorily solved, it is uo matter of surprise that 
their contents should be disbelieved or their verity questioned. 
Tlieir inaccuracies, however, should not be attributed to wilful fabri- 
cation of facts with a view to impose on the credulity of the un- 
wary, as it is sometimes asserted. On the contrary, they are to be 
traced rather to the lack of better information on the part of their 
compilers, or to the palpable carelessness of transcribers. Asser- 


tions arc made sometimes recklessly on mere surmise, and no caro 
taken to authenticate them. The following are cited as a few 
instances, in some standard works, of statements which are incor- 
rect, which are traceable either to the want, of knowing better or to 
carelessness. They are adduced here in order to prevent others 
from quoting and repeating them in future publications, as well as 
to show the need of observing greater vigilance in the compilation 
of books. 

In WiWiaxns' Biofirajihical Bidionanj of Eminent Welshmen, p. 296, 
it is stated that Llyr Llediaith, the grandfather of the brave Carac- 
tacus, "flourished in the early part of the sixth century", where 
" si.vth" is evidently a misprint for first. 

The Geirlyfr Bywgraffiadol o Emoogion Cijmru (published in Liver- 
pool in 1870) contains, p. 695, a translation of the account of Llyr 
given in the abovenamed work, without correction even of the glar- 
ing anachronism caused by the misprint. 

In a work entitled Geiriadur Bi/togroffijddol o Enwogion Cijmru 
(published at Aberdar in the same year), with a dedication to tlie 
Bishop of Llandaff, a somewhat inferior translation of the foremen- 
tioned account is inserted (vol. ii, p. 235), but without rectifying the 
error of the misprint. The blunder is perpetuated also in a Welsh 
work which is now being issued from the press by Blackie and Son 
under the i\t\e oi Gijmrii Banesijddol, Parthcdegol, a Bgifgniphjddol 
(vol. ii, p. 208). That the anachronism should not have been disco- 
vered by the editors of any one of these three Welsh books, appears 
strange and unaccountable. 

In Rees' Topographical and Eistorical Description of South Wales, 
p. 871 (published nearly sixty years ago), it is stated that Dr. Eras- 
mus Saunders, the friend and correspondent of Edward Lhwyd, 
"was of the house of Pentre", Pembrokeshire; that he "was edu- 
cated at Merton College, Oxford"; and that he was " rector of Mor- 
ton-in-the-Marsh, in the county of Gloucester"; none of which state- 
ments are correct. A writer, under the name of Giraldus, in the 
Haul Magazine for Oct. 1866, p. 303, without taking the precaution 
to inquire into their correctness, repeats the above assertions in 
Welsh. In the Geirlyfr Bywgraffiadol, already alluded to (pp. 931-2), 
two of Rees' erroneous statements respecting Dr. Saunders, namely, 
that he "was educated in xMerton College, Oxford", and that he 
" was rector of Morton-in-the-Marsh, Gloucestershire", are reiter- 
ated. It is right to mention, however, that the account of Dr. 
Saunders and of his son, furnished in the Appendix to this work 
(pp. 1092-4), is correct, except that Aberbechan, the place where the 
former died, is strangely converted into " Aherllechau". Gwilym 
Lleyn, also in the Brython (1861, p. 282), repeated the two errors of 
Rees indicated above. Dr. Saunders was educated at Jesus College, 
Oxford, and became curate of Bleckley, Worcestershii-e, of which 
parish he was subsequently appointed vicar by Dr. Lloyd, Bishop of 
the diocese. 

Williams, in \i\^ Biog. Diet, of Eminent Welshmen, p. 290, stales 


that " tlic fullest and most authentic account of Edwurd Llwjd is to 
be found in Owen's British, 8vo, London, 1777." lu the 
above-mentioned Oeirhjfr Bijwgrafiaclo], p. G91, it is said, " there is a 
very minute account of Edward Llwyd in the British Remains by 
Dr. Owen Pughe." But the memoirs in the British Bemains edited, 
not by Willia7n Owen, afterwards Dr. W. Owen Pughe, who was in 
1777 only seventeen years old, but " by the Rev.^N. Owen, jun., 
A.M.," are there stated to have been "transcribed from a MS. 
in the Ashmolean Musonm, O.xford." 

The Rev. Lewis Jones, vicar of Almondbnry, Yorkshire, died 
August 26, 1866. The following week a brief obituary notice of 
him supplied by a person possessed of imperfect information and 
whose memory was defective, appeai-ed in a local paper. Therein it 
was said that he had been preferred to the living of Xea-port, which 
be afterwards, it was added, resigned for the Rev. James Tedraore, 
at that time curate of Upperthong, near llolmfirth. But the writer 
did not saj' to what Newport he was promoted. A translation of 
the notice with its errors appeared in the Haul for Oct. 1866, p. 
320, where Newport was rendered Trefdraeth. It should be observed 
that there are two parishes in Wales which bear the name of Tref- 
draeth, one in Anglesey and the other in Pembrokeshire, and the 
English name of the latter happens to be Newport, to neither of 
which, however, was Mr. Jones appointed. But he was preferred 
to the benefice of Llandevaud, near Caerleon (Caerlleon ar Wysg) 
and not far from Newport, Monmouthshire, which he resigned for 
the Rev. J. Tidemore (not Tedmore), curate, not of Upperthong but 
of Nethcrthong. At tlaat time Upperthong was not a parish, had no 
church and no curate. 

In Lhjfnjddiaeih y Cymrtj, pp. 77-8, is given the title of a work 
" by George Owen Hari, Parson of Whit Church in Kernels." It 
should be remarked that the Whitchurch of which George Owen, as 
he is generally called, was rector, is here stated to be in Cemmaes, 
that is, in the hundred of Cemmaes, which is in the north-east of 
Pembrokeshire. This Whitchurch, which usual!}' goes by the name 
of Eglwys Wen among the Cymry, is distant between three and 
four miles from Hcullys, where George Owen resided. He was also 
rector of Llanfihangel Penbedw, upwards of four miles from Eglwys 
Wen. But the author of the Lhjfnjddiaeih by an unaccountable 
misconception has, in a note appended to the title of George Owen's 
book, made Whitchurch in Cemmaes to be Whitchurch near Saint 
David's in the hundred of Dewisland, in the western extremity of 
the county. The one is about five and twenty miles distant from 
the other. The error escaped the notice of even the careful editor^ 
of the work, which is apparent from a foot note, in which he says 
that Whitchurch is called Trerjroes by the Cymry, a name never ap- 
plied to Eglwys Wen or Whitchurch in Cemmaes. 

^ The editor of the Llyfryddiaeth consulted a well known clergyman of 
Dewisland on the subject, and his note embodies the information he received 
in answer to his inquiiics. — Ed. Arch. Camb. 


The foregoing arc a few of the numorons errors -wliich I have 
come across in perusing Welsh books. With many authors it is 
too mucli the practice to place implicit faith in the assertions of 
others, without inquiring into their correctness. Dates and facts 
should not be adopted and recited without being authenticated and 
veritied. By observing this precaution writers and editors woiJd do 
much to preserve their own credit, as well as to save much trouble 
to persons who are burdened to discover the truth. 

I remain, yours truly, Llallawg. 


Sin, — Adverting to Mr. Brash's letter directed against me, in 
your July number, I find that he uses, in reference to the Bridell 
Stone, the following words: "I have already shown, beyond doubt, 
that there is no such form asNetta in the inscription ; the language, 
formula, and characters of -which are purely Gaedhelic. It is, there- 
fore, a pure waste of time to spend further criticism on it." After 
making due allowance for the tone of this statement, the matter 
■will be found to stand thus: He reads Neqa, not so much because 
]Mr. Longueville Jones did so, as because it suits him so to do, as will 
appear from the following words, which give us a kind of peep into 
his mental lahoratov j {A rchaohgia Camhreiisis, 1873, p. 104) : "Now 
such a prefix as Netta is not to be found in any of our indices of 
ancient names, as far as I have been able to examine ; but the pre- 
fixes ISTec or Nech are very common, as in Nectan, Nechtaiu, Nech- 
in." It happens that Dr. Ferguson has also examined this stone, 
and confidently asserts the reading to be Ketta. Further, Mr. Jones 
of Tstrad Meurig and the writer have done the same thing, and 
unhesitatingly agree with Dr. Ferguson ; though in the difficult 
parts of the inscription we differ, I fear, from both Mr. Brash and 
Dr. Ferguson. 

In the next place he shows that the Vinne of Vinnemagli occurs 
in such Irish names as Finntau, Finchu, and the like ; which, as far 
as I know, nobody objects to, though one is at a loss to see exactly 
■what is gained here by doing so, for do not our Gwen and Gwyu 
just as frequently and as regularly represent the prefix in question 
in Welsh names ? It is needless to go through the same process in 
the case of the Old Irish sen and Welsh hen, "old". Then he iden- 
tifies rnagli with mad, which he explains as meaning " bald or ton- 
sured", and finds again in our Brochmael, now Brochwel. Thus 
these last must be also names of Irish origin, for the Welsh for 
Mr. Brash's 7nael happens to be mod, " bald". But the writer's 
contempt for the rules of Celtic philology in this paragraph does not 
culminate until he identifies Vinnemagli with the Fianamhail of the 
Four Masters. Such being the case, it would, no doubt, be useless 
to remind hira that Gildas, who wrote in the sixth century, calls 
one of the princes of North Wales Maglocunum, a name which in 
the Aiuuilc;i Cambri<x becomes Mailcun, now Maelgwu. 


^1 pioiKis of the stone at Peurho.s Llugwy, which ilr. Brash reads 


the second line is to bo read wACcvaECCETi. Botli Mrs. Rhys and I 
have made a diligent search for the line above the V, but cannot 
find it ; nor can I understand how it got into the drawing given 
in the ArcJiceologia Cambrensis for 1864, p. 105. Seeing no necessity 
for regarding this name as Irish, I break it np into Maccnd and 
Ecceti, which make, letter for letter, Machndd Echwj-d, as suggested 
by Welsh tradition. Mr. Brash evidently thinks he has got hold 
of an unanswerable argnment when he says, " Were I to find on the 
shores of Wexford or Waterford a sepulchral inscription to Griffith 
ap Owen, I should be fully as justified in claiming it to be Irish a3 
Mr. Rhys is in claiming MacciU Desetti (sir,) to be Welsh." As far 
as I know, nobody doubts that it is easy enough to distinguish 
Modern Welsh from Irish ; but any one who has studied Old Welsh 
and Old Irish would readily admit the probability that the languages 
of the Welsh and the Irish, say in the fifth century, miust have been 
very similar. 

In the next place he touches on the Clydai bilingual stone, and 
reads the Roman inscription inaccurately, eter:<i fili victoe, instead 
of ETTERNI, etc. It would seem that he had examined this stone 
about the same time as the others : it certainly looked rather un- 
favourable to the Irish claim, and we heard nothing about it from 
Mr. Brash until I ventured lately to guess the Celtic inscription : thus 
the supjrressio veri was no longer of any avail, and he made up his 
mind to claim Victor as an Irish name, to be written Fector — what 
next ? I am not at all inclined to grumble because he will persist 
in reading / for v, wherever that occurs among Celtic characters. 
Nor will it influence him in this respect, that I find visaci on the 
Pool Park Stone, which reads, in Roman chai-acters, tovisaci ; or 
that INIr. Jones and I have rediscovered the stone of Vitalianus in 
the neighbourhood of Nevern, and find on it, in Roman lettei-s, 


and in Ogham, Vitnliani. This habit of reading / for v in British 
Oghams forces him to treat the Cornish Svaqquci as S/accuci, and 
then, by some mysterious process, to reduce it to Faecuci. (ArcJice- 
ologia Cambrensis, 1873, p. 104) But a letter more or less is, per- 
haps, of no great consequence ; and, as toVitaliani and such names, 
Mr. Brash, with O'Reilly's Dictionary in his hands, would make 
short work of them ; though, perhaps, he will not feel so proud of 
his feats in that direction when he learns that we have, this side of 
the Irish sea, men who can, with the aid of Dr. Pughe's Dictionary, 
explain an inscription, or anything else, from any language under 
the sun, as genuine Welsh, and challenge a comparison of results 
with him when he reads the stone, for instance, of Cyngen as fol- 
lows : "Cu Nacen ni fi ill feto", i. e., " Cu Nacen, a warrior pierced 


(by) many wonnds, (lies) beneath in silence"; or the Trabeg Stone, 
which he would have ns read "Bmscos mnqi Gala oc oc", and under- 
stand as meaning "Bruscos, the sou of Calu, alas I alas!" (see 
Archccologla Cambre)isis, 1801), pp. 149 and 163). 

Finally, the reader need not be reminded that the Irish claim is 
not confined to the above British stones, but applies to all the 
ancient of our inscriptions. 1 trust, however, that I have pointed out 
instances enough of Jlr. Brash's method of investigation to prove 
that he is not likely to make it good, — at least before he lias learnt 
to lay more stress on accuracy, extended his acquaintance with Irish 
literature beyond O'Reilly's Dictionary and the names appended to 
fiie Annals of the Four Masters ; and, in fact, carefully read the oldest 
specimens of manuscript Irish extant. Kor will this avail him with- 
out thoroughly studying the sister languages and the rules of Celtic 
philology. In the meantime I think it reasonable, as the Welsh have 
been longer, to say the least of it, in possession of the Principality 
than the Irish, that the majority, if not all, of the old inscriptions in 
it should be regarded as commemorative of Welshmen, until it be 
proved that such cannot be the case ; and that the finding in Ire- 
land of a name known on an old monument in Wales, proves nothing 
beyond what is readily granted at the outset, namely that the Old 
Irish and the Old Welsh had a great many names in common, whicli 
both nations had retained from the time when they formed but one 

As far as lam concerned I have no inclination to discuss the pre- 
sent subject any further, unless these considerations are attended 
to ; and in any case I await the verdict of competent scholars such 
as Ebel and Stokes. 

John Ehts. 

Ehyl: Sept. 17, ISrS. 


SlE,^Until better informed, I cannot but believe that the Eev. 
D. R. Thomas has drawn a somewliat hasty conclusion in inferring, 
from the arguments given by him at pp. 204-6 of your April number, 
that the nunnery called Wytheriac, or Gwytheriac, by Tanner and 
Newcome, was identical with that at Efencchtid near Ruthin. First, 
though probable, it has not been conclusively proved that the latter 
was a nunnery at all. Monks, in old Welsh, were called vitnekh as 
well as myneich ; and "E Venechtid" (e being another form of the 
article ?/) might stand equally for monk's house or monastery, or 
nun's house or convent ; both of which English terms, as well as the 
corresponding Latin terms, conveitius and monasleriuni, are also occa- 
sionally to be found employed in the inverse sense. Archdeacon 
Newcome's statement respecting the "composition between Regi- 
nald de Grey, Lord of Ruthin, and Anian Bishop of Bangor, reads 
as though its worthy author had liimself conceived but a somewhat 
confused idea of the agreement it was intended to express ; and, 


without reference to the original, it is scarcely to be liopod tliat wo 
sliall be able to arrive at a trustworthy judgment on the matter. It 
is difficult to understand how either the Lord of Ruthin or the 
Bishop could have had " the liberty of enjoying the goods of de- 
ceased nuns, "seeing that nuns, when they enter the religious state, 
renounce the individual liberty of enjoj^ing goods at all." 

The legal document by which eflTect was given tothe composition 
in question, whatever it was, was probably written in Latin ; and if 
so, we gain at once the knowledge that " Gwytheriao" is a transla- 
tion of GwytherlaciLs, and " Gwytheriao nunnery" possibly of Gwi/th- 
crianis conventiif!. Hei'e, then, we have got at the fact that " Gwytii- 
eriac" in the original passage was, in all likelihood, not a substantiv'5 
at all, but an adjective, — a diffei-ent thin^ altogether. " Gwytherin" 
may have been sometimes written in Latin Gmjtlierium, and from it 
the adjective Gu-ijtheriacus would be a natural derivative ; so that 
coupled with conventus, it would mean the convent at Gwytherin. 
But it might also have another meaning, although, in the absence of 
confirmatory evidence, it would be one that I should be loth to 
attach to it. Just as from Cluny, Latin Clunimn, would bo formed 
the adjective Cluniacus (Anglice, Cluniac), a term well known to be 
applied to monks, wherever residing, who undertook to follow the 
same rule of life as that observed at Cluny, so Gwytheriao nuns 
may be taken to mean such as observed, though resident elsewhere, 
the rule of the nuns of Gwytherin. The hypothesis is not so impro- 
bable, the veneration for the memory of St. Winifred considered, 
and the wideness of the circulation of the story of her martyrdom ; 
and, this hypothesis admitted, there would be no difficulty in infer- 
ring the probability that such a rule may have been established at 

The local tradition at Gwytherin, as I was mformed some years 
ago when passing that way on horseback, is that an ancient farm- 
house surrounded by ancient trees, near the road to Llanrwst, up 
the valley of Gwytherin Uchaf, is the veritable site of the convent 
founded by St. "Winifred after her miraculous restoration to life 
through the agency of St. Beuno. 

As to the argument drawn by Mr. Thomas from the " ankres" 
buried at Ruthin, it would seem to be of little significance when it 
is remembered that the village and church of Evenechtid are some 
two or three miles from Euthin, and that the terms " anchorite" or 
"anchoress" have been attached to persons leading a solitary as 
well as religious life, rather than to those dwelling, for the same 
object, together in community. 

I am, Sir, yours truly, Howel W. Lloyd. 

Postscript.— The original passage in Newcome's Memoir of Gabriel 
Goodman, printed at Ruthin, 1825, is as follows: "Reginald de 
Grey, the first Lord Grey de Ruthyn, came here about the year 1282, 
the first grant to him bearing that date. This grant must have 
somewhat interfered with the rights of the Bishop of Bang(jr ; and 


Lord Grey being disposed to do tlie Clmvcli a service by founding 
a now college of secular clergy, the Bishop of Bangor (Anian) was 
induced to enter into an amicable ' Composition' with the temporal 
lord. This ' Composition' was preserved among the archives nt the 
Palace at Bangor, and is said to have been formerly lodged in Ruthin 
Church, and enrolled in a book of great antiquity called The Sivear- 
iuq Bowlce oftho Town of Euthin. The most material feature of tliis 
'composition' is that the Bisliop stipulates not to ordain any of 
Lord Grey's vassals without his permission, as that act would eman- 
cipate them ; and to have the liberty of enjoying [?] without molest- 
ation the goods of deceased nuns ; the administration of the tempo- 
ral goods of the Ladies of Gwytheriac Nunnery being, as it appears, 
a bone of contention between the temporal and spiritual lords." 

The publication of so remarkable an instrument as this " Compo- 
sition" would be veiy desirable, and may possibly be effected by the 
aid of the Bishop of Bangor or of the authorities of the Cathedral. 
Its meaning can scarcely be determined without a knowledge of the 
precise year of its execution and reference to the historical events of 
the time, in which, being one of confusion, landmarks and limits of 
TDronerty were not always rigorously adhered to. 
^ ^ ^ H. W. L. 

gj[ij_I fear I did not express myself with sufficient cxplicitncss 
in my query relating to this subject, as Mr. Brash appears to have 
misunderstood my meaning. "What I said, or at least intended to 
say, was, that I should be thankful if Mr. Brash would vefer me to 
some of the passages in the writings of the Welsh bards in which 
boar-worship is alluded to. It is useless to refer me to such a work 
as Davies' Mythology and Eites of the British Druids. A person who 
could find every line in the Gododin referring to the imaginary 
" Treachery of the Long Knives", supposed to have taken place at 
Stonehenge in the time of Hengist, and discover the Deluge, with 
its concomitants, in almost every pool of water, could of course see 
allusions to boar-worship in any passage of an obscure author where 
it might be convenient to find them. 

I remain. Sir, yours truly, W. H. P. 


Sir, — Excellent and instructive as is Mr. J. Rhys' commencement 
in your last number of liis glossary of " Welsh Words borrowed 
from Latin, Greek, and Hebrew," I am anxious to enter a protest as 
early as possible against the assumption that nearly all of the ex- 
amples specified are so derived ; whereas proof of no more than a 
common origin is adduced, leaving it more than possible that the 
Greek, Latin, and Cymric forms may all have been derived from an 
earlier root pre-existing in some branch of the common Aryan 


tongue. lu the case of aUt, "a hill", for instance, it is difficult to 
conceive that the primitive Cymiy should have been destitute of an 
expression for so common an object until after the arrival of the 
Eomans. And so far from the word becoming f/allt by the subse- 
quent assumption of a prothetic g, it appears to me more probable 
that the prothetic letter was originally c, from a form which became 
coUis iu Latin ; next g, as in gallt ; and finally allf by the rejection 
of the g, iu which shape it is preserved iu its aspirated Welsh and 
its Latin uiiaspii'ated form. 

Not to multiply instances,! must acknowledge that I see no reason 
why such words as arch, arian (Gr. upyvpoi'^, arf, asyn, atir, harf, 
are to be considered similarly as godsends from the Eomans to 
the Cymry. Such primitive terms must surely have descended to 
all alike from some exceedingly early forms of their common ances- 
tral language. I am unfortunately ignorant of Sanscrit, but should 
think it not improbable that it would be found to contain the roots 
of many such words. Examples of Sanscrit roots of Greek and 
Latin words are to be found in abundance in White's edition of 
Riddle's Latin Dictionary, and in Scott and Liddell's Greek Lexicon. 
Similarly with regard to Irachium (Gr. fipay^lwv, in which x contains 
the aspirate), I am at a loss to comprehend why the i in the original 
stem, ppiix', should be assumed, iu the successive stages of deriva- 
tion, to have been lost in hrech, to reappear in Lreich and braich, if 
not merely to comply with the requirements of the theory in ques- 
tion. Were the Cymry, indeed, indebted to the Romans for the 
discovery of tlie u.';e of their bodily as well as military arms, since on 
their conquest by Iheni they had still to learn the simple term to 
describe them by? Again, which is the more probable, that the 
Welsh word had, " a boat", is derived from the mcdiasval Latin word 
haittis, or lattus from bad; originally, doubtless, bat? Does Mi\ 
Rhys mean us to understand that the Cymric is a later form of 
Aryan than the Latin and Greek ? 

I remain, yours truly, Howel W. Lloyd. 

ardjrrological flotcs anti ^Queries. 

Query 21. — iloR Upd. — IsMorUdd, the Welsh designation of the 
English Channel, equivalent to the 3Iare Iciiuni, Itium, or ledum 
of Latin writers ? The word udd signifies in Welsh a lord or king, 
and Mor Udd may be literally translated " the king's sea or channel." 
The same channel is, I believe, called Muir 'n-Icht by the ancient 
Irish annalists. Meiuion. 


fHisrellanrous i^ottccs. 

I^Iemokuls of the Civil War. — It may interest our readers to leara 
that the Rev. John Webb of Tretire, who united to the accurate 
research of an antiquary the learning of a sound scholar, and -u-ho is 
so well known to the pviblic by his introduction to Billioilteca Glou- 
cestrevsis (1821), a scries of tracts relative to Colonel Massey's gal- 
lant defence of the city of Gloucester ; and as editor, for the Camden 
Society, of the Household Roll of Bi<lop SiobifieU, and of the il//7t- 
tary Memorials of Colonel John Bi)xh, left at. bis death a manuscript 
entitled Memorials of the Civil War heiireen the King and the Parlia- 
ment from 1641 to April 164-5, particularly as it affected Hereford- 
shire and the adjoining English and Welsh counties. This work is 
the result of a long life's study to elucidate the local history of this 
momentous period, and so contains an abler and more comprehen- 
sive view of the subject than has hitherto appeared, or is likely to 
appear, from another pen. His son, the Eev. T. AV. Webb, has 
arranged the manuscript for publication in two volumes octavo, with 
many illustrations. Price to subscribers, £1:11: 6. It is satisfac- 
tory to add that many names are already on the subscription list, 
and that a few more will suffice to launch a work which we confi- 
dently recommend as worthy to fill a place in the Ubraries of the 
members of our Society. Subscribers' names are received by the 
publisher, Mr. Hull of Hereford. 

"T Gee.\l." — We are happy to announce that the Greal, being 
the first instalment of the Selections from the Hengwrt MSS., with 
translations and notes by Canon Williams of Rhyd y Croesau, is now 
in the press, and that the first half-volume is expected to be ready 
about Christmas. Having some years ago had the opportunity of 
reading the nnique MS. at Peniarth, we can assure all lovers of 
Cambrian medifeval lore that the volume is one of extreme interest. 
Whoever the writer was, he must have been a most consummate 
master of idiomatic and elegant Welsh diction. 

The late Rev. John Baxnister, LL.D. — We much regret to find 
that Dr. Bannister, Vicar of St. Day, Cornwall, and author o( A 
Glofsarij ofCorniah Names, is numbered among the dead. He expired 
on the "30th of August last, aged fifty-seven. Though not a member 
of our corps, we cannot allow his removal to pass altogether un- 
Dotioed, as any diminution iu the number of the small band of 
Celtic scholars is a loss that cannot but be deplored. Dr. Bannister 
was, at the time of his death, engaged upon two or three works 
beai-ing on the ancient language of Cornwall, which he intended to 
publish, and to which we called attention in a late number of this 

Cnmbn'ciu ^rcljafolacyiral assort'ation. 






The preliminary arrangements had been effectually carried out by 
tbe Local Committee, consisting of the following gentlemen : 



The Eev. Sir G. F. Lewis, Bart., Harp- 
ton Court 
Sir John Walsbam, Bart., Knill Court 
Henry Ayre, Esq., Knighton 
E. W. Banks, Esq., Eidgebourne, 

Capt. James Beavan, Presteigne 
Eev. James E. Brown, Knighton 
H. O. Brown, Esq., ditto 
E. Coates, Esq., Combe House, Pres- 
C. J. Covernton, Esq.. Knighton 
A. W. Criohton, Esq., Broadward 
Eer. James Davies, Moorcourt 
Eev. E. L. Davies, Knighton 
E. M. Erans, Esq., Llwynbarriod 

Eev. E. J. Green. Leiutwardine 
J. Green, Esq., Kington 
G. A. Haig, Esq., Pen Ithon 
Eev. Benjamin HiU, Norton 
C. B. Lomax, Esq., Pen v Bonfc 
J. P. Medlicott, Esq., Knighton 
Eev. D. E. Murray, Brampton Brian 
Thomas Peters, Esq., Knighton 
G. H. Phillips, Esq., Abbey Cwm Hir 
E. D. G. Price. Esq., Nant y Groes 
Eev. T. Owen Eocke, Chmgunford 
Eev. John Eogers, Stanage Park 
Isaac Eutter, Esq.. Knighton 
Eev. T. J. Tbirlwall, Nantmel 
Eev. AV. W. Vaughan, Llandeglay 
Stephen W. 'Williams, Esq.,Ehayader 


C. J. Covernton, Esq. Stephen AV. AVilliams, Esq. G. Green, Es 


Eev. J. E. Brown H. O. Brown, Esq. 


J. P. Medlicott, Esq. 


AA'illiam Banks, Es J. AV. Oakley Banks, E.sq. 

4th ser., vol. IV. 27 



The General Committee met at the hour of seven, when the Eeport 
was read and approved of, after which the Meeting was opened by 
Professor Babington in the absence of the out-going President, 
Sir Joseph K. Bailey, who had been prevented coming by important 
business of a public nature at Hereford, and written to express his 
regret at not being able to attend, and in person introduce his suc- 
cessor, the Hon. Arthur Walsh, into the chair. Mr. Babington, after 
alluding to the agreeable JMceting of the past year at Brecon, and 
the untiring services of the President in promoting its unqualified 
success, invited the in-coming President to occupy his chair. 

The President, after heartily welcoming tlie Society to tlie county 
of Radnorshire, expressed his fears that his slight acquaintance with 
the subject rendered him hardly qualified to preside over a meeting 
of archffiologists. That he had not better qualified himself in thi.s 
respect was not because he was indifferent to the study and science 
of archreology. On the contrary, he fully appreciated its value 
and importance. When he recollected how much archa?ologists 
have in former days done towards laying open to our views facts 
which had remained concealed for ages, and which might have still 
been unknown but for the labours and researches of men devoted 
to the subject, all must acknowledge how great a debt of gratitude 
they owe to such men and such a study. It was owing to the labo- 
rious researches of men like Belzoni in Egypt and Layard in Assyria 
that we know, to some extent, the history of past ages in those 
countries, beyond what might be learnt from the Sacred Writings, 
the statements of which have been in so many instances so wonder- 
fully confirmed by discoveries of actual memorials of the earliest 
times. To such men and such a science he thought all must feel 
deeply grateful. Of course this country could not boast of such ob- 
jects of interest and importance as those he had named, yet he 
thought that the Association could not have fixed on a spot in the 
British isles in which they would find more objects of interest which 
would amply remunerate them for their exertions. The greater 
portion of those objects would recall to their minds the time when 
this island was not a united whole as at present, but a scene, 
through its length and breadth, of fierce conflicts and intestine wars. 
Nor was there any district which contained more numerous or finer 
examples of those strong works which crowned the summits of its 
highest and steepest hills ; where, no doubt, the last struggle of 


Caractacus was fonglit, altliougli it may not have been satisfixctorily 
determined on which of them the fatal event did really occur. 
Leaping over seven hundred years, they found the Britons still 
struggling against their Saxon ioes, and the latter erecting the vast 
embankment known as OffiVs Dyke, extending from the lower Severn 
to the Dee ; important remains of which, not far from where they 
were then assembled, would be visited in the course of the proceed- 
ings of the week. It was in this county also that Owen Glyndwr 
nnluccessfully headed his countrymen in his insurrection against 
the house of Lancaster ; while near it, in the adjommg county of 
Hereford, the victorious Lancastrians were in their turn crushed at 
Mortimer's Cross. He would not detain them longer, as he was 
inclined to follow the advice once given by a veteran statesman to 
a youno- aspirant of parliamentary honours, namely, to speak only 
of what he knew. He hesitated, therefore, to enter on subjects with 
which those present wore so much better acquainted than he coiild 
pretend to be. He thought, however, that with fair weather the 
visitors would, in the coiu-se of their cxcnrsions, have an opportu- 
nity of visiting remains which would amply repay the time and 
exertion expended in their careful examination. 

Mr. Barnwell was then called on by the President to read the 
following Report : , ,, . ,,. 

"Your Committee congratulate the members on their assembling 
in a district which, notwithstanding its archajological attractions, 
does not appear to have received that c.ireful examination with 
which so many other parts of Wales have been explored by the 
Society. That Society having nearly reached the thirtieth year of 
its exi fence, it has be'en sometimes assumed that^ it must, by this 
time, have completed the work for the doing of which it was origin- 
ally established, and must have visited every district m Wales that 
was worth visiting. The presence of the Association m Knighton 
is a sufficient answer to one of these assumptions ; whi e the other 
s no less refuted by the additions still constantly made of disco- 
veries of interest, which, from their remote and secluded situations, 
have been hitherto known only to those who ived m their imme- 
diate neighbourhood. Hence it may be legitima ely inferred that 
lad this Society existed some seventy or a hundred years back, it is 
mpossible to imagine how much of what has since utterly perished 
nTiu-ht have been preserved either in actual existence or m faithful 
des°cr pE and illustrations. As the same work of destruction is 
SSo- on, although it is to be hoped with less vigour and heed- 
lessness ?han in former times, the use and importance of a Society 
devoted o the preservation and illustration of antiqm les must be 
evideii to and ou-ht to be appreciated by those who think that a 
knowkd'e of past° times and manners is of some value as regards 
botl tlie°pre ent and the future. Our Society, therefore may justly 
cla m to be considered as deserving well of Wales as ic has collected 
in Ihe numerous volumes of the ArchceoIogiaCarnhrens.s such a mass 
of valuable and miscellaneous information. 


'•Among the most important circumstances of tlic past j-car is the 
defeat of a barbarous attempt. 'J'hc same attempt had been pre- 
viously made more than once, but was on each occasion success- 
fully opposed by the better educated and more influential mem- 
bers of the Corporation of Tenby. This contemplated barbarism 
was the demolition of the medieval walls of the town, and especi- 
ally the great south gate, the most interesting part of the ancient 
defences. Lately, however, from some unexplained cause the attempt 
was repeated ; and this time being approved of by a majority 
of the Council, the work of destruction would have at once com- 
menced but for the interference of certain persons, among whom 
were members of this Association, who appealed to the Court of 
Chancery, and obtained an injunction to stop all action in the matter. 
The Association, together with other leading societies, had on the 
former occasions publicly protested against the destruction of these 
remains ; but, as appears, with no permanent effect ; and but for the 
spirited action of these gentlemen, the irreparable mischief would 
have been perpetrated. Your Committee, under the circumstances, 
think that the public thanks of the Association should be tendered 
to those who have thus come forward in the cause. 

" During the past year the Society has lost two of its oldest mem- 
bers, who have been closely connected with its earliest days. One 
of these is the Rev. Dr. Wilson, formerly President of Queen's Col- 
lege, Oxford ; the other the late Mr. Eees of Tonn, to whose ener- 
getic and effective services the Association has been so many year.s 
indebted. Those who were present at the last Annual ISIecting need 
not be reminded how much the success of that Meeting was due to 
the prominent part he took in all the proceedings. 

"Tour Committee regret that they are not able to announce that 
any decided progress has been made as regards the publishing the 
incised stones of Wales, beyond that Professor Westwood has re- 
commended the employment of the autotype process. Since the 
last Report names of new subscribers have been added to the list; 
which, however, is still very far from the number required. These 
additional names are those of the late Wm. Eees, Esq. ; M. Gaidoz ; 
Thos. Powell, Esq., Llanwrtyd, Breconshire ; Miss Wynne Edwards 
and Miss M. C. A. Wynne Edwards of Rhuddlan ; P. A. Griffiths, 
Esq., Oskosk in the United States ; the Rev. Watkin H. Williams of 
Bodelwyddan, St. Asaph ; Rev. E. Jones of Llannefydd (two copies) ; 
and Miss M. Jones of Penmaen near Machynlleth. The whole num- 
ber of names is thirty-one ; the number required being at the least 
one hundred and fifty. The whole work will be probably completed 
in three parts, the price of each part being half a guinea. 

" The first volume of the Eevue Celtcqne, by M. Gaidoz, is now 
complete, and may be procured on application to cither of the 
General Secretaries. 

"The Churches and Castles of Denhlghshire, by Messrs. R. Lloyd 
Williams and Underwood of Denbigh (mentioned in the Report of 
last year), are now completed, and fully bear out what was then 


stated concerning them. If such an excellent example could bo fol- 
lo\ved out in the other counties of the Principality, there would bo 
secured a record of ecclesiastical Wales of the present day, — an 
acquisition of so much importance at a time -svhen our primitive 
and ruder churches are being swept away to be replaced by others 
built too often without the least reference to local stylo or pccu- 

"Another important addition to our Welsh histories is the now 
nearly completed one of the diocese of St. Asaph, by one of our 
members, who has shown, by what has been already published, how 
well qualifiod he is for such a work, without which no library in 
Wales can be considered complete. 

" Tour Committee regret that they are not able to report favour- 
ably as to the intended index of the Third Scries of the Arclmologia 
Camhrensii', no otFers from members having been made since last 
year; while those who had offered have not, with very few excep- 
tions, sent in the result of their labours. 

" The number of members still continues to increase, and the 
general state of the Association is in all respects satisfactory ; but 
your Committee would suggest that the Local Secretaries as well 
as the members in general should never foil to communicate to the 
Secretaries or Editorial Committee all new discoveries as they occur. 
From want of such diligence and care much valuable information 
has been lost, which should have found its way to the pages of the 
Archceologia Gambrensis. 

" Your Committee cannot conclude their Report without alluding 
to the ileeting held at Brecon last year under the presidency of 
Sir Joseph R. Bailey. That Meeting was not only highly successful 
as regards the interest of the objects visited, the value of the com- 
munications, and the pleasant excursions, but also in the increased 
interest excited in the district, as evinced by the numerous additions 
then made to the list of members, and recorded in the Report of 
that Meeting. Among others to whom the Society is indebted for 
this success" must be named the President, who infused into the 
Meeting generally much of that heartiness and spirit which he him- 
self displayed in superintending the pi-ocecdings. Tour Committee 
would, therefore, propose that the thanks of the Association be given 
to Sir Joseph R. Bailey for his most efficient services, and also for his 
courteous hospitality. , , , 

"Tour Committee suggest also that Lord Clermont be elected 
one of the Patrons of the Society ; that Sir Joseph R. Bailey, Bart., 
M.P., and the Venerable Archdeacon Ffoulkes, and G. T. Clark, 
Esq., be elected Vice-Presidents. .,. .^ .,^^. , _ 

" The retiring members of the Committee are, J. W. Nicol Carne, 
Talbot Bury, a°nd E. A. Freeman, Esquires ; and your Committee 
recommend that these gentlemen be re-elected. 

"The following members have joined the Association since the 
last Report was ilsued, and now await formal confirmation of their 
election : 


South Wales. 
" T. W. Higgins, Esq., Gwyddfa, Pen y Bonf, Radnorshire 
Kev. Lewis Price, Viear of Llywcl, Brecoushire 
J. R. Cobb, Esq., Brecon. 

North Wales. 
Mrs. Lloyd Roberts, Tan yr Allt, Llaudalas, Abergele. 

T. Walter Evans, Esq., Liverpool 
Rev. W. V. Lloyd, H.M.S. WeUh,gfo7i." 

Professor Babington moved that the Report be adopted and 
printed. He congratnlated the members on its very satisfactory 
character, and thought that no one conld refuse to acknowledge how 
much good service the Society had done to Wales by the numerous 
volumes it has published. In the pages of the Arcltceohgia Cam- 
hreiisis an immense deal of valuable information had been recorded, 
and would, therefore, be preserved for future generations. Even at 
the present day farmers were anxious to clear their fields of stones, 
however valuable they might appear to antiquarians, and hence the 
irreparable loss of such monuments must go on with more or less 
activity. The same maj' be said of our ancient churches, or rather 
of their restorations, during which details of interest were often 
swept away without the slightest apparent reason, and which might 
have remained as unquestionable evidences of what the original 
building had once been. He therefore repeated his conviction that 
it was of the highest importance that some such record should 
exist, and that the Society in thus recording was doing a veiy good 

The motion having been put was carried, after which Sir. JM. H. 
Bloxam, at the request of the President, read some notes on the 
little mountain church of St. Patricio, four or five miles from Crick- 
howel, which will be printed in the Journal. The most remark- 
able things in the church are two stone altars, which have been, 
rood-loft ones, being the only two such altars Mr. Bloxam has 
found -iti situ. There is also a singular adjunct at the west end of 
the bnilding, which the speaker conjectured to have been a redusor- 
ium or donium indiisi, the residence of an anchorite. Here also was 
a stone altar in sitit. Mr. Bloxam also alluded to the curious effigy 
of a pilgrim in the church of St. Mary, Haverfordwest. This has 
an outer dress over the tunica talaris; and suspended by a strap 
over the right shoulder is the scrip, or pilgrim's bag, on which are 
represented the usual escallop shells. The bourdon, or staff, appears 
under the right arm. 

Mr. Barnwell, thanking Mr. Bloxam for his valuable information, 
observed that one great advantage of meetings like the present one 
was that light was often thrown in an unexpected manner on difEi- 


cult points and former errors. Tins ^yas tlio caso with the efSey 
in St. ifary's, Haverfordwest, which has been described in the 
ArcJiKologiix Cambrensis as of the fourteenth century, and represent- 
ing a merchant with his purse ; the shells having been, in the 
obscure light, mistaken for the conventional heraldic forms of ships. 

The Rev. D. R. Thomas made a communication from Mr. John 
Rhys of Rhyl, one of the Inspectors of Schools in Wales, respecting 
the well known inscribed stone of Aimilixvs, described in the 
Archccologm CJamhrens;s, ISS-S, p. 46. This stone, now in Pool Park 
near Ruthin, and opposite Lord Bagot's house, was removed some 
years ago from its original situation, about two miles distant, on a 
mount which is apparently not artificial, known as Bedd Emlyn. 
Mr. Rhys and Mr. Thomas have carefully examined the stone, and 
think S precedes A, making it the name SAmrLixvs; bu.t the sup- 
loosed S is part of the curiously formed A of debased character, but 
totally unlike the A in the other part of the inscription, ToviSACi, 
tlie Latinised form of Twysog. These gentlemen, however, did 
make the very curious discovery that the stone has decided Ogham 
characters ; a fact that escaped the notice of the members who 
visited the stone during the Ruthin Meeting, as well as of those who 
have examined it frequently. As far as could bo made out, the 
Ogham characters did not give the same reading as the Roman 
ones. This is supposed to be the first discovered Ogham inscribed 
stone in North Wales : those already known are in the southern 

A short discussion on the Ogham question sncoceded, and was 
followed by a paper on the great Camp of Wapley, which the Rev. 
James Davies of Moorcourt contributed, and which is printed in 
this number of the Journal. This gi-and work was visited by the 
Association from Kington in 1863, and is briefly described in the 
Report of the Meeting of that year. Mr. Davies pronounced a 
very decided opinion that it was not a mere temporary retreat 
from hostile neighbours, such as may be referred to an earlier date 
than the Roman invasion of this country. Its more numerous 
and more formidable defences were on the eastern side, as if the 
principal danger was expected in that direction; and was, as sug- 
gested by Mr. Davies, one of the successive lines of defence formed 
b}' Caractacus as he gradually retired towards the west,' — a line of 
which the Severn and earthworks on the Malvern range were pro- 
bably the foremost defences. It was remarkable as containing a 
spring of water said not to fail in the hottest summer. In the 
Report of 18G3 the desirability of having an accurate pLan made of 
the Camp is mentioned, and this has been done by the liberality of 
Mr. R. W. Banks of Ridgebourne, who has presented it to the Asso- 
ciation. ^ 

The usual notices of the proceedings of the next day were then 
announced by Mr. R. W. Banks, and the meeting terminated. 



The first portion of the day was devoted to the examination of a 
scries of grand earthworks which effectually command the district. 
The first of these fortresses examined was that of Castle Cwm Aran, 
which appears to have been originally a native work, and subse- 
quently transformed into an early mediaeval stronghold. The Aunales 
Gamlrice (p. 59), under 1195, state, "Eogems de JMorluo Mart cas- 
telluni Cameron (Cwm Aran) finnavit"; thereby inferring that a 
castle existed previous to that date, and which Taa.y, perhaps, have 
been a native stronghold, of which it has the usual characteristics. 
The Castle now existing consists of a central work nearly eighty 
yards long, and of oval form, surrounded on all sides by a strong- 
fosse, except on one side, the base of which is washed by the Arran 
brook, and is naturally too precipitous to require any artificial de- 
fences. An outer eutrenchmeiit surrounded the whole, both extreme 
ends of which terminated on the edges of the cliff. Below is a flat 
circular space, a kind of outer ballium, and which is undoubtedly a 
later addition to the original work, and most probably the work of 
the Norman lord. 

About a mile to the west is another ancient work of the same 
early character, but much more extensive. It is circular, and in- 
cludes a space of at least twelve acres. It is called Castle Bank in 
the Ordnance Map. An outer liue of entrenchment protects the 
western side, in which is situated the entrance. 

In the same direction (westward), on the lower part of the slope 
surmounted by the Gaer, is a large enclosure which forms a kind of 
outwork to the fortress above ; or if the fortress was occupied as a 
permanent residence, it might have been an enclosure for the cattle 
of the inhabitants. The Gaer itself is probably the finest example 
of this type of hill-fort in 'Wales. The form is a rectangular oblong, 
the angles having been somewhat rounded ofl', which circumstance 
seems to have induced the author of the History of RadnorsMre to 
assign its construction to the Romans. They may have subsequently 
held it as a strong post; but no one who is acquainted with such 
works can doubt its origin. Its situation, commanding the nar- 
row valley of the Ithon, along which the Eoman road runs, must 
have made it of great strategical importance while the country was 
still unsettled. It has been supposed by more than one competent 
judge to have been the scene of the final struggle of Caractacus 
with the Romans. Xor is the conjecture unsupported, as its situa- 
tion and local accidents correspond to the description of Tacitus 
better than any other of the claimants for the honour, and especially 
the three which bear the name of Caractacus : but none of which 


could have well been tlie scene of tbc engagement, if the account of 
Tacitus is to be considered tolerably accurate. 

As stated, a Roman road passes immediately under the liill, and 
leads direct to the church of Llauddewi ; but this portion is now a 
deep ditch, in places overgrown with briars and weeds, the more 
nioderu path running close by and parallel to it. The church of 
Llanddewi has been rebuilt, and contains nothing of interest. The 
late Norman south doorway has also been replaced, but with some 
of its members i-eplaced in a bungling manner. 

There are the remains of a good wooden ceiling of the Tudor 
period in a house near the church. 

Here the carriages met those who had visited these lull castles, 
and proceeded to Abbey Cwm Hir, where the members were re- 
ceived with cordial hospitality by Mr. G. H. Phillips. The remains 
of the Cistercian Abbey consist of little more than portions of the 
walls of the nave. The late Rev. W. J. Rees of Casgob, in his able 
account of the Abbey in the Archceologia Camhreneis of 18-19, 
thinks that the choir was never built, and that the services were 
held in the eastern end of the nave. Leland says of it, " that no 
church iu Wales was to be seen of such length, as the foundations of 
walls there begun showed"; but he further on states that the third 
part of the work was never completed. Mr. Rees, however, says 
that " there were no traces of the foundations of walls of the eastern 
side of the transept, nor any of those of the choir, which had been 
beoun were to be seen ; so that the whole length in Leland's time 
caSnot be ascertained. The length of the nave at present is 242 feet. 
The six rich thirteenth century arches in Llanidloes church, and 
eno-raved in IMr. Rees' account, are said to have been brought from 
tins Abbey ; but it has not been stated whether the bases of the 
piers have been compared with the remains of those at Cwm Hir, 
and until this has been done the accuracy of the tradition cannot 
be tested The few piers and mouldings still remaining in the ruins 
of the Abbey are plain but good examples of thirteentli century 
work The property was purchased in 1833, when the owner cleared 
away" the rubbish which had remained so long undisturbed m such 
a secluded district ; the sites of the abbot's apartments and other 
portions of the conventual buildings were then laid bare ; but no 
plan seems to have been made of them, and they have either been 
removed, or are still under ground. , -d <• 

At the evenincr meeting, in the absence of the President, Frotessor 
Babino-ton occupied the chair, and commenced the proceedings by 
some observations on the principal features of the day s excursion, 
and more particularly the great camps. Although these were usu- 
ally called British, he did not think the actual dates of them could 
br/even suggested. They may have been, and probably were, ante- 
rior to the Roman period ; but were, no doubt, subsequently used as 
strongholds during the later struggles between the Normans and 

Mr.' Bloxam referred to the remains of Cwm Hir Abbey, and 


thought that much adiliticmal information concerning the orig-innl 
arrangements and buildings may be yet ascertained by judicious 
excavations of the ground. 

The Rev. James Davies alluding to the Gaer, stated that he 
thought it was probably the last of the various lines of defence 
against the Romans advancing from the east, and that it was pro- 
bably here that the final victory was won by the invader. He 
mentioned that Doan Merivale, after a careful examination of the 
supposed sites of the engagement, had come to the same conclusion 
as himself, as would appear by an extract from the Dean's Histo,-i/ 
of the Romans under the Einjyire, which he read. 

Mr. Baniwell, while acknowledging that the situation of the Gaer 
corresponded to a considerable extent with the description of Taci- 
tus, thought that unless stones had been caiTied at much cost of 
labour to form the walls of defence mentioned in Tacitus, the 
defences must have been of earth rather than stones ; for had these 
formed the main defences, as occurs in well known cases in North 
and South Wales, i-emains of these stones would probably have 
existed. Their entire absence may, to some small extent, militate 
against the views of Mr. Davies on the Caractacus question. 

Mr. Bloxam suggested that the fact of no remains of Roman arms 
having been found at the Gaer, argued nothing against the theor>- 
that this was the scene of so important a battle ; for it was a well 
known fact that although other Roman relics were constantly dis- 
covered, that of military arms was of exceedingly rare occurrence. 

Mr. Stephen Williams of Rhayader read a paper on some of the 
Radnorshire churches, which will appear in the Journal. These 
of Llanbadarn Fynydd, Llanano, and Llanbister, were particularly 
noticed, accompanied with numerous drawings and photographs. 
In the last mentioned church a considerable part had been screened 
off for the purposes of a schoolroom, — a custom, he thought, not 
uncommon in Radnorshire. He alluded to what had been lately 
done for the illustration of the churches in Denbighshire by the ad- 
mirable work just issued by Messrs. Lloyd Williams and Under- 
wood of that county, and he hoped that the inhabitants of Radnor- 
shire might have the same done for their county. 

Professor Babington, in thanking Mr. Williams for his paper, 
heartily endorsed what he had said respecting the importance of 
such a work as that of the Denbighshire churches, a copy of which 
was then lying before him, and well worth the careful examination 
of those who were present; and he knew no one better qualified 
than Mr. Williams himself to undertake the Radnorshire churches 
in the same manner, and he hoped that the gentlemen of the county 
would give him tbeir effective support. 

Mr. Bloxam directed the attention of the members to two sepul- 
chral effigies in St. David's Cathedral, which had hitherto not been 
recognised as being those of archdeacons, as denoted by the manner 
in which the stole was worn. 

The Rev. D. R. Thomas read a paper on the boundaries and iden- 


tificah'ons of certain abbey lands, entitled " Jloiiachi de MocLrader." 
Til is will appear in the Journal. 

INIr. Ernest Hartland followed with an account of Llowes Cross 
near Hay, whicli will also be found in the present volume. 


After crossing the boundaiy into Shropshire, the first halt made 
was at the base of the hill surmounted by a strong camp known as 
Caer Caradoc as well as the Gaer Ditches. The latter name may 
be called the correct one, as the fortress cannot well have been the 
scene of the last struggle with the Romans, unless the description 
of Tacitus is to be entirelj^ set aside. The camp is, however, a fine 
specimen of its class. It is nearly circular, and, as in some other 
instances, seems to have had an eastern and western entrance. The 
west side being more accessible, had three strong lines of defence ; 
that on the east only two. The extensive prospect it commands 
must have made the work of importance as an outlook. 

Clun Church nest attracted attention. It is a fine late Norman 
church with several interesting details. It has, however, undergone 
many alterations at various times. During the fifteenth century the 
north aisle was added, so that the Norman clerestory windows 
opened into it. At the east end of this aisle is a curious square 
canopy attached to the ceiling, and overhanging the altar below. A 
southern aisle has also been added ; but the eastern portion of it 
was destroyed during the civil war, and was never rebuilt. The 
remaining portion of this aisle seems to have been divided into 
chapels, but some uncertainty exists as to their use. The handsome 
wooden roof of the north aisle is of the fifteenth century. The south 
doorwfiy, of the thirteenth century, is not the original one, having 
been built at the time when the addition was made to the south 
aisle. Near it, on the left, in the exterior wall, is a monument of 
the fourteenth century. Other examples of such exterior tombs 
were noticed in the district. The pier-arches lean inwards to a most 
remarkable extent. They have, however, been in this position so 
long that no danger is anticipated. The font is of late thirteenth 
century, and there is a considerable quantity of the original oak 
benches preserved. The l^'ch-gate is ancient, but in a very neglected 
state ; as, indeed, may be said of the church in general, which does 
little credit to the taste and piety of those who are responsible. 

The remains of Clun Castle consist of a square, lofty, massive 
tower, built in one of the angles of, and forming part of the defences 
of the inner baily. Of the wall which surrounded the baily onlj' a 
small portion remains near what was the gateway, the ruins of which 
still exist. The outer baily, which is very extensive, has probably 
been defended by earthworks only. The castle is said to have 
been built in the time of Henry III, but has the appearance of being 


somewhat eai-Iier. Another account assigns it to tITe time of ytepheii. 
Tliere is a hospital in tlie village, founded in IG14 for fourteen j)oor 
brethren and a warden. The buildings consist of a quadrangle liaving 
a small chapel in one of the angles. There are several early remains 
of earthworks near the town, but these were not visited, for want of 
time. The principal inn is the "Buffiilo", and the same name occurs 
elsewhere in the district. As the animal does not appear in heraldry, 
the suggestion of the Rev. James Davies that this animal was 
adopted as a sign in honour of the Buffaloes, first imported from 
India by Lord Clive, does not seem improbable. 

On the return homo a short halt was made at Clunbury Church, 
which is principally Norman. Here also, as at Clun, is a tomb in a 
recess of the e.xterior wall, and under a window of two lights of 
somewhat unusual character, both being of tho fourteenth century. 

Hopton Castle, the last object visited in the excursion, consists of 
a square well-proportioned tower, having mouldings of the four- 
teenth century. As Henry H gave Walter de Clifford a castle 
here, it must have been replaced by the present structure. The 
outer works are extensive, but there are no remains of walls. It was 
intended to have ascended Coxwall Knoll, but the visit was put otf 
iintil the next day. There was no meeting in the evening. 


Coxwall Knoll is one of the heights which have disputed the 
lionour of being the scene of the great battle, and its claims 
have been supported by no less distinguished authorities than 
General Roy and Sir R. C. Hoare. This hill is detached and is 
divided into two summits b}' a kind of gorge running across 
it. On the north and east sides where the ascent is not very steep 
several entrenchments have been made ; but on the south side, next 
the Teme, and which is very steep, there do not appear to have been 
any artificial defences. There is, however, no higher ground to 
which the defeated Britons could have retreated, mentioned in 
Tacitus. The hill, however, is so densely wooded that any accu- 
rate examination of the position in a limited time was hopeless; 
but as far as could be made out, no remains of stone defences are 
discoverable. The question has been ably discussed in the Archceolo- 
gia Gambretisis of 1851 by Mr. W. W. Ffoulkes, who argues very 
fairly for the Breidden Hill, near Welshpool, which does i-etain 
to this day remains of formidable stone defences occurring here and 
there where the ascent is easier. 

Brampton Brian Castle and Church were next inspected. Both 
have been fully described by Mr. R. W. Banks in the journal of 
1867, the illustrations of which article are here reproduced for the 
benefit of those members who may have more lately joined the As- 
sociation. The present parish church stands on the site of an older 



! ' \ 



:^ ^) 



I M 


in I 



one, tliG only remains of ^vllich is a tomb of a female holding a heart 
in her hands, and ivhirh Mr. Banks thinks represents the daughter 
and heir of Brian of Brampton, who conveyed the estate bj°nar- 
riage to the Harleys, as the only coat of arms not obliterated is that 
of Brampton. Of the original castle only a gateway and a frag- 
ment of tlie main building remains, in fi'ont of which latter an addi- 
tion of the Tudor period was made. The earliest portions are of the 


time of Edward III. The building was, however, originally much 
more extensive than the present ruins would indicate, for in the 
cellar of the modern house, partly above ground and to the north- 
west, are portions of the old wall with a doorway and window, ac- 
cording to ^fr. Banks' statement, as owing to the absence of the 
occupier access (o this part was impossible. Mr. Banks read to the 


members some interesting details of the liistory of the castle, some 
of which have already appeared in the Journal. Brandon camp was 
to have been examined, but a view from a short distance was 
all that time permitted. It is well known as a Roman camp, ad- 
joining a branch of Watling Street. A. halt was made at Leint- 
wardine, a small village within a large square enclosure of decidedly 
Roman character, and conveniently situated on the junction of the 
Teme and Clun. A considerable number of Roman remains of various 
kiuds have been found here, some of which are in the hands of 
Mr. Evans, the intelligent clerk of the parish. The proximity of 
two such Roman camps is unusual. The church, with the exception 
of the tower, has been restored. The tower is one of very fine pro- 
portions and height, and very unlike the general character of tho 
church towers in the district. 

The remains of Wigmore Abbey, now occupied as f;irm premises, 
were examined. The only perfect portion is the great barn described 
by Mr. Blore in the Journal of 1871, and illnstrated by an engraving 
from his pencil, where also will be found views of the north and 
south sides of the great hall, together witli the entrance in the farm- 
yard, from the ready and accurate pencil of Mrs. Stackhouse Acton. 
A window in the abbot's hall from a drawing by ilr. Blore has also 
been given, but the ball itself has been much mutilated and subdi- 
vided by modern partition. In the end wall of what is now the 
dining room various fragments of shafts, capitals, and mouldings 
have been inserted, all of which are portions of the original abbey, 
founded for Augustine canons by Ralph Mortimer and his son Hugh 
beforell79. All traces of the abbej- itself have long since vanished, 
but no doubt some may be made out by excavating in the field in 
front of the present house, the irregular surface of which indicates 
the remains of buildings. A detached building in the grounds, or 
rather a portion of one, is of the fourteenth century, and part of the 
lofty wall that onee surrounded the whole still remains in the garden. 
There are one or two other ruined buiklings, the nature and use of 
which is uncertain. The entrance to the present promises is a good 
specimen of the time about 1350, according to Mr. Blore, who as- 
signs the abbot's house, church, and castle of Wigmore to the same 
period, although some portions of the church are certainly anterior 
to that date. The great barn also represented in the engraving, 
although devoid of all architectural detail, is also referred by Mr. 
Blore to the same date. A large stone drain was inspected, as 
doubts as to its real character are said to have been raised. Some 
talk of its being part of an underground communication with the 
Castle. It is simply a huge drain carefully constructed, and show- 
ing how much importance was in those days attached to such an 
appendage. The examination of Wigmore Castle and church con- 
cluded the day's excursion. 

The castle in its original state must have been an extremely 
strong fortress, both from the nature of the ground and the artifi- 
cial defences. It was no doubt originally a stronghold of the caili- 

:nightox meeting. — repoi 


est occupiers of the district, and still retains its 'Wolsli name. A 
castle certainly existed here before the Norman occupation, for Ed- 
ward the Elder is recorded to have repaired it. The earlier work 
was probably identical with the keep, part of which is destroyed, 
but which occupied the summit of the hill. Below this was a large 
square building surrounded by high walls, almost a castle of itself, 
wliich was connected with a cross wall at its lower side, dividing 

I 1 ^ r=>-"'7' 







__ -^.^^^^ 



the main castle into two parts. In the lower part is the great gate- 
way, also a third fortress in itself, the whole being surrounded with 
a lofty curtain, protected by square and round bastions. Outside the 
castle is a raised work, but separated by a gorge, now devoid of 
buildings, but formerly well protected, and forming a strong barbi- 
can or some similar outwork. In addition to all this, strong 
embankments, at some distance, ran down the slopes towards the 
moor or marsh below, through which runs AUcox brook. Part of 


the moor is still named Wigraore Lake, so that these lines of em- 
bankments extending from the top of the hill to the marsh mnst 
have rendered the approach of a large body of enemies very diffi- 
cult. Wigmore Church consists of an earlier and later portion, the 
one being probably coeval with the first of the Mortimers and prior 
to the foundation of the abbey. The rest of the church, with the 
exception of some later alterations, is probably of the fourteenth 

At the evening meeting the President occupied tlie chair and 
called on Professor Babington to make some few observations on the 
objects of interest they had seen during the last two excursions, on 
the conclusion of which Mr. Stephen Williams after some introduc- 
tory remarks read some notes on some of the churches of Radnorshire, 
■which were copiously iilastrated by drawings and photographs. Ho 
again drew attention to the valuable work of Messrs. Lloyd Wil- 
liams and Underwood of Denbigh, exhibiting in detail the churches 
and castles of Denbighshire. The President on thanking Mr. Wil- 
liams expressed a hope that he might be induced to undertake the 
■work, for the proper performance of which no one was better quali- 
fied. This proposal from the chair met with the hearty approbation 
of the -members present, several of whom at once expressed their 
■n-ish to support the work if Mr. Williams would undertake it. Mr. 
Elosam addressed the meeting on the same subject, giving it his 
hearty approbation and support. Mr. D. R. Thomas also gave in 
his adherence to the proposal, remarking that Mr. Williams enjoyed 
the same especial advantages with the two Denbighshire gentlemen 
as holding the office of county surveyor. With reference to an ob- 
servation of Mi\ Williams on the fact that a part of Llanbistor 
Church v\-as screened off as a schoolroom as somewhat singular, 
Mr. Thomas reminded him that before the erection of separate 
buildings for schools it had been the common practice to hold the 
school in the parish churches, a portion of them being generally but 
not invariably- screened off for the purpose, and that it was a mis- 
take to suppose that because there was no schoolroom there wei-e 
no schools in the parish. 

Mr. Barnwell read the diary of a coachman -who escorted his 
mistress from Buckinghamshire through London to Siston, near 
Bath, in the year ] 712, passing through Abnry, where he alludes to 
the conversion of a sabbath-breaking cobbler by his narrow escape 
from one of the huge masses of stone falling on hira, as it was 
shivered into fragments just after he had quitted his seat. Mr. 
Barnwell alluded to the many instances in this country as well as in 
Prance where such sabbath-breakers have been suddenly changed 
into these large stones. The Abnry legend so far varies from the 
usual one, which may be perhaps accounted for that few of those 
masses could by any imagination be supposed to have been fossil- 
ized men or women, whereas some menhirs might admit of the idea. 

A paper of the Rev. T. O. Rocke on the Clungunford Tumulus 
was taken as read, on account of the lateness of the hour. 


The usual votes of thanks were then proposed to the Local Com- 
mittee for their efficient services in making the preliminary arrange- 
ments of such a successful and pleasant meeting; to which the 
chairman, Mr. Green Price, of Norton Manor, responded, express- 
ing the satisfaction he had in welcoming the Association, and re- 
nuestinc' that he might have the pleasure of receiving them at his 
house to-morrow. Mr. W. Banks and Mr. W. C. Banks also ac- 
knowledged the vote. 

Thanks were also voted to the curators and contributors to the 
museum by Mr. R. W. Banks, who entered at some length into the 
advantage often derived from such temporary museums. 

Mr D R Thomas in seconding Mr. R. W. Banks alluded to 
the Welsh almanack of 1761 exhibited by Mr. Wood, which con- 
tained amonn- other curious information a calendar of the holidays 
dedicated toUie old Welsh saints, in addition to one dedicated to 
Kinc' David (a painting of whom was formerly to be found m almost 
eveiT Welsh church), and strange to say one to Adam and Eve, to 
whom the 24th of December was dedicated, probably thus placed to 
exhibit more distinctly the Fall and Redemption of Man. ^ 

The President then announced the closing of the meeting, whicli 
^vas the last public one, the meeting on Friday being confined to 
members only, and devoted to the private business of the Associa- 

Excursion, Friday, August 11. 

The day's work beo-an with an inspection of Knighton Church, 
which with the excepnon of the tower, is, both inside and outside 
as inferior and unsightly a structure as is often seen at the present 
cW especially in alown. It might be difficult to make anything 
of tiie outside without rebuilding the church from the ground ; but 
y^-hy the interior is left in its present condition was not ascertained. 
The ace of the tower may be of either the fourteenth or the fafteen h 
centuiy, as there are no particular details to guide. It is certainly 
not Saxon, as locally suggested. , ^ . i ii i 

Monaughty, or rather Mynachty, where the first halt was made, 
is a large^Ehzabethan house of plain character, two views of which 
will be found in the Arclueologia Camlrensis, p. 569 (185b), bemg 
the supplemental portion of Williams' Bistonj o/Ea*m,-s7«r. issued 
n that year. There is no evidence of any rehgious establish- 
ment haiing occupied the ground on which the house now stanc^ 
nor does the present mansion appear to have been built out of the 
material of any pre-existing house. Apart of the estate indeed, 
Tecoidnc^ to Jonathan Williams, is still called "Clog" which sig- 
nifies a "grange", it being one of the grants of Roger Mortimer of 
March ami Wl^more to Cwm Hir Abbey. It may also have been 
;o called be ause the last abbot of that establishment was allowed 
to end his days in this spot, according to t^-/^^,^^,^? ^ftK' 
Mr. Williams, however, disposes of the question by a=,.eiting that 

4th SKR., vol. IV. 


the origiiiEil name was not Monachty, but Jlonad-ty, ?'. c, " the soli- 
tary house", and its isolated position even now corresponds to this 
name. The earliest proprietor of -whom any authentic account pre- 
vails, was James Price, High Sheriff for the county in 1552, and 
cither he or his son may have built the present house. The oaken 
panelled work, of which there are some considerable remains, is 
about a hundred years later, and of a type which seems to have 
been in fashion in this and the adjoining county of Shropshire. A 
helmet and pike or spear, of the time of James I, probably relics of 
the civil war, are preserved in one of the principal rooms. The pre- 
sent owner, Mr. Richard Green Price, produced a letter of a former 
owner, Mr. Chase Price, who in 17GG directed his tenant to pre- 
pare apartments for Rousseau, who wished to find some quiet and 
secluded residence, but who afterwards changed his mind, and 
found a refuge somewhere in England; but probably only for a 
short period, as he married in 1769. 

Pilleth Church is one of the plain, rude churches of the district, 
consisting of chancel and nave, with one of the low, diminutive 
towers almost peculiar to this part of the county. The font is of the 
fourteenth century, and is probably older than the church, which 
appears to be of the fifteenth. The old parish chest, as is frequently 
the case, is cut out of a solid mass of oak. Attached to the church 
is a spring, now choked up by rubbish, but formerly in great I'epute 
for its sanitary power. 

Below the chui-ch is a mansion of the Elizabethan period, now 
used as a farmhouse. There is some good panelled oak here of the 
same character as that at Monaughty. 

In this parish, and not far from the church, was fought, in 1402, 
the battle in which Glj^ndwr overthrew the forces of Mortimer, and 
made him his prisoner. Remains of the earthworks said to have 
been then thrown up are reported to be still in existence, but they 
were not visited by the excursionists. 

In the lower ground beneath the old mansion, partly concealed 
by underwood, is an earthwork which appears to have been a forti- 
fied mansion of very early date ; but whether it is to be referred 
to a very early mediffival date, or what is popularly called "ancient 
British times," is uncertain. Near it, or rather almost forming part 
of it, is a mound, rather too small to have served as part of the 
defences of the work. It has the appearance of being sepulchral. 
It is, however, too much suri'ounded with shrubs to enable any care- 
ful examination to be made of it. 

Whitton Church, the next visited, is of the same date and charac- 
ter as Pilleth Church ; but retains its screen, of later date. The 
south wall of the church has at some period given way, and inclines 
inwards, but not sufficient to make its rebuilding necessary, the 
restoration of the church being likely soon to be carried out. 

From Whitton a pleasant drive brought the carriages to Norton 
Manor House, where a most hospitable reception awaited the mem- 
bers. At the conclusion of the luncheon Professor Babington re- 


turned the thanks of the Association to their host, Mr. R. Green 
Price ; and after Jlr. Price's reply, and one or two speeches, followed 
by a short discussion on the Caractacus question, the visitors dis- 
persed among the picturesque grounds commanding a charming 
view in the distance. Others climbed up a kind of ravine which led 
to the remains of the ancient manor house, for the present one has 
not been built many years. The most interesting part is the poi-ch 
and parts adjacent, which are of late fifteenth century work or the 
early part of the sixteenth. 

Norton Church has been lately restored by Sir Gilbert Scott. 
Its wooden belfry, as well as that of Knighton, will be found repre- 
sented in the Archceologia Camhrcmis of 1864. The church is one of 
the ordinary character, but of larger dimensions, and altogether 
superior to those seen in the course of the day. 

It was intended to traverse a part of Oifa's Dyke ; but the pro- 
tracted hospitality of Norton Manor House rendered this impossible. 

The meeting concluded in the evening, when the necessary busi- 
ness of the Association was transacted. 


TuE objects exhibited were not numerous, but mostly of consider- 
able interest. 


1. A flint arrow-head of remarkably small size. 

2. An oval stone hammer pierced for handle, and measuring 8 by 

3J inches. This was found in a peat-bog near Abbey Cwm 
Hir. S. W. Williams, Esq., Rhaiader. 

3. Small, well-worked celt of dark brown chertz, found near Knigh- 

ton. R. W. Banks, Esq. 

4. Portion of stone moriartum from Clungunford tumulus. 

Rev. T. O. Rocke. 

1. Dark green paalstab, the loop of which, from faulty casting, was 

not pierced. As the implement seems to have been used, it 
would appear that the owner of it did not attach much import- 
ance to the loop, as he would probably have pierced it. 

S. W. Williams, Esq. 

2. Spear-head, lOj inches long, and well preserved. 

3. Ditto, Gh ins. long; imperfect, and roughly used. 

4. Ditto, 5'ins. long ; imperfect, but having unusually large rivet- 

6, 6, 7. Portions of three spear-heads. 


8, 9. Two portions of a sword (leaf-shaped), one of them being- 
much bent. 

10. The end of a sword, 12 ins. long. In its present state the point 
does not gradually taper to its extremity, but swells out; into a 
kind of leaf, and terminates with a sharp point. The above nine 
articles were found in cutting a drain in the old Pooihole on the 
Oakley estate, near Bishop's Castle. Rev. T. 0. Rocke. 

The various spear-heads, ferules, etc., forming the Broadward find, 
described in the ArcJueohgia Gamhrcnsis for 1872. lu addition 
to these were the pierced tang of a sword and a fused mass 
of different articles : among them the lower end of a bronze 
scabbard, similar to those of the Powis Castle collection. 

A pin, 4f ins. long, from Clnngunford tumulus. 

Eev. T. 0. Rocke. 

A number of fragments of pottery of various qualities and kinds, 
mostly from Clungunford. Some of thorn have ornaments of 
the circle with central disc, such as occur on stones and rocks. 
Others have narrow, parallel fillets. Found with these earlier 
and uncertain fragments were specimens of green glazed medi- 
feval ware. 

A lamp of burnt earth from the upper stratum of ashes, containing 
charcoal, bones, etc. "With them were found fragments of iron. 
Rev. T. 0. Rocke. 


1. Basket-hilted sword, iemji. Charles I, and apparently Scotch. 

Found at Treheslog, Radnorshire. 

2. Rapier-like sword of the same date. English. 

3. Dress-sword with ornamented handle and hilt, of the eighteenth 

century, or perhaps the latter part of the seventeenth century. 
S. W. WilHams, Esq. 

4. Gouteau dc cliasse with cnrved blade and rough horn handle, appa- 

rently of the early part of the eighteenth century. 

W. Banks, Esq. 

A piece of rich jewelled embroidery of the time of James II, repre- 
senting the meeting of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. 

A carved oak chair with crown, from the chamber of Council House 
of Shrewsbury, and said to have been used by Charles 1 in 
council. Thos. Peters, Esq. 

Welsh almanack, 1751. In the calendar a day is dedicated to King 
David ; and another, Deccember 24, to the honour of Adam 
and Eve. The first of the series was issued in 1749, the second 
in 1751 ; and it was continued until 1755, when it ceased until 
it reappeared in 1758, after which it ceased to exist. 

A manuscript course of lectures on the Gospel of St. Matthew, by 
a rector of Presteign in the time of Charles 11. 

A collection of Japanese and Egyptian implements and ornaments, 
by the Rev. J. B. Brown. 




Richard W. Banks, Esq., Ridgebourne 

George A. Ilaig, Esq., Pen Ithon . 

George H. Philips, Esq., Abbey Owm Un 

Rev. James Davies, Moorcourt 

Rev. Sir Gilbert Lewis, Bart. 

Sir John Walsham, Knill Court 

Rev. Benjamin Hill, Norton 

Rev. E. J. Green, Leintwavdme . 

Mrs. Stackhouse Acton, Acton Scott 

R. H. Wood, Esq. • • 

Rev. T. Owen Rocke, Clungunford 

Rev. T. J. Thirlwall, Nantmel 

J. Percy Severn, Esq., Pen y Bont Hall 

Rev. John Morgan . • 

Richard Green Price, Esq., Norton Manor 

Edward Coates, Esq., Combe Hall, Presteign 

Thomas Peters, Esq., Knighton 

Henry Ayre, Esq. 

Isaac Rutter, Esq. 

£ s. d. 
2 2 
2 2 


£ s. d. 

By subscriptions 
By sale of tickets 

£ S. d. \ , .-,,,. rL 

=■0 15 I Printing and stationery . 3 lb U 

"5361 Hire of room . . ■ 1 1^ f' 

Postage, carriage, etc. .13 7 

- . . 19 7 2 


£25 IS 6 I 
Examined andfonnd correct. 

(Signed) J. Meplicott, Treas\ 
W. Banks _ | 


W Oaklet Banks > Members of Loccd Committee. 

James Bctteb ) 

C. C. Babi.nqton, Chairman of General Committee. 

Oct. 23, 1873. 



6, U? 



Adertanat, 253 

Ancient monuments, preserva- 
tion of, 209 

"Annals of the Counties and 
County Families of Wales" 
(Dr. Nicholas), review of, 209 

Answers to queries, 106, 207 

Antiquarian rambles among the 
Monmouthshire Hills; Ramble 
11, 98 

Antique ring, 30-4 

Archajological Notes and Queries, 
106, 206, 290, 391 

Archa3ology, Russian, 213 

Bannister (Dr. John), Cornish 
works by, 301 ; his death, 392 

Barry Island, description of some 
cairns on, 188 

Beaumaris Church, 327 

Bedd Ligach, 106 ^ 

" Beunans Meriasek", review of, 

Bledrwys or Bledrws, 106, 207 

Blodwel, 252 

Boar-cultus inWales,200,287,390 

Boar-worship in Wales, 200, 287, 

Bones, human, found at Butting- 
ton, 214 

Bordau, Ynys y, 135 

Brecon Priory, 208, 294 

Brecon, short account of the 
Church of St. John the Evan- 
gelist at, 294 

Brampton Brian Castle, 405 
Bredwardiue Cromlech, the, 275 
Bridell Stone, the, 103 
Bridell Church, 105 
Bridgend, coped coflfin-lid at, 102 
British inscriptions, 74, 197, 289, 

British Museum, MSS. at, 216 
Broadward find, supplementary 

note to the, 80 

— letter on the, 202 

Bromfield, history of the lordship 

of, 59, 108, 205, 240, 305 
Bronze period, 213 
Bryn, township of the, 305 
Buarth Ddu, 137 
Buttington, Montgomeryshire, on 

somehumanbones found at, 214 
"Bye-Gones", notice of, 301 

Cacr Ogyrfan, 240 

Caersalem, 207 

Cairns on Barry Island, Glamor- 
ganshire, 188 

Cambrian Archfeological Associ- 
ation, 294 ; Report of Meeting 
of, at Knighton, 393 ; expendi- 
ture and receipts of, for 1872, 

Cantref Rhaiadr, 316 

Cantref Trefryd, 67 

Cantref Uwchnant, 59 

Capella (Martianus), Old Welsh 
Glosses on, 1 

Caractacus, his resistance to the 
Romans, 338 



Cath Balng, 20S, 290 

Cefn y Gaer, 137 

" Celtic Remains", the, 29-4 

Celtic remains in Kent, 112 

Charter by Eichard III as Lord 

of Glamorgan, 78 
Charters, the Conway, 108 
" Charters of the borough of 

Swansea," 111 
Chirk-laud, history of, 59,240,305 
Circle, stone, near Bedd Taliesin, 

Circles, 201 
Civil war, memorials of the, 111, 

Coffin-lid, Bridgend, 192 
Collectanea, 112, 213, 301 
" Collections Historical and Ar- 
chaeological relating to Mont- 
gomeryshire", 212 
Conquest of South Lancashire by 
the English, on the date of, 236 
Constantinople, 207, 292 
Conway charters, 108 
Coped coflan-lid, Bridgend, 192 
Cornish works in preparation, 301 
Coi-respondence, 98, 197,285,383 
Corrigenda, 108 
Corstinabyl, 207, 292 
Cromlech at Ty Mawr, Anglesey, 

meaning of the word, 27 

at Bredwardine, 275 

Cross at Llowes, Radnorshire, 321 
Cwm Du, 201, 290 
Cymric philology, studies in, 139 
Chwilfyuydd, 2l)2 

Date of the conquest of South 

Lancashire by the English, on 

the, 236 
Deerfold Forest, discoveiy of 

some remains of the ancient 

chapel in, 335 
Deffl-o Bain, 291 
Deffrobani, 206, 291 
Denbighshire, high sheriffs of, 

Description of some cairns on 

Barry Island, Glamorganshire, 

Dinas, 136, 137 
Dinas Bach, 130 
Discovery of some remains of the 

ancient chapel in the Forest of 

Deerfold, 335 
Discovery of a tomb at Llanfach- 

reth, ]\Ierionethshire, 213 
Discovery of pile-dwellings near 

Leipzig, 216 
Divisions of the principality of 

Powys Fadog, 59, 2-40 
Drewen, T, or Whittiugton, 310 
Duddleston, 265 
— Pentref Madog in, 256 
Duloe, Cornwall, megalithic circle 

at, 45 
Dyserth, early inscription at, 289 

Early inscriptions at Dyserth, 289 

Efenechtyd, Denbighshire, the 
wooden font at, 101 

Eneas, 207 

Expenditure and receipts of the 
Cambrian Archaeological Asso- 
ciation for 1872, 30-4 

Father of Edward Lhwyd, 107 

Folklore, Welsh, 288 

Font, the wooden, at Efenechtyd, 

Denbighshire, 101 
Forest of Deerfold, discovery of 

some remains of the ancient 

chapel in, 335 
Francis (Col. Grant), " Charters 

of the Borough of Swansea", 11 
Franks (A. W.) on the bronze 

period, 213 

Giants' graves in the Island of 

Sylt, Schleswig, 304 
Glamorgan charter, 78 
Glosses, the Pi-iscian Ogham, 105 
. Old Welsh, on Martianus 

Capolla, 1 



Gospels of Mac Ournau, 213 
Gotoberg-i, query respecting, 292 
Grail (Holy), on the origin of, 112 
Grave in Weulock Abbey, 374 
Grave of Ligach, 106 
Graves, giants', in the Island of 

Sylt, Schleswig, 304- 
Greal, Y, 392 
Greek, Welsh words borrowed 

from, 259, 355 
Gwytheriac Nunnery, 204, 388 

Hebrew, Welsh words borrowed 
from, 258, 355 

Heneglwys, inscription at, 290 

Heufachau, 318 

Highsherifirs of Denbighshire,108 

History of the lordship of Maelor 
Gymraeg or Bromfield, the 
lordship of lal or Yale, and 
Chirkland, 59,108, 205,240,305 

" History of the Diocese of St. 
Asaph", by Rev. D. R.Thomas, 
notice of, 212 

Holy Grail, M. Paulin on the ori- 
gin of, 112 

Holt, near Wrexham, 209 

Humbledon Hill, supposed Celtic 
sepulchre discovered at, 303 

lal or Yale, history of the lord- 
ship of, 59, 240, 305 

Incised stones, early Welsh, 107, 

Index to Old Welsh Glosses on 
Martianus Capella, 20 

Inscribed stones of Wales, 285, 

Inscriptions, British, 74, 289, 386 

Kilpeck Castle, 50 

Knighton, Annual IMeeting of the 
Cambrian Archasological Asso- 
ciation for 1873, at, 294, 393 ; 
Report of the Meeting held at, 

Kunaston, township of, 307 

Lancashire (South), on the date 

of its conquest by the English, 

Latin, Welsh words borrowed 
from, 268, 355, 390 

Ligach, grave of, 106 

" Long Ago", notice of, 110 

Loventium : its geographical po- 
sition, and reasons for assign- 
ing it to Llandovery, 113 

Lukis (Rev. W. C.) on the French 
chambered barrows, 112 

Lussowa, Posen, urns and lacus- 
trine dwellings discovered near, 

Llandovery, reasons for assign- 
ing Loventium to, 113 

Llandrindod, Roman station at, 

Llanddew, notes on the parish 
and church of, 277 

LlaDcrfyl, inscription at, 590 

Llanfachreth, discoveryof a tomb 
at, 213 

Llanfihangel Cwm Du, 201, 290 

Llangynfelyn, Cardiganshire, 
stone circle in the parish of,272 

Llanio, the supposed Roman Lo- 
ventium, 113 

Llowes, Radnorshire, notes on a 
cross at, 321 

Lhvyn y Maen, 249 

Llyu Caws, 208 

Llr.vyd (Edward), the father of, 

his letters in the " Li- 

thophylacii Britannici Ichno- 
graphia," 292 

ilac Ournan, Gospels of, 213 
Maelor Gymraeg or Bromfield, 

history of the lordship of, 59, 

108, 205, 240, 305 
Maesbrwg, 308 
Manawyddan, query respecting 

the name, 106 
Mansel, Sir Robert, Knt., Vice- 

Admiral of England, 31, 217 
Martianus Capella, Old Welsh 

Glosses on, 1 



Cleaning of flio word "Crom- 
lech,'' 27 

Meeting of the Cambrian Archae- 
ological Association at Knight- 
on, 204-, 393 

Megalithio circle at Duloe, Corn- 
wall, 45 

Meini hirion in chui-chyards. 106 

Memorials of the civil war, 111, 

Merioneth, priraasval, 84 

Miscellaneous notices, 107, "208, 
293, 392 

Mochrader, Monachi de, 365 

Monachi do Mochrader, 365 

Monmonthshire, notes of anti- 
qnarian rambles among the 
hills of, 98 

Montgomeryshire, collections his- 
torical and archiBological re- 
lating to, 212 

Monuments (ancient) preserva- 
vation of, 209 

Mor Udd, 391 

Morgan fOctavius, Esq., M.P., 
F.R.S.), "Account of the An- 
cient Monuments in the Priory 
Church, Abergavenny," re- 
view of, 212 

Museum at the Knighton meet- 
ing, 411 

Mythology, Welsh, 288 

"Nasnia Cornubiaj," review of, 

Nantgyndanyll, query respect- 
ing, 208 

Nevern Rock-cross, the, 370 

Newborough, sepulchral slabs at, 

Nicholas (Dr. Thomas), "Annals 
of the Counties and County 
Families of Wales," review of, 

Note, supplementary, to the 
Broadward find, 80 

Notes and queries, archfeologi- 
cal, 106, 206, 290, 391 

Notes on a Radnorshire cross, 321 

4th s'ES. vol. IV. 

Notes on the parish and church 

of Llanddew, Brecknock, 277 
Notes of antiquarian rambles 

among the Monmouthshire 

hills, 98 
Notices, miscellaneous, 107, 208, 

293, 392 
Norris (Edwin), obituary notice 

of, 96 

Obituary, 96, 381. The lato 
Lady Frances Vernon Har- 
court, 95 ; Mr. Edwin Norris, 
96 ; Mr. William Rees, 381 

Ogham glosses, the Priscian, 105 

Ogyrfan, Caer, 240 

Old Welsh glosses on Martianus 
Capella, 1 

On the megalithic circle at Du- 
loe, Cornwall, 45 

On the Welsh records in the 
time of the Black Prince, 157 

On the date of the conquest of 
South Lancashire by the Eng- 
lish, 236 

On some of our British inscrip- 
tions, 74, 197 

Our British inscriptions, 197 

PaliBOgraphy, 301 

Piilug, Cath, 206, 290 

Paulin (M.) on the origin of the 
Holy Grail, 112 

Pentref Madog in Dudleston, 256 

Pentyrch, Carnarvonshire, 154 

Pen y Gaer, 136 

Phillips (John Roland), "Collec- 
tion of Papers and Letters on 
the Civil War," 111 

Philology, Cymric, 139 

Pile-dwellings, discovery of, near 
Leipzig, 216 

Poverty of the Welsh clergy, 200 

Powys Fadog, divisions of _the 
principality of, 59, 210 

Preservation of ancient monu- 
ments, 209 

Prcssuir, 208 

Pricstholm, 232 




Pi-ima2val Merioneth, 84 
Priscian Osjham glosses, the, 105 
Puffiu Island, 332 

Queries, luG, 20G, 290, 391 

Radnorshire cross, notes on a, 321 
Rambles among the Jlonmouth- 

shire hills, 93 
Records (Welsh) in the time of 

the Black Prince, 167 
Bees (William), obituary notice 

of, 381 
Report of the meeting of the 
Cambrian Archasological As- 
sociation held at Knighton, 393 
Reviews, 109, 209, 294 
Rliaiadr, hundred of, 316 
Rhoswnog in Powys, 319 
Rhydy Gors, IOC 
Richard III as Lord of Glamor- 
gan, charter by, 78 
Ring, antique, 304 
Roman station, Llandrindod,287 
Roman remains at Silchester,302 
Rook-cross at Nevern, Pembroke- 
shire, 370 
Russian Archasology, 213 
Ruthin, earthenware pitcher 
found near, 303 

Scotobergi, query respecting, 292 

Sepulchral slabs, Newborough, 
Anglesey, 270 

Silchester, Roman remains at, 

" Short Account of the Church 
of St. John the Evangelist at 
Brecon," review of, 294 

Sir Robert Mausell, Knt., Vice- 
Admiral of England, 31, 217 

" Some Account of the Ancient 
JNlonuments in the Prioi-y 
Chureh,Abergavenny," review 
of, 212 

South Lancashii-e, on the date of 
the conquest of, by the Eng- 
lish, 236 

Statement of expenditure and 

receipts of the Cambrian 

Archa?ological Association, 334 
Stokes (Whitley), his edition of 

" Beunans Meriasek," review 

of, 298 
Stone articles, unexplained, 348 
Stone circle, near Bedd Taliesin, 

Studies in Cymric philology, 

Subscriptions to the local fund 

of Knighton meeting, 413 
Sup])lementary note to the 

Broadward find, 80 

Tenby walls, the, 293 

Thomas (Rev. D. R.), " History 
of DioceseofSt. Asaph," notice 
of, 212 

Traian, 315 

Trebennau, 137 

Trefryd, 67 

Treiorwerth tumulus, 195 

Treuddyn, Flintshire, 202 

Trewen or Whittington, 310 

Tumulus at Treiorwerth, Angle- 
sey, 195 

Twr Gron, 207 

Twrch Trwyth, 206 

Ty Mawr, Anglesey, Cromlech 
at, 22 

Unexplained stone articles, 348 
Uwchnant, cantref, 59 

Vernon-Harcourt (the late Lady 
Frances), obituary notice of, 95 

Wales, inscribed stones of, 285, 

289, 386 
Want of accuracy in Welsh books, 

Wapley Camp, 338 
Webb (Rev. John), his memorials 

of the civil war, 391 



"Welsh books, want of accuracy in, 

glosses on Martianus Ca- 

pella, 1 

incised stones, 107 

— ■ clergy,poverty of the, 200 

■ mythology and folklore, 


— ■ words borrowed from La- 
tin, Greek, and Hebrew, 258, 
355, 390 

Wenlock Abbey, grave in, 374 

Whittington, lordship of, 310 
Wooden font at Kfenechtyd, Den- 
bighshire, 101 

Yale, history of the lordship of, 
59, 240, 305 

Y Bryn, 305 

Y Drewen, or Whittington, 310 

Y Greal, 392 
Ynys Greigiog, 107 
Ynys y Bordau, 135 



Bodowyr and Ty llawr Cromlechs ; 

Duloe Circle, Cornwall 

Seal of Richard HI . 

Cwm Bychan Pass . 

Pen yr Allt 

Eemains of House at Hengwm 

Hengwm .... 

Cist in Smaller Cam at Hengwm 

Hengwm.- — Ruins in Cromlech north of the Wall 

Loventium, or Llandovery Roman Station 

Pentyrch, Carnarvousliire 

Squared Chamber at Pentyrch 

Sectional View of Parapet, ditto 

Section through Cairn, Barry Island 

Urn, Barry Island 

Tombstone, Bridgend 

Sepulchral Slabs, Newborough 

Bredwardine Cromlech 

Mound near Alexauderstone, Llanddew 

Church at Llanddew 

Gothic Arch, Llanddew . 

Cross in Llowcs Churchyard . 

Wapley Camp, Herefordshire 

Nevern Rock-Cross . 

Plan of Lady Chapel, Wenlock Abbey . 

Vessel found in the Lady Chapel, Wenlock 

Brampton Brian Castle, Bay Window 

Monument in Brampton Brian Church . 







Portion of Urn from Dnloe .... 40 

Arms of Madog ab ileredydd . • .59 

Uncertain Object from Broadwavd . . .81 

Small Urn from Broadward . . • .83 

Fragmout of Urn from Treiorwcrth . . . 196 

Bead from ditto . . . • . VM 

Various Shields, to illustrate the Lordships of Bromtield, etc. 249-55 
Font of the 12th century, at Llanddew . . . 281 

Stoup from Church at Llanddew . . . 281 

Small Norman Window, Chapel in Deerfold Forest . 337 

Unexplained Stone Article .... 319 

Ditto ...... 350 

Ditto, found in Moat of Stokesay Castle . . 35-i 

Plan of Brampton Brian Castle . . - -105 

Entrance Towers, ditto .... 407 

Cambnau Slrcljacoloflifnl 2)l^£>ociation. 





The Most Noble the Marquis of Bute 

The Right Hon. the Ym\ of Powis {President 1856) 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Cawdor 

The Right Hon. the Lord Viscount Hill 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of St. David's {President 18o9) 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Llandaff 

The Pught Rev. the Lord Bishop of Bangor 

The Right Hon. the Lord Boston 

The Right Hon. the Lord Bagot 

The Right Hon. the Lord Penrhyn 


Sir J. R. Bailey, Baet., M.P. 


The Hon. A. Walsh, .M.P. 

The Very Rev. the Dean of St. David's, Principal of St. David's 

College, Lampeter 
Sir Stephen R. Glynne, Bart., M.A., F.S.A., Lord Lieutenant of 

Flintshire (/Vfs/f/fnn847, 1848) 
C.OctaviusS.Morgan,Esq.,M.P.,F.R.S F.S.A^(Pm,rf..^ 857) 
Rev J Wilson, D.D., late President of Innity College, O.xford 
C. R. M. Talbot, Esq., M.P., M.A., F.R.S., Lord Lieutenant of 

Glamorganshire ,„,„s 

W W. E Wynne, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. {President 1850) 
Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, Bart., M.P. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of St. Asaph 
The Very Rev. the Dean of Bangor 
Charles Wynne-Finch, Esq., M.A. {President 1860) 


H. Hussoy Vivian, Esq., M.P. {Presidtnt 18G1, 1862) 

Sir Pyers Mostyn, Bart. 

The Rev. Chas. Williams, D D., Principal of Jesus College, 0.x.forJ 

Edwin Guest, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A., Master of Caius College, Cam- 

George Ormerod, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

John Henry Scourfield, Esq., M.P., Lord Lieutenant of Haverford- 
west {President 18G4) 

E. F. Coulson, Esq. {President 18G8) 

Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson, D.C.L., F.S.A. 

The Hon. W. O. Stanley, Esq., M.P., F.S.A. 

A. J. Beresford Hope, Esq., M.P., M.A., F.S.A. 

The Ven. J. Wynne-Jones, Archdeacon of )i&-ngQx {President 1870) 


The President, with all those who have held that office ; the Vice- 
Presidents ; the Treasurer ; the General and Local Secre- 
taries ; and the Editorial Sub •Committee, with the following: 

J. W. Nicol Carne, Esq., LLD., F.S.A. 

Talbot Bury, Esq., F.S.A. 

E. A. Freeman, Esq., D.C.L. 

Joseph Mayer, Esq., F.S.A. 

Rev. Hugh Prichard, M.A. 

Dr. Griffith Griffith 

J. H. Parker, Esq., F.S.A., C.B. 

Rev. Edward Powell Nicholl, M.A. 

Ven. William Basil Jones, B.D. 

G. T. Clark, Esq., F.S.A. 

J. O. Westwood, Esq., M.A., F.L.S. 

C. C. Babington, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A. {Chairman) 


Rev. D. Silvan Evans, B.D. 

C. C, Babington, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., etc. 
Rev. E. L. Barnwell, M.A., F.S.A. Scot. 
Rev, Robert Williams, M.A. 

Joseph Joseph, Esq., F.S.A., Brecon 

Sir Stephen R. Glynne, Bart., M.A., F.S.A. 
C. Octavius S. Morgan, Esq., M.P., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
W. W. E. Wynne, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 


Rev. E. L. Barnwell, JM.A., F.S.A. Scot., Melksham House, Melk- 

Rev. Walter Evan.^, St. Lythau's, Carditt 


]r,.a,ice,—M. Didron, Rue Ilautefeuille, 13, Paris 

Britaiimj, — M. de Keranflech Kernezne, Chateau de Quelenec, Mur 

de Br'etagne, Cotes du Nord, Franco 
Scotland,— 3 o\i^ Stuart, Esq., General Register House, Edinburgh 
Ireland,— V,.ev. Jas. Graves, M.A., Ennlsnag, Stoneyfurd, Kdkenny 
Isle o/il/an,— Paul Bridson, Esq., Douglas 


M Aymar de Blois, Chateau de Foulquinan, Quimper, Finistere 
Le Vicomte Hersart de la Villemarque, Chateau de Keransquer, 

Quimper, Finistere 
M Pol de Courci, St. Pol de Leon, Finistere 
M. Francisque Michel, F.S.A., London, Edinburgh, etc. 
M. de Caumont, Caen, President of the Society of the Antiquaries 

of Normandy 



H R.H. The Prince of Wales, IMarlborough House 

Clermont, Lord, Ravensdale Park, Newry, Ireland 

Acton, Mrs. Stackhouse, Acton Scott, Church Stretton 

Allen, Thos., Esq., M.A., 1, Esse.x Court, Temple, London, E.G. 

Babington, Charles Cardale, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.L.S., 

F.G.S., Prof. Bot., Cambridge ^ ^ .„ ^ , ,,. ,.,, 
Baker, Charles, Esq , F.S.A., 11, Sackvl e Street, Piccadilly 
Barnwell, Kev. E. L., M.A., F.S.A. Scot., Melksham House, Melk- 

Bayly^Rev. F. Tumour, M.A., Brookthorpe Village, Gloucester 
Beamont, W., Esq., Warrington 
Bloxam, M. Holbech, Esq., F.S.A., Rugby 
Brash, Richard Rolt, Esq., M.R LA Sundays ^\ ell, Cork 
Bridgeman, Hon. and Rev. G. T. Orlando, M. A., Ihe Hall, Wigan 
Brio-stock, William, Esq., 53, Welbeck Street, London, W 
Bro^oks, W. Cunliffe, Esq., M.P,, M.A., F.S.A., Barlow Hall, Man- 
chester „ ^, , „ , , 
Brown, Right Rev. James, R. C. Bishop of Shrewsbury, Belmont, 


Bury, T. Talbot, Esq., F.S.A,, 50, Welbeck Street, London, W. 
CaiT, Ralph Ellison, Esq., F.S.A. Scot., Dunster Hill, Gateshead 
Cooke, W., E?q., Q.C., M.A., i, Elm Court, Temple, London, E C. 
Darby.shire, R. 1)., Esq., B.A., F.G.S., 26, George Street, Jlan- 

De la Borderie, M., Vitre de Bretagnc, Ile-ct-Vilaine, France 
De Keranflcc'h Kcrnezne, JNL, Chateau de Qucleuec, Mur de Bre- 

tagne. Cotes du Nord, France 
Diinkin, Mr. Alfred John, Dartford, Kent 

Edwards, Joseph, Esq., 40, Robert Street, Hampstead Road, Lon- 
don, N.W. 
Evans, John, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A., Nashmills, Hemel Hempstead 
Evans, Professor, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A. 
Fisher, Edward, Esq., The Shrubbery, Ovcrsdale, Asliby de la 

Freeman, Edward A., Esq., D.C.L., Somerleazc, Wells, Somer.-et 
Gaidoz, i\L H., 32, Rue Madame, Paris 

Gibb, Francis Thomas, Esq., Greenford, Southall, Middlese.x 
Gilbertson, Rev. Lewis, B.D., Braunston Rectory, Daventry 
Gore, Arthur, Esq., Melksham 

Guest, Edwin, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A., Master of Caius College, Cam- 
Hartland, Ernest, Esq., Oaklands, near Cheltenhanr 
Heaton, Rev. W. C, B.D., Aston Clinton Rectory, Tring 
Haywood, S., Esq., 171, Stanhope Street, Hampstead Road, Lon- 
don, N.W. 
Hinde, Miss Lloyd, 4, Edgar Buildings, Bath 
Hope, A. J. B., Esq., M.P., M.A., F.S.A., Bedgcbury Park, Cran- 

brooke, Kent 
Hudson, George, Esq., Free Public Library, Liverpool 
Hughes, William, Esq., 35, Hawley Square, Margate 
Jam'es, Rev. T., F.S.A., Netherthong, Huddersfield 
Jenkins, Rev. Canon, D.D., Aberdare, Glamorgan 
Jones, Ven. Archdeacon W. Basil, B.D., Bishopthorpe Vicarage, 

Jones, H. F. J. Jones, Esq., St. Mary's Coll., Oscott, Birmingham 
Jones, T., Esq., M.A., F.S.A., Cheelham Library, Manchester 
King's Inn Libraries, The, Dublin 
Lawes, Mrs., Manor House, Rochdale 
Le Keux, John Henry, Esq., 64, Sadler Street, Durham 
Le Men, M., Archiviste du Departement, Quimper, Finistere, 

Lloyd, Howel William, Esq., 11, iNIilner Terrace, Upper Chelsea, 

London, S.W. 
Mackenzie, John W., Esq., F.S.A. Scot., 16, Royal Circus, Edin- 
Mayer, Joseph, Esq., F.S A., Liverpool 
iMullens, J. D., Esq., Free Library, Birmingham 
Nicholl, Frederick S., Esq., 160, Harley Street, London, W. 
NichoU, Rev. Edward Powell, M.A., Parkside, Macclesfield 


Ormerod, George, Esq., D.C.L., F.H.S., F.S.A., Sedbury Park, 

Parker, John Henry, Esq., F.S.A., C.B., The Turl, Oxford. 
Parker, Rev. F. P., M.A., The Abbey, Daventry 
Picton, James Allanson, Esq., F.S.A., Sandy Knowe, Wavertree, 

Pierce, Mrs., The Friars, St. Michael Hamlet, Liverpool 
Prichard, Rev. R., M.A., Astbury, Congleton 
Protheroe, Miss, Chesterfield House, Clifton 
Richards, T., Esq., 37, Great Queen Street, London, W.C. 
Roberts, Chas. H. Compton, Esq., Sunnyside, Upper Avenue Road, 

Regent's Park, London, N.W. 
Rogers, Rev. R. R., M.A., 104, K.xmouth Street, Birkenhead 
Scott, Sir George Gilbert, F.S.A., 20, Spring Gardens, London, 

Skene, W. F., Esq., F.S.A. Scot., LL.D., F.S.A., 20, Inverleith 

Row, Edinburgh 
Spode, Josiah, Esq., Hawkesyard Park, Rugeley, StafTordshire 
Stuart, John, Esq., F.S.A. Scot., General Register House, Edin- 
Tomkins, I. G., Esq., Great Ouseburn, York 
Vale, H. H., Esq., Parkholme, Fairfield, Liverpool 
Waj', Albert, Esq., M.A., F.S.A , Wonham Manor, Reigate 
Wemyss, Mrs. General, Fremington Rectory, Barnstaple 
Westwood, J. O., Esq., M.A., F.L.S., Prof, of Zoology, Oxford 
Williams, Rev. Charles, D.D., Principal of Jesus College, Oxford 
Wilson, Rev. J., D.D., Woodperrv, Oxford 

Wood, R. H., Esq., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., Crumpsall, near Manchester 
Wright, T., Esq., M.A., F.S.A., 14, Sidney Street, Brompton, 




Boston, the Lord, 24, Belgrave Square, London ; Porthamel, 

Willoughby de Broke, the Right Hon. Dowager Lady, Plas 
Newydd, Bangor 

Stanley, the Hon. W. O., M.P., Penrhos, Holyhead 

Evans, Thomas F., Esq., Mona Lodge, Amlwch, Bangor 

Griffith, Miss Conway, Carreg Lwyd, Holyhead 

Griffith, J. Lloyd, Esq., M.A., Holyhead 

Lewis, Mrs. Hampton, Henllys, Beaumaris 

Mason, Rev. R. Williams, M.A., Llanerchymedd 

Wynne-Jones, J., the Ven. Archdeacon, M.A., Treiorwerth, Holy- 

Prichard, Rev. Hugh, M.A., Dinam, Gaerwen, Anglesey 


Prichard, Tliomas, Esq., Llwydiarth, Llancrchymedd 
Williams, Kev. W. Wynii, jun., M.A., Bodewryd, Rhos y Bol, 

Rev. W. Wynn AVilliams, juii., M.A., Bodewryd, Local Seers. 
Rev. R. -Williams Mason, M.A., Llancrchymedd 


Penvhyn, the Right Hon. the Lord, Lord Lieutenant of Carnar- 
vonshire, Penrhyn Castle, Bangor 

Bangor, the Lord Bishop of, Palace, Bangor 

Bangor, the Very Rev. the Dean of, Deanery, Bangor 

Barher, Henry, Esq., Penalt, Bangor 

Jones, Hugh, Esq., Old Vicarage, Carnarvon 

Luck, Richard, Esq., Llanfair Fechan, Bangor 

Parry, T. Love D. Jones, Esq., M.P., M.A., F.S.A., Madryn Park, 

Pilchard, R. H., Esq., Tan y Coed, Bangor 

Turner, Sir Llewellyn, Parcau, Carnarvon 

Turner, Thomas, Esq., Bryntirion, Carnarvon 

Rev. W. Williams, Cefn y Meusydd, Portmadoc 

T. Love D. Jones Parry, M.P., M.A., E.S.A., Madryn, Local Sec. 

Bagot, the Right Hon. Lord, Pool Park, Ruthin, and Blithfield, 

Rugeley, Staffordshire 
Wynn, Sir W. W., Bart., M.P., Wynnstay, Rhuabon 
Cunliffe, Miss, Pant yn Ochan, Wrexham 
Edisbury, E. F., Esq., Belgrave House, Wrexham 
Griffiths, T. T., Esq., Wrexham 
Hughes, Hugh R., Esq., Kinmael Park, St. Asaph 
Hughes, Rev. Reginald, j\LA., Glyn, Llangollen 
Hughes, Rev. T. J., M.A., Llanbedr, Ruthin 
Jenkins, Josiah, Esq., M.D., Ruthin 
Jones, Rev. Owen, Pentre Voelas, Conway 
Jones, Thomas, Esq., Llanerchrugog Hall, Wrexham, and Plowden 

Buildings, Temple, London, E.G. 
Kyrke, R. V., Esq., Nant y Ffrilh, Wrexham 
Lloyd, W.,Esq., Ruthin 

Lewis, John, Esq., Bechley House, Wrexham 
Mainwaring, Townshend, JLA., Esq., Gallt Faenan, Denbigh 
Noel, Rev. D., Eglwys Each, Llanrwst 
Korris, Thomas George, Esq., Gorphwysfa, Llanrwst 
Owen, Rev. R. Trevor, M.A., Llangedwin, Oswestry 
Parkins, W. Trevor, Esq., M.A., Alyn Cottage, Rossett, Wrexham 
Rhys, John, Esq., B.A., St. Asaph Street, Rhyl 
Rees, Rev. W. L)., Pont Fadog, Llangollen 


Sandbacb, Henvy R., Esq., Hafod Dunos, Llannvst 
Wickham, the Yen. Archdeacon, jSI.A., Gresford, Wrexham 
Williams, Rev. Robert, M.A., Rhyd y Croesau, Oswestry 
Williams, Rev. T., B.D., St. George's, St. Asaph 
Wynne-Finch, Charles, Esq., M.A., Voelas Hall, Conway 

Rev. Thomas Williams, B.D., St. George's, St. Asaph ) Local 
Hughes, Rev. Reginald, M.A., Glyn, Llangollen J Sees. 


Glynne, Sir Stephen Richard, Bart., M.A., F.S.A., Hawarden 

Castle, Chester, Lord Lieutenant of Flintshire 
Mostyn, Sir Piers, Bart., Talacre, Rhyl 
St. Asaph, the Very Rev. the Dean of, St. Asaph 
Bates, Edward, Esq., Gym, Holywell 
Davies, Rev. John, M.A., Llandulas, Abergele 
Morgan, Rev. Canon, M.A., Rhyl 
Nixon, Ed-ward, Esq., Buckley, near Jlold 
Pennant, Philip Pearson, Esq., Bodfari, Denbigh 
Thomas, Rev. D. R., M.A., Cefn, St. Asaph 
Weld, Rev. A., St. Beuno's College, St. Asaph 
Williams, Ignatius, Esq., The Grove, Denbigh 

Rev. D. R. Thomas, M.A., Cefn, St. Asaph, Local Sec. 


Ansell, Charles, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A., AberamfFra, Barmouth, and 

7, Eastern Terrace, Brighton 
Buckley, Sir Edmund, Bart., M.P., Plas, Dinas Mawddwy 
Coulson, E. v., Esq., Cors y Gedol, Harlech, and Bellaport Hall, 

Market Drayton 
Davies, Miss, Penniaen Dovey, Machynlleth 
Evans, Rev. D. Silvan, B.D., Llanymawddwy, Dinas Mawddwy 
Griffith, Griffith, Esq., M.D., Taltreuddyn, Harlech 
Holland, Samuel, Esq., M.P., Glanwilliam, Tan y Bwlch 
Lloyd, Mrs., Rhagatt, Corwen 
Morgan, Rev. D., Penrhyn Deudraeth, Portmadoc 
Peter, Rev. J., Bala 
Pu'^be, John, Esq., M.D., Aberdovcy 
Wayne, Herman, Esq., Cae Nest, Llanbedr, Harlech 
Wynne, W. W. E., Esq , M.A., F.S.A., Peniarth, Towyn 

Pughe, John, Esq., M.D., Aberdovey, Local Sec. 


Powis, the Earl of, Powis Castle, Welshpool 

Edmonds, Rev. C. J., M.A., Llandyssilio, Oswestry 

Ffoulkes, the Yen. Archdeacon, M.A., Llandyssul, Montgomery 


Howell, Abraham, Esq., Welshpool 

Howell, David, Esq., iMachynlleth 

Jones, R. E., Esq., Cefn BryntalJ, Aberniule 

Jones, Morris Charles, Esq., F.S.A., Gungrog, Welshpool, and 

20, Abcrcroraby Square, Liverpool 
Lewis, Rev. D. P., M.A., Guilsfield, Welshpool 
Lloyd, The Chevalier, K.S.G., Clochfaen, Llanidloes 
Morris, E. R., Esq., Gungrog Cottage, Welshpool 
Owen, Rev. E., Caersws, R. S. O., Montgomeryshire 
Taniberlain, James Lloyd, Esq., D61 Corslwyn, Cemmaes, Mont- 
Temple, Rev. R., M.A., Llandyssilio, Oswestry 
Williams, Rev. Robert, M.A., Lhnfyllin 

Rev. D. P. Lewis, M.A., Guilsfield 
WUliams, Rev. Robert, M.A., Llanfyllin 

Local Sees 



Bailey, Sir J. Russel, Bart., M.P., Glanusk Park, Crickhowell 

Bowen, Rev. John, J\LA., Talgarth Rectory, Hereford 

Bridgewater, Lieut. -Colonel, Coity Mawr, Talybont 

Evans, Rev. John James, M.A., CanlrefF, Brecon 

Holford, James P. W. Gwynne, Esq., M.P., Buckland, Brecon 

Jebb, John A., Esq., Brecon 

Jones, Mr. W., Grammar School, Hay 

Joseph, J., Esq., F.S.A., Brecon 

Price, W. P., Esq., Solicitor, Brecon 

Rhodes, Mathew J., Esq., Pennoyre, Brecon 

Roberts, T. D., Esq., M.LC.E., Brecon 

Vaughan, John Williams, Esq., Velin Newydd House, Brecon 

Williams, Edward, Esq., Neuadd Felen, Talgarth, Brecon 

Williams, Rev. Garnons, M.A., Abercamlais, Brecon 

Williams, Rev. T., M.A., Llowes, near Hay 

Edward Williams, Esq., Neuadd Felen, Talgarth, Brecon 1 Local 
Rev. Garnons Williams, M.A., Abercamlais, Brecon J Sees. 


St. David's, the Very Rev. the Dean of, Lampeter 
Jenkins, R D., Esq., The Priory, Cardigan 
Jones, William, Esq., Glandennis, Lampeter 
Morgan, T. O., Esq., Aberystwyth 


Rogers, J. E., Esq., Abcrmcurig, Lampeter 

T. O. Morgan, Esq., Aborystwith 1 ,- , <> 

T> 1-1 T 1 • 1- 'II "i. ■ ^, T !■ Local riecs. 

K. U. Jenkins, Esq., 1 ho Pnory, Cardigan ) 


Cawdor, the Earl of. Lord Lieutenant of Carmarthenshire, Golden 

Grove, Llandeilo 
St. David's, the Lord Bishop of, Abergwili Palace, Carmarthen 
Carmarthen Literary Institution 
Evans. J. Bagnal, Esq., Nant yr Eglwys, Whitland 
Griffiths, Rev. J., D.D., Llandeilo 
Johnes, J., E?q., M.A., Dolau Cotlii, Llandeilo 
Jones, Mrs., Llanmilo, St. Clears 
Jones, John, Esq., M.P., Blaen Nos, Llandovery 
Mousley, Thomas T., Esq., Bank PIouso, Carmarthen 
Bees, W., Esq., Tonn, Llandovery 
Thomas, Rees Goring, Esq., ALA-, Llannon, Llanelly 
Watkins, Rev. W., M.A., The College, Llandovery 
Whittington, Tliomas, Esq., Llandovery 
Williams, Rev. IXavid, B.D., the Vicarage, Llanelly 

M'illiam Rees, Esq., Tonn, Idandovery, Local Secretary 


The Marquis of Bute, Cardiff Castle 

Talbot, C. R. M., Esq., F.R.S., M.P., Lord Lieutenant of Glamor- 
ganshire, Margam Park, Taibach 

Llandafi; the Lord Bishop of. Bishop's Court, LlandafT 

Llandaff, the Very Rev. the Dean of. Deanery, Llandafi' 

Bassett, Alexander, Esq., Baynton House, LlandafF 

Bassett, Miss Mary, Boverton House, Cowbridge 

Biddulph, John, Esq., Derwen Fawr, Swansea 

Brogden, James, Esq., Tondu House, Bridgend 

Came, J. W. Nicholl, Esq., D.C.L., F.S.A., St. Donat's Castle, 

Clark, G. T., Esq., F.S.A., Dowlais House, Merlhvr Tydfil 

David, Charles \Villiam, Esq., Cardiff 

Davies, Dr., Bryn Golwg, Aberdare 

Drane, R., Esq., Cardiff" 

Evans, Rev. Walter, St. Lythan's, Cardiff' 

Fothergill, Miss, Hensol Castle, Cowbridge 

Griffith, Rev. John, M.A., Merthyr Tydfil 

Gwyn, Howel, Esq., M.A., Dyflfryn, Neath 

Harries, Rev. G. C. F., jNLA., Gelligacr Rectory, Newport, Mon- 

Howell, Rev. D., St. John's Vicarage, Cardiff 


Jenkins, Rev. Canon, Aberdare 
Jennev, Mrs. George, Bryn Garw, Bridgend 
Jones, Robert Oliver, Esq., Fonmon Castle, Cardiff 
Library, Free, Cardiff 

Llewelyn, John Talbot Dillwyn, Esq., Ynysgerwyn, Neath 
Lukis, J. W., Esq., St. James's House, Roalh, Cardiff 
Moggridge, Matthew, Esq., F.G.S., The Willows, Swansea 
Morgan, John, Esq., Claremont House, Cardiff 
Nicholl, John Cole, Esq., Merthyr Mawr, Bridgend 
Picton-Turbcrville, Major R.A., Ewenny Abbey, Bridgend 
Price, William, Esq., M.D., Glantwrch, Swansea 
Prichard, J., Esq., LlandafF 

Reynolds, Llywarch, O., Esq., 1, Mill Street, Merthyr Tydfil 
Richardson, James, Esq., Glan yr Afon, Swansea 
Richardson, John Crowe, Esq., Uplands, Swansea 
Robinson, George, Esq., Cardiff 
Royal Institution, Swansea 
Stephens, Mr. Thomas, Merthyr Tydfil 
Traherne, G. Montgomery, Esq., St. Hilary's, Cowbridge 
Vivian, Hussey H., Esq., M.P., Parkwern, Swansea 
Wilkinson, Sir J. Gardner, D.C.L., F.S.A., Brynficld House, Rey- 
noldston, Glamorgan 

Rev. John Griffith, M.A., Rectory, Merthyr Tydfil, Local Se. 


Scourficld, John Henry, Esq., M.P., Williamston, Haverfordwest, 

Lord Lieutenant of Haverfordwest 
Allen, Rev. Canon, M.A., The Close, St. David's, Pembroke 
Allen, Charles, Esq., Norton, Tenby 
Colby, John, Esq., Ffynnonau, Newcastle-Emlyn 
Davies, R. P., Esq., Ridgeway, Narberth 
Goode, H. P., Esq., Haverfordwest 
Gwynne, Mrs., St. Julian House, Tenby 
James, Mr. John, St. Martin's Crescent, Haverfordwest 
Lloyd-Phillips, F., Esq., M.A., Pent y Park, Haverfordwest 
Phillips, J. R., Esq., Cilgerran, Cardigan, and 4, Brick Court, 

Smith, Rev. Gilbert N.. M.A., Gumphreslon, Tenby 
Thomas, Rev. W. B., ALA., Prebendary of St. David's, Steynton, 

Tombs, Rev. J., B.A., Burton, Haverfordwest 

Rev. Canon Allen, ALA., St. David's, Pembroke "I ^ ; c 
Tombs, Rev. J., B.A., Burton, Haverfordwest '] ^°"'^ ^'"- 



Walsham, Sir John, Bavt., Knill Court, Presteign 

Haig, George A., Esq , Penithon, Newtown, Montgomerysh 

Philip, H., Esq., Abbey Cwm hir, Rhayader 

Sladen, Mrs., Rhydolog, Rh.iTader 

Williams, S. C. Evans, Esq., Bryntlrion, Rhayader 

Williams, Stephen William, Esq., Rhayader 

R. W. Banks, Esq., Kington, Herefordshire ) , , <^ 
Stephen W. Williams, E"sq., Rhayader j "• 


Falconer, Thomas, Esq., M.A., Judge of County Courts, Usk 

Hamer, Mr. Edward, Abersychan, Pontypool 

Lee, J. E., Esq., F.S.A., The Priory, Caerleon 

Mitchell, Frank Johnston, Esq., Llanfrechfa Grange, Caerleon 

Morgan, C. Octavius S., Esq., M.P., F.R.S., F.S.A., The Friars 

Rolls, J. E. W., Esq., The Hendre, Monmouth 

J. E. Lee, Esq., F.S.A., The Priory, Caerleon, Local Secretary 


Hill, the Lord Viscount, Hav.kstone, Shrewsbury, Lord Lieutenan 

of Shropshire 
Banks, R. W., Esq., Kington, Herefordshire 
Davies, Rev. James, ;^LA., Moor Court, Kington, Herefordshire 
Davies, James, Esq., Widemarsh Street, Hereford 
Ffoulkes, W. Wynne, Esq., M.A., Stanley Place, Chester 
Martin, John, Esq., Upper Hall, Ledbury 
Penson, W. Kyrke, Esq., Dinham House, Ludlow 
Romilly, Henry, Esq., Huntington Park, near Kington 
Vaughan, R. Chambre, Esq., B.A., Burleton Hall, Shrewsbury 
Williamson, Edward, Esq., Daisy Bank, Congleton 

James Davies, Esq., Hereford, Local Secretanj for Herefordshire 
Edward Williamson, Esq., Daisy Bank, Congleton, Local Secretary 

for Cheshire 
R. Kyrke Penson, Esq., Ludlow, Local Secretary for Shropshire 



The Society of Antiquaries, Somerset House, London 

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Prince's Street, Edin- 

The Royal Irish Academy, Dublin 

Kilkenny and Soulh-East of Ireland Archaeological Society, the 
Rev. J. Graves, Innisnag, Stoneyford, Ireland 

The British Archseological Association, 32, Sackville Street 

The Archccological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, New 
Burlington Street 

Society of Northern Antiquaries, Copenhagen 

Sussex Archa;ological Society, care of H. Camplin, Esq., Reform 

Societe Polymathique, Vannes, Finisterrc, France. 

All Member.s residing in South Wales and Monmouthshire are to 
forward their subscriptions to the Secretary, the Rev. Walter 
Evans, St. Lythan's, Cardiff, South Wales. All other Members 
to the Rev. E. L. Baknwell, Melksham, Wilts. 

As it is not unlikely that omissions or errors exist in the above 
list, corrections will be thankfully received by the General Se- 

The Annual Subscription is One Guinea, payable in advance on 
the first day of the year. 

Members wishing to retire must give six months' notice pre- 
vious to the first day of the following year, at the same time 
paying up all arrears. 


|ir(]];ToIo0ical |.ssotiHtion. 






KICHAED GEEEN PEICE, Esq., Norton Manor (Chaikma 
The Eev. Sir GILBEET F. LEWIS Bart., Harpton Court. 
Sir JOnX AVALSHAM, Eart., KniU Court. 
Eev. JOHN EOGEES, Stanage Park. 
Eev. U. E. MURRAY, Brampton Brian. 
Eev. T. OWEN EOCKE, Clungunford. 
Eev. E. J. GREEN, Leinlwardine. 
Eev. BENJAMIN HILL, Norton. 
Eev. T. J. TIIIELWALL, Nantrael 
Rev. JAMES DATIER. Moorcourt. 
Eev. AV. W. TAUGHAN, Llandeglej. 
Eev. E. LUTAVTCHE DATIES, Knighton. 
G. II. EHILIPS, Esq., Abhej-Cmnhir. 
A W. CRIGHTON, Esq., Broadwood HalL 
EDWARD COATES, Esq., Combe Honse, Presteigne. 
EICHAED W. BANES, Esq., Ridyebourne, Kington. ■ ■. 

STEPHEN W. WILLIAMS, Esq., Ehajader. ' ' " ' ' • 

EDWAED MIDLETON ETANS, Esq., Llwynbarried. 

C.K LOMAX.K.q,, FeiwLout. 

C;iptaia JAS. BEAVAN', Presteii-iie. 

E. DAN'SEY GREEN' PRICE, K^q., Nantyiioes. 

THOMAS PETERS, Esq, Kui^liou. 

HENRY AYRE, Esq, Kiujhton. 

J. GREEN, Esq. Kiiigliton. 

C. J.COVERN'TOX, Esq, Kiii.'l.tou. 

J. P. MEDLICOTT, Esq, Knigl.tou 

GEORGE GREEN, Esq, Kmghtou. 

•ISAAC EUTTER, Esq, Kniglitoi.. 

H. 0. BROWN, Esq, KiiiL'htyi!. 

STEPHEN W. WILLIAMS, Esq, Rhayader. 
GEORGE GREEN, Esq., Kuigliton. 


Rev. J.E.RROWN, Knightou. 
H. 0. BROWN, Esq., Knighton. 

J.-P.MEDLICOTT, Esq., North .ind South W.iles Bank, Knighton. 

WILLIAM BANKS, Esq., Kni-hton. 

■ Rev. E.L.BARNWELL, M. A, Melisham, Wilts. 

Rev. WALTER EVANS, St. Lythan's Vioarage, Cardift". 

RICHARD W.BANKS, Esq., Ridrebourne, Kington. 
STEPHEN W. WILLIAMS, Esq, Rhayader. 

^3uopo5cb ^vrangcmcntci. 

The following arraugemoDts are propo^utl, subject to stieli altera- 
tions as may be found expedient at the time of the meeting. 


The General Committee will meet at the Assembly Room, Norton 
A.rms Hotel, at 7 p.m., to receive the Eeport, and transact necessary 

At 8 p.m., the Tresident will talce the chair, and deliver the usual 
Inaugural Address. ' The annual Report, of the Committee will tlien 
be read, and Papera follow as time may permit. 



ll.viLWAY Dav.— Excui-sion by Ceutial Wales Kiiilway, at 8.30 a.m., 
• — to Llaiiliister lloail Station, thence on foot to Castle cwm Arran and 
liritisli Camps on hill above I.Iancle\ry, from Llanrtowy in caniages to 
Abbey-C^vmhii' and I'enybont — Kctum by train at 3.30 p.m. 

Evening Meeting at 7.-15. 

Caeeiagk Day. — Excursion at 9 a.m. — Gner Ditches — Camp of Ca- 
ractacus— Clun Castle and ][ospital— Ilopton Castle— Coxall Knoll. 
Xo Evening Meeting. 

Carriage Day. — Excursion at 9 a.m. — Brampton Brian — Brandon 
Camp — Leiutwardine — Wigniore Ca>tle and Grange. 
Evening Meeting at 7.4.5. 


Cakriagi-; Day. — Excursion at 9.oU a.m. — Knighton and its Neigh- 
bourhood — Monauglit}- — Knucklas — Pillcth and Norton. 
Evening :Mecting at 7.30, for Jlcmbers onlv. 

Evening Meetings. — Gentlemen who intend to read Papers at the 
meetings are requested to furnish the subjects of their communications 
to the Rer. E. L. Barnwell, Jlelksham, Wilts, or the Local Secretaries 
Knighton, at their earliest convenience. 

MusEiTM. — A temporary local Museum of antiquities, ornaments, 
manuscripts, etc., will be formed and held in the Norion Arms Hotel, 
Knighton, which will be open daily during certain hours. Contribu- 
tions towards the Museum are earnestly requested, and should be sent 
not loss than a fortnight before the Meeting, directed to the care of one 
of the Curators. 

The Committee of the Association are responsible for the safety of 
all articles entrusted to thcii- care, and will return tliem, free of ex- 
pense after the meeting. 

Careful lists and descriptions, with the names and residences of the 
Contributors, should accompany the articles. Glazed, locked cases 
will be provided for the more valuable articles. 

Tickets. — Particular attention is directed to the rule that no person 
(not being a Member of the Associaton) will be considered as joining' 
any Excursion, unless provided with a ticket for the week ; and that 
all persons accompanying the Excursion must exhibit their tickets 
when required. 

Jlcmbeis on tlioir arrival in Ivnigliton, are requested to apijly for 
theii- tickets at the Post Office, High Street ; and to enter their names 
and adcbesses during the Meeting in the book provided for tliat pur- 

■ Tickets admitting to all the Evening Meetings and Excursions, and 
to the Museum, will be issued by the Local Committee to Xon-ilem- 
bers of the Association on the following terms ; viz., 
Family Tickets, to admit all members (bona-fdc) of a 

family residing together £1 1 

Pontile ditto to admit lady and gentleman 12 

Singleditto 7 6 

All Subscribers of £1 : 1 : and upwards, and takers of family tick- 
ets, are entitled to the Journal of the Association for 1873 or 1874, as 
may be preferred. 

Subscribers of less amount than oue guinea A\-ill receive a ])rinted 
Pu'purt of tlie Meeting. 

All the above Tickets admit to all tlie Excursions, Meetings, and 
the Museum. 

Single Tickets, admitting to the Evenimg Meetings only, may be 
had at oue shilling and sixpence each. These tickets will avail for the 
week. All the above tickets must bear the name of the holder. Ad- 
mission to the Museum {Non-Memhers) one sliilling each. 

The cost of Conveyance to the different Excursions will be addition- 
al ; but ticket holders will be entitled to participate iu the benefit of 
special arrangements that may be made. 

Subscriptions to the Local Fund will be received by the Local Trea- 
surer, at the Xorth and South AVales Bank, Knighton. 

Tlie attendance of ladies at the Excursions and Evening Meetings is 
particularly retjuested. 

Ladies and gentlemen are requested to be ready to start upon the 
Excursions at the hour stated in the programme, and not to linger at 
any place when the signal for departure is given. 

' Hotels, etc. — The principal Hotels are the jS'ortou Arms, the 
Swan, the Cro^vn, etc., where Members from a distance and strangers 
attending the Meeting will find every attention. Good private lodgings 
may also be had, and a book of reference will be open at the Post Of- 
fice, Knighton. 

Ladies and gentlemen wishing to join the Association are requested 
to forward their names and adcb'csses to the llev. M. L. Baknwell, 
Melksham, Y>'ilts ; or to the Rev. AV alter Evans, St. Lythan's Vicar- 
age, Cardiff ; or to the Local Secretary, Knighton. 

Printed hi/ C. Langforil, Pod Office, Knighton. 



OCT 05